Publications by authors named "Juan Manuel Carreño"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mutations in the Hemagglutinin Stalk Domain Do Not Permit Escape from a Protective, Stalk-Based Vaccine-Induced Immune Response in the Mouse Model.

mBio 2021 Feb 16;12(1). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA

Current seasonal influenza virus vaccines target regions of the hemagglutinin (HA) head domain that undergo constant antigenic change, forcing the painstaking annual reformulation of vaccines. The development of broadly protective or universal influenza virus vaccines that induce cross-reactive, protective immune responses could circumvent the need to reformulate current seasonal vaccines. Many of these vaccine candidates target the HA stalk domain, which displays epitopes conserved within and across influenza virus subtypes, including those with pandemic potential. While HA head-mediated antigenic drift is well understood, the potential for antigenic drift in the stalk domain is understudied. Using a panel of HA stalk-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we applied selection pressure to the stalk domain of A/Netherlands/602/2009 (pdmH1N1) to determine fitness and phenotypes of escape mutant viruses (EMVs). We found that HA stalk MAbs with lower cross-reactivity caused single HA stalk escape mutations, whereas MAbs with broader cross-reactivity forced multiple mutations in the HA. Each escape mutant virus greatly decreased mAb neutralizing activity, but escape mutations did not always ablate MAb binding or Fc-Fc receptor-based effector functions. Escape mutant viruses were not attenuated but showed attenuation in an mouse model. Importantly, mice vaccinated with a chimeric HA universal vaccine candidate were protected from lethal challenge with EMVs despite these challenge viruses containing escape mutations in the stalk domain. Our study indicates that while the HA stalk domain can mutate under strong MAb selection pressure, mutant viruses may have attenuated phenotypes and do not evade a polyclonal, stalk-based vaccine-induced response. Broadly protective or universal influenza virus vaccines target viral epitopes that appear to be conserved. However, it is unclear whether the virus will be able to escape once immunological pressure is applied to these epitopes through vaccination of large proportions of the population. Studies that investigate the fitness and antigenic characteristics of viruses that escape immunological pressure on these conserved epitopes are therefore urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.03617-20DOI Listing
February 2021

Identification and Characterization of Novel Antibody Epitopes on the N2 Neuraminidase.

mSphere 2021 02 10;6(1). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA

The influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) is becoming a focus for novel vaccine designs. However, the epitopes of human anti-NA antibodies have been poorly defined. Using a panel of 10 anti-N2 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that bind the H3N2 virus A/Switzerland/9715293/2013, we generated five escape mutant viruses. These viruses contained mutations K199E/T, E258K, A272D, and S331N. We found that mutations at K199 and E258 had the largest impact on MAb binding, NA inhibition and neutralization activity. In addition, a natural isolate from the 2017-2018 season was found to contain the E258K mutation and was resistant to numerous antibodies tested. The mutation S331N, was identified in virus passaged in the presence of antibody; however, it had little impact on MAb activity and greatly decreased viral fitness. This information aids in identifying novel human MAb epitopes on the N2 and helps with the detection of antigenically drifted NAs. The influenza virus neuraminidase is an emerging target for universal influenza virus vaccines. However, in contrast to influenza virus hemagglutinin, we know little about antibody epitopes and antigenic sites on the neuraminidase. Characterizing and defining these sites is aiding vaccine development and helping to understand antigenic drift of NA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00958-20DOI Listing
February 2021

H1 Hemagglutinin Priming Provides Long-Lasting Heterosubtypic Immunity against H5N1 Challenge in the Mouse Model.

mBio 2020 12 15;11(6). Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA

Influenza virus infections leave a signature of immune memory that influences future responses to infections with antigenically related strains. It has been hypothesized that the first exposure in life to H1N1 influenza virus imprints the host immune system, potentially resulting in protection from severe infection with H5N1 later in life through hemagglutinin (HA) stalk-specific antibodies. To study the specific role of the HA on protection against infection without interference of cellular immunity or humoral antineuraminidase immunity, we primed mice with influenza B viruses that express an H1 HA (group 1; B-H1), H3 HA (group 2; B-H3), or wild-type influenza B virus and subsequently challenged them at different time points with an H5N1 virus. Weight loss and survival monitoring showed that the B-H1-primed mice exhibited better protection against H5N1 compared to the control mice. Analysis of H5-specific serum IgG, before and 21 days after H5N1 challenge, evidenced the presence of anti-stalk H5 cross-reactive antibodies in the BH-1 group that were boosted by H5N1 infection. The increased immune responses and protection induced by priming with the B-H1 viruses lasted at least up to 1 year. Hence, a single HA priming based on natural infection induces long-lasting protective immunity against heterosubtypic strains from the same phylogenetic HA group in mice. This study gives mechanistic support to the earlier finding in humans that imprinting by H1 HA protects against H5N1 infections and that highly conserved regions on the HA, like the stalk, are involved in this phenomenon. Current studies point out that an HA-mediated immunological imprint is established early in life during the first exposure to influenza viruses, which critically shapes and biases future immune responses. However, studies in animal models are limited and the precise mechanisms of this phenomenon are under investigation. Studies that explore the effect of HA-specific immunity induced during natural infection on future exposures to heterosubtypic influenza strains are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02090-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773984PMC
December 2020

A chimeric hemagglutinin-based universal influenza virus vaccine approach induces broad and long-lasting immunity in a randomized, placebo-controlled phase I trial.

Nat Med 2021 01 7;27(1):106-114. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Seasonal influenza viruses constantly change through antigenic drift and the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses through antigenic shift is unpredictable. Conventional influenza virus vaccines induce strain-specific neutralizing antibodies against the variable immunodominant globular head domain of the viral hemagglutinin protein. This necessitates frequent re-formulation of vaccines and handicaps pandemic preparedness. In this completed, observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase I trial (NCT03300050), safety and immunogenicity of chimeric hemagglutinin-based vaccines were tested in healthy, 18-39-year-old US adults. The study aimed to test the safety and ability of the vaccines to elicit broadly cross-reactive antibodies against the hemagglutinin stalk domain. Participants were enrolled into five groups to receive vaccinations with live-attenuated followed by AS03-adjuvanted inactivated vaccine (n = 20), live-attenuated followed by inactivated vaccine (n = 15), twice AS03-adjuvanted inactivated vaccine (n = 16) or placebo (n = 5, intranasal followed by intramuscular; n = 10, twice intramuscular) 3 months apart. Vaccination was found to be safe and induced a broad, strong, durable and functional immune response targeting the conserved, immunosubdominant stalk of the hemagglutinin. The results suggest that chimeric hemagglutinins have the potential to be developed as universal vaccines that protect broadly against influenza viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1118-7DOI Listing
January 2021

Real-Time Investigation of a Large Nosocomial Influenza A Outbreak Informed by Genomic Epidemiology.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Nov 30. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Background: Nosocomial respiratory virus outbreaks represent serious public health challenges. Rapid and precise identification of cases and tracing of transmission chains is critical to end outbreaks and to inform prevention measures.

Methods: We combined conventional surveillance with influenza A virus (IAV) genome sequencing to identify and contain a large IAV outbreak in a metropolitan healthcare system. A total of 381 individuals, including 91 inpatients and 290 health care workers (HCWs), were included in the investigation.

Results: During a 12-day period in early 2019, infection preventionists identified 89 HCWs and 18 inpatients as cases of influenza-like illness (ILI), using an amended definition without the requirement for fever. Sequencing of IAV genomes from available nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens identified 66 individuals infected with a nearly identical strain of influenza A H1N1pdm09 (43 HCWs, 17 inpatients, and 6 with unspecified affiliation). All HCWs infected with the outbreak strain had received the seasonal influenza virus vaccination. Characterization of five representative outbreak viral isolates did not show antigenic drift. In conjunction with IAV genome sequencing, mining of electronic records pinpointed the origin of the outbreak as a single patient and a few interactions in the emergency department that occurred one day prior to the index ILI cluster.

Conclusions: We used precision surveillance to delineate a large nosocomial IAV outbreak, mapping the source of the outbreak to a single patient rather than HCWs as initially assumed based on conventional epidemiology. These findings have important ramifications for more effective prevention strategies to curb nosocomial respiratory virus outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1781DOI Listing
November 2020

Development and Assessment of a Pooled Serum as Candidate Standard to Measure Influenza A Virus Group 1 Hemagglutinin Stalk-Reactive Antibodies.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Nov 9;8(4). Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1124, New York, NY 10029, USA.

The stalk domain of the hemagglutinin has been identified as a target for induction of protective antibody responses due to its high degree of conservation among numerous influenza subtypes and strains. However, current assays to measure stalk-based immunity are not standardized. Hence, harmonization of assay readouts would help to compare experiments conducted in different laboratories and increase confidence in results. Here, serum samples from healthy individuals ( = 110) were screened using a chimeric cH6/1 hemagglutinin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that measures stalk-reactive antibodies. We identified samples with moderate to high IgG anti-stalk antibody levels. Likewise, screening of the samples using the mini-hemagglutinin (HA) headless construct #4900 and analysis of the correlation between the two assays confirmed the presence and specificity of anti-stalk antibodies. Additionally, samples were characterized by a cH6/1N5 virus-based neutralization assay, an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay, and competition ELISAs, using the stalk-reactive monoclonal antibodies KB2 (mouse) and CR9114 (human). A "pooled serum" (PS) consisting of a mixture of selected serum samples was generated. The PS exhibited high levels of stalk-reactive antibodies, had a cH6/1N5-based neutralization titer of 320, and contained high levels of stalk-specific antibodies with ADCC activity. The PS, along with blinded samples of varying anti-stalk antibody titers, was distributed to multiple collaborators worldwide in a pilot collaborative study. The samples were subjected to different assays available in the different laboratories, to measure either binding or functional properties of the stalk-reactive antibodies contained in the serum. Results from binding and neutralization assays were analyzed to determine whether use of the PS as a standard could lead to better agreement between laboratories. The work presented here points the way towards the development of a serum standard for antibodies to the HA stalk domain of phylogenetic group 1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712758PMC
November 2020

Evolution of Salmonella Typhi outer membrane protein-specific T and B cell responses in humans following oral Ty21a vaccination: A randomized clinical trial.

PLoS One 2017 1;12(6):e0178669. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Vaccination against complex pathogens such as typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella requires the concerted action of different immune effector mechanisms. Outer membrane proteins (Omps) of Salmonella Typhi are potent immunogens, which elicit long-lasting and protective immunity. Here, we followed the evolution of S. Typhi OmpC and F-specific T and B cell responses in healthy volunteers after vaccination with the vaccine strain Ty21a. To follow humoral and cellular immune responses, pre- and post-vaccination samples (PBMC, serum and stool) collected from 15 vaccinated and 5 non-vaccinated individuals. Immunoglobulin levels were assessed in peripheral blood by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. B cell and T cell activation were analyzed by flow cytometry. We observed a significant increase of circulating antibody-secreting cells and maximal Omp-specific serum IgG titers at day 25 post vaccination, while IgA titers in stool peaked at day 60. Likewise, Omp-specific CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood showed the highest expansion at day 60 post vaccination, concomitant with a significant increase in IFN-γ and TNFα production. These results indicate that S. Typhi Omp-specific B cell responses and polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses evolve over a period of at least two months after application of the live attenuated vaccine. Moreover, these findings underscore the potential of S. Typhi Omps as subunit vaccine components.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN18360696.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0178669PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5453566PMC
September 2017

PLGA-microencapsulation protects Salmonella typhi outer membrane proteins from acidic degradation and increases their mucosal immunogenicity.

Vaccine 2016 07 29;34(35):4263-4269. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

Institute of Immunobiology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Salmonella (S.) enterica infections are an important global health problem with more than 20 million individuals suffering from enteric fever annually and more than 200,000 lethal cases per year. Although enteric fever can be treated appropriately with antibiotics, an increasing number of antibiotic resistant Salmonella strains is detected. While two vaccines against typhoid fever are currently on the market, their availability in subtropical endemic areas is limited because these products need to be kept in uninterrupted cold chains. Hence, the development of a thermally stable vaccine that induces mucosal immune responses would greatly improve human health in endemic areas. Here, we have combined the high structural stability of Salmonella typhi outer membrane proteins (porins) with their microencapsulation into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to generate an orally applicable vaccine. Encapsulated porins were protected from acidic degradation and exhibited enhanced immunogenicity following oral administration. In particular, the vaccine elicited strong S. typhi-specific B cell responses in Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. In sum, PLGA microencapsulation substantially improved the efficacy of oral vaccination against S. typhi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.05.036DOI Listing
July 2016