Publications by authors named "Juan Miguel Rodríguez"

43 Publications

Gut microbes and health.

Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Ecología Microbiana, Nutrición y Salud, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IATA-CSIC), Valencia, España.

The human body is populated by myriads of microorganisms throughout its surface and in the cavities connected to the outside. The microbial colonisers of the intestine (microbiota) are a functional and non-expendable part of the human organism: they provide genes (microbiome) and additional functions to the resources of our species and participate in multiple physiological processes (somatic development, nutrition, immunity, etc.). Some chronic non-communicable diseases of developed society (atopias, metabolic syndrome, inflammatory diseases, cancer and some behaviour disorders) are associated with dysbiosis: loss of species richness in the intestinal microbiota and deviation from the ancestral microbial environment. Changes in the vertical transmission of the microbiome, the use of antiseptics and antibiotics, and dietary habits in industrialised society appear to be at the origin of dysbiosis. Generating and maintaining diversity in the microbiota is a new clinical target for health promotion and disease prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gastrohep.2021.01.009DOI Listing
February 2021

Autism Spectrum Disorder Associated With Gut Microbiota at Immune, Metabolomic, and Neuroactive Level.

Front Neurosci 2020 8;14:578666. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

There is increasing evidence suggesting a link between the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that patients diagnosed with ASD display alterations of the gut microbiota. These alterations do not only extend to the gut microbiota composition but also to the metabolites they produce, as a result of its connections with diet and the bidirectional interaction with the host. Thus, production of metabolites and neurotransmitters stimulate the immune system and influence the central nervous system (CNS) by stimulation of the vagal nerve, as an example of the gut-brain axis pathway. In this review we compose an overview of the interconnectivity of the different GI-related elements that have been associated with the development and severity of the ASD in patients and animal models. We review potential biomarkers to be used in future studies to unlock further connections and interventions in the treatment of ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.578666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7578228PMC
October 2020

Effect of Sample Collection (Manual Expression vs. Pumping) and Skimming on the Microbial Profile of Human Milk Using Culture Techniques and Metataxonomic Analysis.

Microorganisms 2020 Aug 21;8(9). Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Human milk microbiota is a unique bacterial community playing a relevant role in infant health, but its composition depends on different factors (woman health, lactation stage, and geographical lactation). However, information is lacking regarding some other factors that may affect the bacterial community of human milk. In this study we aimed to study the impact of the sample collection method and the skimming procedure using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques to study the human milk microbial profile. One set of milk samples was provided by women ( = 10) in two consecutive days; half of the samples were collected the first day by manual expression and the other half on the second day by pumping. The rest of the participants ( = 17) provided milk samples that were fractionated by centrifugation; the bacterial profiles of whole milk and skimmed milk were compared by culture techniques in 10 milk samples, while those of whole milk, fat and skimmed milk were subjected to metataxonomic analysis in seven samples. Globally, the results obtained revealed high interindividual variability but that neither the use of single-use sterile devices to collect the sample nor the skimming procedure have a significant impact of the microbial profile of human samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564974PMC
August 2020

Human milk cortisol and immune factors over the first three postnatal months: Relations to maternal psychosocial distress.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(5):e0233554. Epub 2020 May 21.

Departmental Section of Galenic Pharmacy and Food Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Many biologically active factors are present in human milk including proteins, lipids, immune factors, and hormones. The milk composition varies over time and shows large inter-individual variability. This study examined variations of human milk immune factors and cortisol concentrations in the first three months post-partum, and their potential associations with maternal psychosocial distress.

Methods: Seventy-seven healthy mothers with full term pregnancies were enrolled, of which 51 mothers collected morning milk samples at 2, 6 and 12 weeks post-delivery. Maternal psychosocial distress was assessed at 6 weeks post-delivery using questionnaires for stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Immune factors were determined using multiplex immunoassays and included innate immunity factors (IL1β, IL6, IL12, IFNγ, TNFα), acquired immunity factors (IL2, IL4, IL10, IL13, IL17), chemokines (IL8, Groα, MCP1, MIP1β), growth factors (IL5, IL7, GCSF, GMCSF, TGFβ2) and immunoglobulins (IgA, total IgG, IgM). Cortisol was quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A linear mixed effects model was fit to test whether stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms individually predicted human milk cortisol concentrations after accounting for covariates. Repeated measurement analyses were used to compare women with high (n = 13) versus low psychosocial distress (n = 13) for immune factors and cortisol concentrations.

Results: Virtually all immune factors and cortisol, with the exception of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), were detected in the human milk samples. The concentrations of the immune factors decreased during the first 3 months, while cortisol concentrations increased over time. No correlation was observed between any of the immune factors and cortisol. No consistent relationship between postnatal psychosocial distress and concentrations of immune factors was found, whereas higher psychosocial distress was predictive of higher cortisol concentrations in human milk.

Conclusion: In the current study we found no evidence for an association between natural variations in maternal distress and immune factor concentrations in milk. It is uncertain if this lack of association would also be observed in studies with larger populations, with less uniform demographic characteristics, or with women with higher (clinical) levels of anxiety, stress and/or depressive symptoms. In contrast, maternal psychosocial distress was positively related to higher milk cortisol concentrations at week 2 post-delivery. Further investigation on maternal psychosocial distress in relation to human milk composition is warranted.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233554PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241837PMC
August 2020

Genomics of Isolates Causing Outbreaks in the Same Pediatric Unit 47 Years Apart: Position in an Updated Phylogeny of the Species.

Front Microbiol 2020 31;11:451. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal and Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria, Madrid, Spain.

The first documented nosocomial outbreak caused by in Spain occurred in 1969 at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the tertiary La Paz Children's Hospital in Madrid, Spain, and based on the available phenotyping techniques at this time, it was considered as a monoclonal outbreak. Only 47 years later, another outbreak of an equivalent dimension occurred at the same NICU. The aim of the present study was to study isolates from these historical and contemporary outbreaks by phenotypic analysis and whole-genome sequencing techniques and to position these strains along with 444 publicly available genomes, separately comparing core genome and accessory genome contents. Clades inferred by both approaches showed high correlation, indicating that core and accessory genomes seem to evolve in the same manner for Nine clusters were identified, and isolates were grouped in two of them according to sampling year. One exception was isolate 13F-69, the most genetically distant strain, located in a different cluster. Categorical functions in the annotated accessory genes of both collections were preserved among all isolates. No significant differences in frequency of insertion sequences in historical (0.18-0.20)-excluding the outlier strain-versus contemporary isolates (0.11-0.19) were found despite the expected resting effect. The most dissimilar isolate, 13F-69, contains a highly preserved plasmid previously described in This strain exhibited a few antibiotic resistance genes not resulting in a resistant phenotype, suggesting the value of gene down expression in adaptation to long-term starvation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136904PMC
March 2020

Production of multiple bacteriocins, including the novel bacteriocin gassericin M, by Lactobacillus gasseri LM19, a strain isolated from human milk.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 May 13;104(9):3869-3884. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Gut Microbes and Health Institute Strategic Programme, Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich, UK.

Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, and their production is regarded as a desirable probiotic trait. We found that Lactobacillus gasseri LM19, a strain isolated from human milk, produces several bacteriocins, including a novel bacteriocin, gassericin M. These bacteriocins were purified from culture and synthesised to investigate their activity and potential synergy. L. gasseri LM19 was tested in a complex environment mimicking human colon conditions; it not only survived, but expressed the seven bacteriocin genes and produced short-chain fatty acids. Metagenomic analysis of these in vitro colon cultures showed that co-inoculation of L. gasseri LM19 with Clostridium perfringens gave 16S ribosomal RNA metagenomic profiles with more similarity to controls than to vessels inoculated with C. perfringens alone. These results indicate that L. gasseri LM19 could be an interesting candidate for maintaining homeostasis in the gut environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-10493-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7162838PMC
May 2020

Microbiological and Immunological Markers in Milk and Infant Feces for Common Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Pilot Study.

Nutrients 2020 Feb 27;12(3). Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Galenic Pharmacy and Food Technology, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

The objective of this pilot study was to assess the fecal microbiome and different immunological parameters in infant feces and maternal milk from mother-infant pairs in which the infants were suffering from different gastrointestinal disorders (colic, non-IgE-mediated cow milk protein allergy (CMPA), and proctocolitis). A cohort of 30 mother-infant pairs, in which the infants were diagnosed with these gastrointestinal disorders or included as healthy controls, were recruited. Bacterial composition of infant feces and breast milk was determined by metataxonomic sequencing. Immunological compounds were quantified using multiplexed immunoassays. A higher abundance of , and , and lower abundance of and higher abundance of were registered in fecal samples from the CMPA group. was also significantly more abundant in milk samples of the CMPA group. There were no differences in the concentration of immunological compounds in infant fecal samples between the four groups. In contrast, differences were found in the concentration and/or frequency of compounds related to acquired immunity and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) in breast milk samples. In conclusion, a few microbial signatures in feces may explain part of the difference between CMPA and other infants. In addition, some milk immunological signatures have been uncovered among the different conditions addressed in this pilot study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12030634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146151PMC
February 2020

Human Milk Microbiome and Maternal Postnatal Psychosocial Distress.

Front Microbiol 2019 22;10:2333. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Human milk contains many bioactive components, including bacteria, which are transferred to the developing infant through breastfeeding. Milk bacteria appear to, amongst others, originate from the maternal gut. A mother's postnatal psychosocial distress may alter maternal gut microbiota, which in turn may affect the bacteria present in milk. The aim of this study was to explore whether maternal postnatal psychosocial distress was related to alterations in the relative abundances of specific bacteria and to milk microbial diversity. Healthy mothers ( = 77; = 51 with complete data) collected breast milk samples at 2, 6, and 12 weeks postpartum and filled in mood questionnaires on experienced stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms at 6 weeks postpartum. A metataxonomic approach (16S rRNA gene sequencing (region V3 and V4) using Illumina MiSeq technology) was used to assess bacterial abundances and diversity. For the group as a whole, an increase in diversity of the milk bacterial community was observed during the first 3 months of breastfeeding (Shannon index). This general increase in diversity appears to be explained by an increase of and other minor genera, together with a decrease in . With respect to psychological distress and milk microbial composition, no significant differences in the relative abundance of major bacterial genera were detected between women with high ( = 13) and low ( = 13) psychosocial distress. However, progressive and distinct changes in the content of , , and at the phylum level and , , and at the genera level were observed in milk samples of women with low psychosocial distress. With respect to milk microbial diversity, high maternal psychosocial distress, compared to low maternal psychosocial distress, was related to significantly lower bacterial diversity in milk at 3 months post-delivery. Anxiety, stress, and depressive symptoms separately were unrelated to specific bacterial profiles. The current study suggests a potential relation between maternal psychosocial distress and milk microbiota, providing first evidence of a possible mechanism through which post-partum psychological symptoms may affect infant development and health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.02333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6817470PMC
October 2019

Fecal Changes Following Introduction of Milk in Infants With Outgrowing Non-IgE Cow's Milk Protein Allergy Are Influenced by Previous Consumption of the Probiotic LGG.

Front Immunol 2019 2;10:1819. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (ISPA), Oviedo, Spain.

Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the most common allergy in the first year of life. Non-IgE mediated CMPA is characterized by digestive symptoms and tolerance development before the age of three. Gut microbiota composition in early life has been associated with food allergy. The ingestion of different foods/nutrients may mark different shifts in the microbial colonization of the infant intestine as well as the consumption of probiotics. To analyze changes in microbiota composition and metabolic and cytokine profiles in fecal samples from infants with non-IgE mediated CMPA after successful milk challenges, tolerance acquisition, and increasing dairy introduction in their diet. Twelve children with CMPA, aged between 1 and 2 years old, were recruited for the study. Participants were initially consuming hypoallergenic hydrolyzed formulas (four of them supplemented with the probiotic GG), before being exposed to a standardized oral challenge (SOC) with cow's milk. Fecal samples were collected before, 1 week, and 1 month after performing the SOC. Changes in gut microbiota were determined by high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Levels of lactobacilli were also determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Microbial metabolites were analyzed by chromatographic methods and fecal cytokines related to the Th1/Th2 balance were determined by immunoassay. Lactic acid bacteria significantly increased in infants who outgrew non-IgE CMPA, after the introduction of milk. Microbial metabolites derived from the fermentation of proteins, such as branched chain fatty acids, and -cresol, diminished. After the SOC, some cytokines related to inflammation (TNF-α, IFN-γ) increased. Accompanying the introduction of an unrestricted diet, we found significant differences in fecal microbial composition, metabolites, and cytokines between infants who did not consume the probiotic GG and those that did. These findings indicate that the introduction of intact milk proteins is followed by modifications in the infant gut environment through changes in immune mediators, microbiota, and its metabolic end-products. Consumption of probiotics during CMPA may contribute to gut homeostasis by fine-tuning these profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6689952PMC
October 2020

Metataxonomic and immunological analysis of milk from ewes with or without a history of mastitis.

J Dairy Sci 2019 Oct 14;102(10):9298-9311. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Mastitis is a highly prevalent condition that has a great impact on milk production and animal welfare, and often requires substantial management efforts. For this reason, it is generally considered an important threat to the dairy industry. Many microbial, host, and environmental factors can protect against, predispose to, or influence the development of mastitis. The objective of this work was to characterize the milk microbiota of Manchega ewes, and to compare samples from animals with and without a history of mastitis. We analyzed milk samples from 36 ewes belonging to 2 different farms (18 ewes from each farm) using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. We also analyzed several immune compounds to investigate associations of mastitis with 3 main variables: farm; history of mastitis or no mastitis; and parity number. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques showed that ewe milk harbored a site-specific complex microbiota and microbiome. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the main species driving the difference between farm A (where it was the dominant species) and B (where it was not). In contrast, samples from farm B were characterized by the presence of a wide spectrum of other coagulase-negative staphylococci. Some of these species have already been associated with subclinical intramammary infections in ruminants. Of the 10 immune compounds assayed in this study, 3 were related to a history of mastitis [IL-8, IFN-γ, and IFN-gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10)]. Increases in IL-8 concentrations in milk seemed to be a feature of subclinical mastitis in sheep, and in this study, this immune factor was detected only in samples from ewes with some episodes of mastitis and from the group with the highest somatic cell count. We also observed a positive correlation between the samples with the highest somatic cell count and IFN-γ and IP-10 levels. Our results suggest that these 3 compounds could be used as biomarkers for the negative selection of mastitis-prone animals, particularly when somatic cell count is very high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-16403DOI Listing
October 2019

Unfolding the Human Milk Microbiome Landscape in the Omics Era.

Front Microbiol 2019 25;10:1378. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Studies conducted in the last years have demonstrated that human milk represents a continuous supply of beneficial bacteria to the infant gut, which contribute to the maturation of the digestive and immune functions in the developing infant. Nevertheless, the origin of bacterial populations in milk is not fully understood yet and they have been proposed to originate from maternal skin, infant's mouth, and (or) endogenously, from the maternal digestive tract through a mechanism involving immune cells. Understanding the composition, functions and assembly of the human milk microbiota has important implications not only for the infant gut microbiota establishment, but also for the mammary health since dysbiosis in the milk bacteria may lead to mastitis. Besides, host, microbial, medical and environmental factors may affect the composition of the human milk microbiome, with implications for the mother-infant health. Application of both culture-dependent and -independent techniques to assess the milk microbiome faces some practical limitations but, together, have allowed providing novel and complementary views on its origin, composition and functioning as summarized in this minireview. In the next future, the application of the ultimate advances in next-generation sequencing and omics approaches, including culturomics, will allow a detailed and comprehensive understanding of the composition and functions of these microbial communities, including their interactions with other milk components, expanding the opportunities to design novel microbiome-based modulation strategies for this ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6604669PMC
June 2019

The human gallbladder microbiome is related to the physiological state and the biliary metabolic profile.

Microbiome 2019 07 4;7(1):100. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, Dairy Research Institute of Asturias, Spanish National Research Council (IPLA-CSIC), Paseo Río Linares s/n, 33300, Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain.

Background: The microbial populations of the human intestinal tract and their relationship to specific diseases have been extensively studied during the last decade. However, the characterization of the human bile microbiota as a whole has been hampered by difficulties in accessing biological samples and the lack of adequate methodologies to assess molecular studies. Although a few reports have described the biliary microbiota in some hepatobiliary diseases, the bile microbiota of healthy individuals has not been described. With this in mind, the goal of the present study was to generate fundamental knowledge on the composition and activity of the human bile microbiota, as well as establishing its potential relationship with human bile-related disorders.

Results: Human bile samples from the gallbladder of individuals from a control group, without any record of hepatobiliary disorder, were obtained from liver donors during liver transplantation surgery. A bile DNA extraction method was optimized together with a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for determining the bacterial load. This allows the selection of samples to perform functional metagenomic analysis. Bile samples from the gallbladder of individuals suffering from lithiasis were collected during gallbladder resection and the microbial profiles assessed, using a 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing analysis, and compared with those of the control group. Additionally, the metabolic profile of the samples was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We detected, for the first time, bacterial communities in gallbladder samples of individuals without any hepatobiliary pathology. In the biliary microecosystem, the main bacterial phyla were represented by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Significant differences in the relative abundance of different taxa of both groups were found. Sequences belonging to the family Propionibacteriaceae were more abundant in bile samples from control subjects; meanwhile, in patients with cholelithiasis members of the families Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Veillonellaceae were more frequently detected. Furthermore, the metabolomics analysis showed that the two study groups have different metabolic profiles.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the gallbladder of human individuals, without diagnosed hepatobiliary pathology, harbors a microbial ecosystem that is described for the first time in this study. Its bacterial representatives and metabolites are different from those detected in people suffering from cholelithiasis. In this regard, since liver donors have been subjected to the specific conditions of the hospital's intensive care unit, including an antibiotic treatment, we must be cautious in stating that their bile samples contain a physiologically normal biliary microbiome. In any case, our results open up new possibilities to discover bacterial functions in a microbial ecosystem that has not previously been explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0712-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6610825PMC
July 2019

Influence of a Serratia marcescens outbreak on the gut microbiota establishment process in low-weight preterm neonates.

PLoS One 2019 21;14(5):e0216581. Epub 2019 May 21.

Servicio de Microbiología y Parasitología, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, and Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigaciones Sanitarias (IRYCIS), Madrid, Spain.

Adequate gut microbiota establishment is important for lifelong health. The aim was to sequentially analyze the gut microbiota establishment in low-birth-weight preterm neonates admitted to a single neonatal intensive care unit during their first 3 weeks of life, comparing two epidemiological scenarios. Seven control infants were recruited, and another 12 during a severe S. marcescens outbreak. Meconium and feces from days 7, 14, and 21 of life were collected. Gut microbiota composition was determined by 16S rDNA massive sequencing. Cultivable isolates were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with four S. marcescens submitted for whole-genome sequencing. The expected bacterial ecosystem expansion after birth is delayed, possibly related to antibiotic exposure. The Proteobacteria phylum dominates, although with marked interindividual variability. The outbreak group considerably differed from the control group, with higher densities of Escherichia coli and Serratia to the detriment of Enterococcus and other Firmicutes. Curiously, obligate predators were only detected in meconium and at very low concentrations. Genotyping of cultivable bacteria demonstrated the high bacterial horizontal transmission rate that was confirmed with whole-genome sequencing for S. marcescens. Preterm infants admitted at NICU are initially colonized by homogeneous microbial communities, most of them from the nosocomial environment, which subsequently evolve according to the individual conditions. Our results demonstrate the hospital epidemiology pressure, particularly during outbreak situations, on the gut microbiota establishing process.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216581PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6529157PMC
January 2020

Reply: "Letter to the editor Re: Diaz M., et al. 2018, , 1481".

Nutrients 2019 Feb 24;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 24.

Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA)-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 33300 Villaviciosa-Asturias, Spain.

The objective of this letter of reply is to provide answers to the doubts and critical issues that Martín Martinez and López Liñan [...].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11020476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413100PMC
February 2019

Early-life intake of major trace elements, bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A and fatty acids: Comparing human milk and commercial infant formulas.

Environ Res 2019 02 16;169:246-255. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia, Spain.

In the present study, the presence of a wide spectrum of major and trace elements (As, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Sb, Se, Sn, Pb, V, and Zn), fatty acids, as well as some pollutants like free and total BPA and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), was analysed in human milk (n = 53) and infant formula (n = 50) samples. In addition, the infant exposure to these chemicals was assessed. The content of free BPA and several elements (Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sn, Sr, and Zn) was higher (p < 0.01) in infant formula samples. Furthermore, human milk contained levels of BPA and elements that, in almost all cases, were well below their respective EFSA and/or WHO thresholds, being also independent of the maternal characteristics (e.g., age, BMI or breastfeeding period). The fatty acid profiling also revealed major differences between human milk and infant formulas, which should be taken in account in the development of new formulas as well as in specific recommendations for the diet of breastfeeding mothers. Anyway, the results of this study reinforce that breastfeeding should be always the first feeding option in early life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.11.017DOI Listing
February 2019

Microbiota and Derived Parameters in Fecal Samples of Infants with Non-IgE Cow's Milk Protein Allergy under a Restricted Diet.

Nutrients 2018 Oct 11;10(10). Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA)-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 33300 Villaviciosa, Spain.

Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy in infancy. Non-IgE mediated (NIM) forms are little studied and the responsible mechanisms of tolerance acquisition remain obscure. Our aim was to study the intestinal microbiota and related parameters in the fecal samples of infants with NIM-CMPA, to establish potential links between type of formula substitutes, microbiota, and desensitization. Seventeen infants between one and two years old, diagnosed with NIM-CMPA, were recruited. They were all on an exclusion diet for six months, consuming different therapeutic protein hydrolysates. After this period, stool samples were obtained and tolerance development was evaluated by oral challenges. A control group of 10 age-matched healthy infants on an unrestricted diet were included in the study. Microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acids, calprotectin, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β₁ levels were determined in fecal samples from both groups. Infants with NIM-CMPA that consumed vegetable protein-based formulas presented microbiota colonization patterns different from those fed with an extensively hydrolyzed formula. Differences in microbiota composition and fecal parameters between NIM-CMPA and healthy infants were observed. Non-allergic infants showed a significantly higher proportion of Bacteroides compared to infants with NIM-CMPA. The type of protein hydrolysate was found to determine gut microbiota colonization and influence food allergy resolution in NIM-CMPA cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10101481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213916PMC
October 2018

An Exploratory Search for Potential Molecular Targets Responsive to the Probiotic PS2 in Women With Mastitis: Gene Expression Profiling vs. Interindividual Variability.

Front Microbiol 2018 13;9:2166. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Murcia, Spain.

Probiotics constitute an attractive alternative in the battle against microbial infections. Oral administration of certain strains of lactobacilli isolated from human milk has resulted in an effective reduction of the bacterial load as well as an improvement of the mastitis-associated symptoms. Nevertheless, little is yet known about the potential molecular mechanisms and specific targets implicated in these effects. Transcriptomic profiling has been used to search for disease-associated and therapy-responsive molecules in different disorders and experimental models. We have applied for the first time a gene expression-based molecular approach to explore for potential targets responsive to intervention with a probiotic in: (i) breast milk somatic cells ( = 17) and (ii) blood leukocytes ( = 19). Women with mastitis ingested a new strain of lactobacilli, PS2 (3 × capsules per day, each capsule contained ~9.5 log10 CFU) for 21 days. We applied Affymetrix microarrays and Taqman one-step quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) to analyze and compare gene expression changes between samples pre- and post-treatment. Our results substantiate the involvement of inflammatory and cell-growth related pathways and genes in the breast milk somatic cells following the intake of PS2. Individual analyses of selected genes: (1) supported the upregulation of and and the downregulation of and in the somatic cells of the patients as potential targets responsive to the probiotic, (2) detected a lack of a relationship between the gene expression responses in the two types of cells, and (3) evidenced a substantial interindividual variability in the gene expression changes in both types of cells. Our study provides an insight into the essentiality of incorporating the study of tissue-specific interindividual molecular responsivity into future clinical intervention trials to further understand the complexity of human gene expression responses to therapy and the potentiality of selecting appropriate responsive targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6146105PMC
September 2018

Physiological Translocation of Lactic Acid Bacteria during Pregnancy Contributes to the Composition of the Milk Microbiota in Mice.

Nutrients 2017 Dec 23;10(1). Epub 2017 Dec 23.

Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Food Technology, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

The human milk microbiota is a complex and diverse ecosystem that seems to play a relevant role in the mother-to-infant transmission of microorganisms during early life. Bacteria present in human milk may arise from different sources, and recent studies suggest that at least some of them may be originally present in the maternal digestive tract and may reach the mammary gland through an endogenous route during pregnancy and lactation. The objective of this work was to elucidate whether some lactic acid bacteria are able to translocate and colonize the mammary gland and milk. For this purpose, two lactic acid bacteria strains ( MG1614 and PS2) were transformed with a plasmid containing the genes; subsequently, the transformed strains were orally administered to pregnant mice. The murine model allowed the visualization, isolation, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-detection of the transformed bacteria in different body locations, including mammary tissue and milk, reinforcing the hypothesis that physiological translocation of maternal bacteria during pregnancy and lactation may contribute to the composition of the mammary and milk microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10010014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5793242PMC
December 2017

The First Microbial Colonizers of the Human Gut: Composition, Activities, and Health Implications of the Infant Gut Microbiota.

Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2017 12 8;81(4). Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Laboratory of Probiogenomics, Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parma, Italy

The human gut microbiota is engaged in multiple interactions affecting host health during the host's entire life span. Microbes colonize the neonatal gut immediately following birth. The establishment and interactive development of this early gut microbiota are believed to be (at least partially) driven and modulated by specific compounds present in human milk. It has been shown that certain genomes of infant gut commensals, in particular those of bifidobacterial species, are genetically adapted to utilize specific glycans of this human secretory fluid, thus representing a very intriguing example of host-microbe coevolution, where both partners are believed to benefit. In recent years, various metagenomic studies have tried to dissect the composition and functionality of the infant gut microbiome and to explore the distribution across the different ecological niches of the infant gut biogeography of the corresponding microbial consortia, including those corresponding to bacteria and viruses, in healthy and ill subjects. Such analyses have linked certain features of the microbiota/microbiome, such as reduced diversity or aberrant composition, to intestinal illnesses in infants or disease states that are manifested at later stages of life, including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic disorders. Thus, a growing number of studies have reported on how the early human gut microbiota composition/development may affect risk factors related to adult health conditions. This concept has fueled the development of strategies to shape the infant microbiota composition based on various functional food products. In this review, we describe the infant microbiota, the mechanisms that drive its establishment and composition, and how microbial consortia may be molded by natural or artificial interventions. Finally, we discuss the relevance of key microbial players of the infant gut microbiota, in particular bifidobacteria, with respect to their role in health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MMBR.00036-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5706746PMC
December 2017

Bacterial Diversity of the Gastric Content of Preterm Infants during Their First Month of Life at the Hospital.

Front Nutr 2017 18;4:12. Epub 2017 Apr 18.

Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Food Technology, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Studies focused on the stomach microbiota are relatively scarce, and most of them are focused on the adult population. The aim of this work is to describe the bacterial communities inhabiting the gastric content (GC) of preterm neonates. For that purpose, GC samples were collected weekly from a total of 13 preterm neonates during their first month of life within their hospital stay. Samples were analyzed by using both culture-dependent and -independent techniques. The former allowed the isolation of bacteria belonging mainly to the genera , and . The cultured dominant species in the GC samples during all the hospitalization period were and . Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis revealed the presence of high-risk clonal complexes associated with the hospital environment, which may colonize enteral feeding tubes. Similarly, the 16S rRNA sequencing showed that , and were the dominant genera present at 75% of the gastric samples. However, the genera , and were the most abundant. Own mother's milk (OMM) and donor milk (DM) were collected after their pass through the external feeding tubes to assess their bacterial content. OMM and DM had a similar bacterial pattern to GC. Based on these data, the GC of preterm neonates is dominated by and and harbors high-risk bacterial clones, which may colonize enteral feeding tubes, and therefore the feeds that pass through them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2017.00012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5394887PMC
April 2017

Strain-specific inhibition of the adherence of uropathogenic bacteria to bladder cells by probiotic Lactobacillus spp.

Pathog Dis 2017 06;75(4)

Department of Food Biotechnology and Microbiology, Institute of Food Science Research, CIAL (CSIC-UAM), Nicolás Cabrera 9, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs), one of most common infections worldwide, face high recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance. Probiotic bacteria, especially of the genus Lactobacillus, are considered a promising preventive and/or treatment therapy against UTIs. In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects, we studied the impact of different Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus salivarius UCM572, L. plantarum CLC17 and L. acidophilus 01) in the adherence of reference and clinical uropathogenic strains (Escherichia coli ATCC® 53503, E. coli 10791, Enterococcus faecalis 04-1, En. faecalis 08-1 and Staphylococcus epidermidis 08-3) to T24 epithelial bladder cells. In general, the Lactobacillus strains with previous in vivo evidence of beneficial effects against UTIs (L. salivarius UCM572 and L. acidophilus 01) significantly inhibited the adherence of the five uropathogens to T24 cells, displaying percentages of inhibition ranging between 22.2% and 43.9%, and between 16.5% and 53.7%, respectively. On the other hand, L. plantarum CLC17, a strain with no expected effects on UTIs, showed almost negligible anti-adherence effects.Therefore, these in vitro results suggest that inhibition of the adherence of uropathogens to epithelial bladder cells may be one of the mechanisms involved in the potential beneficial effects of probiotics against UTIs in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femspd/ftx043DOI Listing
June 2017

Mastitis Modifies the Biogenic Amines Profile in Human Milk, with Significant Changes in the Presence of Histamine, Putrescine and Spermine.

PLoS One 2016 1;11(9):e0162426. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias, IPLA-CSIC, Paseo Río Linares s/n 33300, Villaviciosa, Spain.

Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight nitrogenous organic compounds with different biological activities. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for the development of the gut and immune system of newborns, and are all found in human milk. Little is known, however, about the role of histamine, tyramine or cadaverine in breast milk. Nor is it known whether mastitis alters the BA composition of milk. The BA profile of human milk, and the influence of mastitis on BA concentrations, were therefore investigated. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were the main BAs detected. In mastitis-affected milk, the concentrations of putrescine, spermine and histamine were higher.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0162426PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5008837PMC
August 2017

Evaluation of technological properties of Enterococcus faecium CECT 8849, a strain isolated from human milk, for the dairy industry.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2016 Sep 23;100(17):7665-77. Epub 2016 May 23.

Probisearch, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid, Spain.

In this work, a variety of biochemical properties of Enterococcus faecium CECT 8849, which had been isolated from breast milk, were analyzed. Its acidifying capacity and proteolytic activity were low but, in contrast, remarkable peptidase and esterase activities were observed. Ethanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were the most abundant volatile compounds found in experimental model cheese manufactured with E. faecium CECT 8849. This strain inhibited the growth of several Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua strains in vitro. Enterocin A and B structural genes were detected in E. faecium CECT 8849. Model fermented milk and cheeses were manufactured from milk inoculated or not with L. innocua CECT 8848 (2.5-3 log10 colony forming units mL(-1)) using E. faecium CECT 8849 or Lactococcus lactis ESI 153 as starter cultures. Although E. faecium CECT 8849 controlled Listeria growth in both dairy models, it led to lower reduction in Listeria counts when compared with L. lactis ESI 153.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-016-7616-3DOI Listing
September 2016

Purification and genetic characterization of gassericin E, a novel co-culture inducible bacteriocin from Lactobacillus gasseri EV1461 isolated from the vagina of a healthy woman.

BMC Microbiol 2016 Mar 12;16:37. Epub 2016 Mar 12.

Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Food Technology, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Lactobacillus gasseri is one of the dominant Lactobacillus species in the vaginal ecosystem. Some strains of this species have a high potential for being used as probiotics in order to maintain vaginal homeostasis, since they may confer colonization resistance against pathogens in the vagina by direct inhibition through production of antimicrobial compounds, as bacteriocins. In this work we have studied bacteriocin production of gassericin E (GasE), a novel bacteriocin produced by L. gasseri EV1461, a strain isolated from the vagina of a healthy woman, and whose production was shown to be promoted by the presence of certain specific bacteria in co-culture. Biochemical and genetic characterization of this novel bacteriocin are addressed.

Results: We found that the inhibitory spectrum of L. gasseri EV1461 was broad, being directed to species both related and non-related to the producing strain. Interestingly, L. gasseri EV1461 inhibited the grown of pathogens usually associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV). The antimicrobial activity was due to the production of a novel bacteriocin, gassericin E (GasE). Production of this bacteriocin in broth medium only was achieved at high cell densities. At low cell densities, bacteriocin production ceased and only was restored after the addition of a supernatant from a previous bacteriocin-producing EV1461 culture (autoinduction), or through co-cultivation with several other Gram-positive strains (inducing bacteria). DNA sequence of the GasE locus revealed the presence of two putative operons which could be involved in biosynthesis and immunity of this bacteriocin (gaeAXI), and in regulation, transport and processing (gaePKRTC). The gaePKR encodes a putative three-component regulatory system, involving an autoinducer peptide (GaeP), a histidine protein kinase (GaeK) and a response regulator (GaeR), while the gaeTC encodes for an ABC transporter (GaeT) and their accessory protein (GaeC), involved in transport and processing of the bacteriocin. The gaeAXI, encodes for the bacteriocin gassericin E (GasE), a putative peptide bacteriocin (GaeX), and their immunity protein (GaeI).

Conclusions: The origin of the strain (vagina of healthy woman) and its ability to produce bacteriocins with inhibitory activity against vaginal pathogens may be an advantage for using L. gasseri EV1461 as a probiotic strain to fight and/or prevent bacterial infections as bacterial vaginosis (BV), since it could be better adapted to live and compete into the vaginal environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-016-0663-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4788914PMC
March 2016

Prevention of Infectious Mastitis by Oral Administration of Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 During Late Pregnancy.

Clin Infect Dis 2016 Mar 26;62(5):568-573. Epub 2015 Nov 26.

Department of Nutrition, Food Science, andFood Technology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.

Background: Previous studies have shown that oral administration of lactobacilli can be an efficient approach to treat lactational infectious mastitis. In this trial, we have evaluated the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 to prevent this condition when orally administered during late pregnancy to women who had experienced infectious mastitis after previous pregnancies.

Methods: In this study, 108 pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Those in the probiotic group (n = 55) ingested daily 9 log10 colony-forming units of L. salivarius PS2 from approximately week 30 of pregnancy until delivery, whereas those in the placebo group (n = 53) received a placebo. The occurrence of mastitis was evaluated during the first 3 months after delivery.

Results: Globally, 44 of 108 women (41%) developed mastitis; however, the percentage of women with mastitis in the probiotic group (25% [n = 14]) was significantly lower than in the control group (57% [n = 30]). When mastitis occurred, the milk bacterial counts in the probiotic group were significantly lower than those obtained in the placebo group.

Conclusions: Oral administration of L. salivarius PS2 during late pregnancy appears to be an efficient method to prevent infectious mastitis in a susceptible population.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01505361.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/civ974DOI Listing
March 2016

[Microbiota in women; clinical applications of probiotics].

Nutr Hosp 2015 Jul 18;32 Suppl 1:56-61. Epub 2015 Jul 18.

Sección de Gastroenterología y Nutrición Pediátrica. Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid..

The main function of vaginal microbiota is to protect the mucosa against the colonization and growth of pathogenic microorganisms. This microbiota is modified by hormonal activity. Its maximum concentration and effectiveness occurs during the fertile period, where there is a predominance of lactobacilli. When it is reduced (microbiota dysbiosis) leads to bacterial vaginosis and candida vaginitis which are common diseases in women. Consequently, instillation of lactobacilli in the vagina has beneficial effects on the symptomatology and prognosis of these illnesses. Breast milk is one of the key factors in the development of gut microbiota of the infant. There is an enteric-breast circulation, which is higher at the end of pregnancy and during breastfeeding. This circulation could explain the modulation of the breast microbiota by using probiotics. It could have a positive impact not only for the health of the mother, who would reduce the incidence of mastitis, but also for their infant. The use of probiotics is a hopeful alternative in various gynecological pathologies. However, it's is necessary first some well-designed, randomized trials with standardized methods and with a significant number of patients in order to confirm its benefits and allow us its use in protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2015.32.sup1.9481DOI Listing
July 2015

The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life.

Microb Ecol Health Dis 2015 2;26:26050. Epub 2015 Feb 2.

Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, Spanish National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), Valencia, Spain;

The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3-5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4315782PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/mehd.v26.26050DOI Listing
February 2015

The salivary scavenger and agglutinin in early life: diverse roles in amniotic fluid and in the infant intestine.

J Immunol 2014 Nov 15;193(10):5240-8. Epub 2014 Oct 15.

Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki FI-00014, Finland; Immunobiology Research Program, Research Programs Unit, University of Helsinki, Helsinki FI-00014, Finland; Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki FI-00029, Finland;

The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA), also known as gp340 and dmbt1, is an antimicrobial and inflammation-regulating molecule located at the mucosal surfaces. The present study revealed that SALSA was present in the amniotic fluid (AF) and exceptionally enriched in both meconium and feces of infants. Based on immunological and mass spectrometric analysis, SALSA was estimated to constitute up to 4-10% of the total protein amount in meconium, making it one of the most abundant proteins. SALSA proteins in the AF and intestinal samples were polymorphic and exhibited varying polypeptide compositions. In particular, a different abundance of peptides corresponding to functionally important structures was found in the AF and intestinal SALSA. The AF form of SALSA had a more intact structure and contained peptides from the zona pellucida domain, which is involved in cell differentiation and oligomerization. In contrast, the intestinal SALSA was more enriched with the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains. The AF, but not the meconium SALSA, bound to Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. gordonii, and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, differential binding was observed also to known endogenous ligands C1q, mannose-binding lectin, and secretory IgA. Our results have thus identified mucosal body compartments, where SALSA is particularly abundant, and suggest that SALSA exhibits varying functions in the different mucosal locations. The high levels of SALSA in AF and the infant intestine suggest a robust and important function for SALSA during the fetal development and in the mucosal innate immune defense of infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1401631DOI Listing
November 2014

Microbes central to human reproduction.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2015 Jan 24;73(1):1-11. Epub 2014 Sep 24.

Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON, Canada; Departments of Microbiology & Immunology and Surgery, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

As studies uncover the breadth of microbes associated with human life, opportunities will emerge to manipulate and augment their functions in ways that improve health and longevity. From involvement in the complexities of reproduction and fetal/infant development, to delaying the onset of disease, and indeed countering many maladies, microbes offer hope for human well-being. Evidence is emerging to suggest that microbes may play a beneficial role in body sites traditionally viewed as being sterile. Although further evidence is required, we propose that much of medical dogma is about to change significantly through recognition and understanding of these hitherto unrecognized microbe-host interactions. A meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics held in Aberdeen, Scotland (June 2014), presented new views and challenged established concepts on the role of microbes in reproduction and health of the mother and infant. This article summarizes some of the main aspects of these discussions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aji.12319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4282787PMC
January 2015

Probiotics in human milk and probiotic supplementation in infant nutrition: a workshop report.

Br J Nutr 2014 Oct 27;112(7):1119-28. Epub 2014 Aug 27.

Department of Paediatrics,The Medical University of Warsaw,Warsaw,Poland.

Probiotics in human milk are a very recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. Current research is focusing on bacterial diversity and the influence of the maternal environment as well as the mode of delivery on human milk microbiota, the pathways of bacterial transfer to milk ducts, possible benefits of specific bacterial strains for the treatment of mastitis in mothers, and disease prevention in children. Recent advances in the assessment of early host-microbe interactions suggest that early colonisation may have an impact on later health. This review article summarises a scientific workshop on probiotics in human milk and their implications for infant health as well as future perspectives for infant feeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114514001949DOI Listing
October 2014