Publications by authors named "Juan V San Martin"

5 Publications

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Cellular Markers of Active Disease and Cure in Different Forms of -Induced Disease.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 13;8:381. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Leishmaniasis, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Increased numbers of peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMC) and increased IFN-γ secretion following challenge of blood samples with soluble antigen (SLA), have been proposed as biomarkers of specific cell-mediated immunity, indicating that treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been successful. However, infection may manifest as cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), and less commonly as localized leishmanial lymphadenopathy (LLL) or mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). The present work examines the value of these biomarkers as indicators of cured leishmaniasis presenting in these different forms. Blood samples were collected before and after treatment from patients living in Fuenlabrada (Madrid, Spain), an endemic area recently the center of a leishmaniasis outbreak. All samples were subjected to -specific PCR, serological tests (IFAT and rK39-ICT), and the SLA-cell proliferation assay (SLA-CPA), recording PBMC proliferation and the associated changes in IFN-γ production. Differences in the results recorded for the active and cured conditions were only significant for VL. PCR returned positive results in 67% of patients with active VL and in 3% of those with cured leishmaniasis. Similarly, rK39-ICT returned a positive result in 77% of active VL samples . 52% in cured VL samples, and IFAT in 90% . 56%; in the SLA-CPA, PBMC proliferation was seen in 16% . 90%, and an associated increase in IFN-γ production of 14 and 84%, respectively. The present findings reinforce the idea that PBMC proliferation and increased IFN-γ production in SLA-stimulated PBMC provide biomarkers of clinical cure in VL. Other tests are urgently needed to distinguish between the cured and active forms of the other types of clinical leishmaniasis caused by .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2018.00381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6243388PMC
September 2019

All-oral direct-acting antiviral therapy against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus/HCV-coinfected subjects in real-world practice: Madrid coinfection registry findings.

Hepatology 2018 07 27;68(1):32-47. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Subdirección General de Farmacia y Productos Sanitarios/SERMAS, Madrid, Spain.

We evaluated treatment outcomes in a prospective registry of human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients treated with interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agent-based therapy in hospitals from the region of Madrid between November 2014 and August 2016. We assessed sustained viral response at 12 weeks after completion of treatment and used multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of treatment failure. We evaluated 2,369 patients, of whom 59.5% did not have cirrhosis, 33.9% had compensated cirrhosis, and 6.6% had decompensated cirrhosis. The predominant HCV genotypes were 1a (40.9%), 4 (22.4%), 1b (15.1%), and 3 (15.0%). Treatment regimens included sofosbuvir (SOF)/ledipasvir (61.9%), SOF plus daclatasvir (14.6%), dasabuvir plus ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (13.2%), and other regimens (10.3%). Ribavirin was used in 30.6% of patients. Less than 1% of patients discontinued therapy owing to adverse events. The frequency of sustained viral response by intention-to-treat analysis was 92.0% (95% confidence interval, 90.9%-93.1%) overall, 93.8% (92.4%-95.0%) for no cirrhosis, 91.0% (88.8%-92.9%) for compensated cirrhosis, and 80.8% (73.7%-86.6%) for decompensated cirrhosis. The factors associated with treatment failure were male sex (adjusted odds ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.69), Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention category C (adjusted odds ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.41), a baseline cluster of differentiation 4-positive (CD4+) T-cell count <200/mm (adjusted odds ratio, 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-3.92), an HCV RNA load ≥800,000 IU/mL (adjusted odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.36), compensated cirrhosis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.89), decompensated cirrhosis (adjusted odds ratio, 2.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-4.87), and the use of SOF plus simeprevir, SOF plus ribavirin, and simeprevir plus daclatasvir.

Conclusion: In this large real-world study, direct-acting antiviral agent-based therapy was safe and highly effective in coinfected patients; predictors of failure included gender, human immunodeficiency virus-related immunosuppression, HCV RNA load, severity of liver disease, and the use of suboptimal direct-acting antiviral agent-based regimens. (Hepatology 2018;68:32-47).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.29814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6055848PMC
July 2018

Interleukin-27 Early Impacts Infection in Mice and Correlates with Active Visceral Disease in Humans.

Front Immunol 2016 4;7:478. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; IBMC - Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Faculdade de Farmácia, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

The complexity of -host interactions, one of the main leishmaniasis issues, is yet to be fully understood. We detected elevated IL-27 plasma levels in European patients with active visceral disease caused by , which returned to basal levels after successful treatment, suggesting this cytokine as a probable infection mediator. We further addressed this hypothesis recurring to two classical susceptible visceral leishmaniasis mouse models. BALB/c, but not C57BL/6 mice, showed increased IL-27 systemic levels after infection, which was associated with an upregulation of IL-27p28 expression by dendritic cells and higher parasite burdens. Neutralization of IL-27 in acutely infected BALB/c led to decreased parasite burdens and a transient increase in IFN-γ splenic T cells, while administration of IL-27 to C57BL/6 promoted a local anti-inflammatory cytokine response at the site of infection and increased parasite loads. Overall, we show that, as in humans, BALB/c IL-27 systemic levels are infection dependently upregulated and may favor parasite installation by controlling inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2016.00478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5095612PMC
November 2016

Lymphoproliferative response after stimulation with soluble leishmania antigen (SLA) as a predictor of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) relapse in HIV+ patients.

Acta Trop 2016 Dec 28;164:345-351. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Leishmaniasis, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

The introduction of HAART resulted in the decrease of Leishmania/HIV co-infection cases; nevertheless, the number of relapses remains high and secondary prophylaxis is recommended. However, secondary prophylaxis is not necessary in all patients, and presents a high risk of toxicity and an elevated cost. Our aim was to study whether specific cellular response to Leishmania infantum (measured by cell proliferation response after stimulation with soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA)), could be a useful tool to attempt a secondary prophylaxis withdrawal. In June 2009 an outbreak of leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum was declared in the southeast of Madrid, and since January 2013, we recruited 10 HIV+ patients that had been treated for visceral leishmaniasis. 6 patients had positive SLA-cell proliferation test. The mean CD4 cell counts of those patients with positive SLA were 140 cel/mm3 and 40 cel/mm3 in those with negative SLA test. 3 patients with positive SLA-cell proliferation test (CD4 count: 336, 307, 625) were not on prophylaxis, and the other 3 patients (CD4 count: 152, 189, 359) were on secondary prophylaxis that was withdrawn after the positive SLA-cell proliferation test with no posterior relapses (mean follow up 60 weeks). From the 4 patients, which had negative SLA-cell proliferation test and continued on prophylaxis, 3 had positive PCR for Leishmania at the end of the follow-up and 2 presented clinical relapses. The performance of SLA-cell proliferation test can be a useful tool that can permit us to try withdrawal of the prophylaxis in Leishmania/HIV co-infected patients with low CD4 counts under clinical supervision, diminishing risk of toxicity and cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.09.026DOI Listing
December 2016

Imported malaria in pregnancy in Madrid.

Malar J 2012 Apr 11;11:112. Epub 2012 Apr 11.

Internal Medicine Department, University Hospital Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Malaria in pregnancy is associated with maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, but information on imported cases to non-endemic areas is scarce.The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of malaria in pregnancy in two general hospitals in Madrid, Spain.

Methods: Retrospective descriptive study of laboratory-confirmed malaria in pregnant women at the Fuenlabrada University Hospital and the Príncipe de Asturias University Hospital, in Madrid, over a six- and 11-year period, respectively. Relevant epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data was obtained from medical records.

Results: There were 19 pregnant women among 346 malaria cases (5.4%). The average age was 27 years. The gestational age (trimester) was: 53% 3rd, 31% 1st, 16% 2nd. All but one were multigravidae. Three were HIV positive. All were sub-Saharan immigrants: two were recently arrived immigrants and seventeen (89%) had visited friends and relatives. None had taken prophylaxis nor seeked pre-travel advice.

Presentation: 16 symptomatic patients (fever in fourteen, asthenia in two), three asymptomatic. Median delay in diagnosis: 7.5 days. Laboratory tests: anaemia (cut off Hb level 11 g/dl) 78.9% (mild 31.6%, moderate 31.6%, severe 15.8%) thrombocytopaenia 73.7%, hypoglycaemia 10.5%. All cases were due to Plasmodium falciparum, one case of hyperparasitaemia. Quinine + clindamycin prescribed in 84%.

Outcomes: no severe maternal complications or deaths, two abortions, fifteen term pregnancies, no low-birth-weight newborns, two patients were lost to follow-up.

Conclusions: Though cases of malaria in pregnancy are uncommon, a most at risk group is clearly defined: young sub-Saharan mothers visiting friends and relatives without pre-travel counselling and recently-arrived immigrants. The most common adverse maternal and foetal effects were anaemia and stillbirth. Given that presentation can be asymptomatic, malaria should always be considered in patients with unexplained anaemia arriving from endemic areas. These findings could help Maternal Health programme planners and implementers to target preventive interventions in the immigrant population and should create awareness among clinicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-11-112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3350381PMC
April 2012
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