Publications by authors named "Juan Manuel Blanco"

14 Publications

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[SICOVID: a cantonal COVID information system for public health decision-making].

Rev Med Suisse 2020 Nov;16(714):2177-2182

Centre universitaire de médecine générale et santé publique, Unisanté, 1011 Lausanne.

Late 2019 a new coronavirus appeared, creating a pandemic, with the first case in Switzerland detected on the 25th of February 2020. Considering the rapid increase in the number of cases, with the fear of an over-burdening of the sanitary network, the Canton of Vaud created a surveillance system (SICOVID). The objective of the SICOVID was to produce a set of indicators, covering the breadth of the epidemiological impact and response as the epidemic progressed. These indicators where used for monitoring purposes, orienting strategies, operational decision-making, communication and research. The challenges encountered throughout this process underline the importance of anticipation and considering the function of a crisis information system, ideally integrating these elements into pandemic preparedness plans.
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November 2020

Frequency and Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Genes of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci from Wild Birds in Spain. Detection of -Carrying Isolates.

Microorganisms 2020 Aug 29;8(9). Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Área de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad de La Rioja, 26006 Logroño, Spain.

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) species from wild birds in Spain, as well as to analyze the antimicrobial resistance phenotype/genotype and the virulence gene content. During 2015-2016, tracheal samples of 242 wild birds were collected in different regions of Spain for staphylococci recovery. The species identification was performed using MALDI-TOF. The antimicrobial resistance phenotype and genotype was investigated by the disk diffusion method and by PCR, respectively. The presence of the virulence genes /-PV, , , , and was investigated by PCR. Moreover, CoNS carrying the gene were subjected to SCC typing. Of the tested animals, 60% were CoNS-carriers, and 173 CoNS isolates were recovered from the 146 positive animals, which belonged to 11 species, with predominance of ( = 118) and ( = 25). A total of 34% of CoNS isolates showed a multidrug resistance phenotype, and 42 -positive methicillin-resistant CoNS (MRCoNS) were detected. The isolates showed resistance to the following antimicrobials (percentage of resistant isolates/antimicrobial resistance genes detected): penicillin (49/ , ), cefoxitin (24/ ), erythromycin and/or clindamycin (92/ (B), (C), (43), (A), (C), (A), (B), (A) and (A)), gentamicin and/or tobramycin (5/ (6')-Ie-(2″)-Ia, (4')-Ia), streptomycin (12/), tetracycline (17/ (K), (L), (M)), ciprofloxacin (4), chloramphenicol (1/ ), fusidic acid (86/ , ) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1/ ). None of the isolates harbored the /-PV, , , and genes, but two isolates (1%) carried the gene. Wild birds are frequently colonized by CoNS species, especially . We identified scavenging on intensively produced livestock and feeding on landfills as risk factors for CoNS carriage. High proportions of MRCoNS and multidrug resistant CoNS were detected, which coupled with the presence of important virulence genes is of concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564563PMC
August 2020

Older People's Health-Related Behaviors: Evidence from Three Cohorts of the Lc65+ Study.

Behav Med 2020 Feb 20:1-5. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Center for Primary Care and Public Health (Unisanté), University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Baby-boomers might be more health-conscious than earlier birth cohorts, but limited evidence has been produced so far. To investigate such changes, this study compared health-related behaviors at age 65 to 70 among three successive five-year birth cohorts (pre-war: born 1934-1938; war: born 1939-1943 and baby-boom: born 1944-1948) representative of the community-dwelling population. Information about alcohol use, smoking, physical activity, and nutrition was compared across the three cohorts ( = 4,270 participants) using Chi-squared test. Alcohol and the mean nutritional intake score did not vary across cohorts, whereas the consumption of nonalcoholic drinks increased significantly from pre-war to war and to baby-boom cohort (p<.001). Other differences across cohorts were observed only in women: the proportion of women who never or rarely engaged in sports decreased from 52.9% in the pre-war cohort to around 43% in subsequent cohorts (p<.001), while the proportion of women who had never smoked was higher in the pre-war cohort (56.1%) than in the war and the baby-boom cohorts (49.8% and 46.8%, respectively, p<.001). Overall, these results show some positive changes in older persons' health behaviors over time. Nevertheless, considerable room remains for improving lifestyles through public health interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08964289.2019.1684234DOI Listing
February 2020

Impact of urine and mixed incontinence on long-term care preference: a vignette-survey study of community-dwelling older adults.

BMC Geriatr 2020 02 18;20(1):69. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

University Center for Primary Care and Public Health (Unisanté), University of Lausanne, Route de la Corniche 10, CH-1010, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: In view of population aging, a better knowledge of factors influencing the type of long-term care (LTC) among older adults is necessary. Previous studies reported a close relationship between incontinence and institutionalization, but little is known on opinions of older citizens regarding the most appropriate place of care. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of urine and/or fecal incontinence on preferences of community-dwelling older citizens.

Methods: We derived data from the Lausanne cohort 65+, a population-based study of individuals aged from 68 to 82 years. A total of 2974 community-dwelling persons were interviewed in 2017 on the most appropriate place of LTC delivery for three vignettes displaying a fixed level of disability with varying degrees of incontinence (none, urinary, urinary and fecal). Multinomial logistic regression analyses explored the effect of respondents' characteristics on their opinion according to Andersen's model.

Results: The level of incontinence described in vignettes strongly determined the likelihood of considering institutional care as most appropriate. Respondents' characteristics such as age, gender, educational level, being a caregiver, knowledge of shelter housing or feeling supported by family influenced LTC choices. Self-reported incontinence and other indicators of respondents' need, however, had no significant independent effect.

Conclusion: Among older community-dwelling citizens, urinary and fecal incontinence play a decisive role in the perception of a need for institutionalization. Prevention and early initiation of support for sufferers may be a key to prevent this need and ensure familiar surrounding as long as possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-020-1439-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029586PMC
February 2020

Trends in Physical and Cognitive Performance Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Switzerland.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2020 11;75(12):2347-2353

Centre for Primary Care and Public Health (Unisanté), University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: With population aging, a key question is whether new cohorts of older people are in better health than previous ones. This study aimed to compare the physical and cognitive performance of community-dwelling older adults assessed at similar age in 2005, 2010, and 2015.

Methods: This repeated cross-sectional analysis used data from the Lausanne cohort 65+, a three random sample population-based study. Performance of participants aged 66-71 years in 2005 (N = 1,309), 2010 (N = 1,253), and 2015 (N = 1,328) was compared using a battery of six physical and four cognitive tests. Analyses included tests for trend across samples and multivariable linear regression models.

Results: Adjusted performance in all four timed physical tests (gait speed, Timed Up-and-Go, five times chair stand, and Moberg Picking-Up) improved across samples from 2005 to 2015, by +12.7% (95% confidence interval {CI} +10.5%; +14.9%) to +20.4% (95% CI +17.7%; +23.0%) in females, and by +10.6% (95% CI +8.7%; +12.4%) to +16.7% (95% CI +13.4%; +20.0%) in males. In contrast, grip strength and balance did not improve across samples. Adjusted cognitive performance showed no change in the Trail Making Test, but worsened significantly across samples for the Mini-Mental State Examination, verbal fluency, and the clock drawing test in both females (-1.9% [95% CI -2.7%; -1.1%] to -6.7% [95% CI -8.9%; -4.6%]) and males (-2.5% [95% CI -3.4%; -1.6%] to -8.0% [95% CI -11.1%; -4.9%]).

Conclusions: Over the last decade, performance of adults aged 66-71 years improved significantly in timed physical tests but worsened in most cognitive measures among later-born samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glaa008DOI Listing
November 2020

Gender differences regarding opinions on long-term care arrangements: A study of community-dwelling older adults.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2019 Jul - Aug;83:195-203. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Lausanne University Hospital, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Numerous studies have attempted to identify predictors of institutionalization in the general population. Gender studies have led to inconsistent results. Some authors argued that older women were more likely than older men to use long-term care services, while others failed to highlight a specific gender effect on the use of long-term care services. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of gender on the preferences of older citizens for long-term care using a panel of disability situations.

Methods: We used a set of ten vignettes displaying disability situations with or without an able-bodied spouse present and used a population-based survey to inquire about appropriate long-term care. Participants were 3102 community-dwelling persons aged 68-83 years included in the representative Lausanne cohort 65+ study in January 2017. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to explore the effect of gender on long-term care choices by older men and women, controlling for the respondent's age and living arrangement.

Results: The respondents' choices shifted toward institutionalization when the disorder severity increased in vignettes and when there was no spouse able to help. Men were more likely to choose a home setting with caregiving only by spouse even when the level of disability increased. Women chose help from professionals, sheltered homes, or institutionalization more quickly than men.

Conclusions: Exploring gender preferences for long-term care arrangements is critical for improving and planning long-term care services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2019.03.018DOI Listing
March 2020

Do baby boomers feel healthier than earlier cohorts after retirement age? The Lausanne cohort Lc65+ study.

BMJ Open 2019 02 19;9(2):e025175. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Lausanne Hospital Centre, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Objective: Despite the popular belief that baby boomers are ageing in better health than previous generations, limited scientific evidence is available since baby boomers have turned retirement age only recently. This study aimed to compare self-reported health status at ages 65-70 years among three cohorts of older people born before, during and at the end (baby boomers) of the Second World War.

Design: Repeated cross-sectional population-based study.

Setting: Community in a region of French-speaking Switzerland.

Participants: Community-dwelling older adults who enrolled in the Lausanne cohort 65+ study at ages 65-70 years in 2004 (n=1561), 2009 (n=1489) or 2014 (n=1678).

Outcomes: Number of self-reported chronic conditions (from a list of 11) and chronic symptoms (from a list of 11); depressive symptoms; self-rated health (very good, good, average, poor or very poor); fear of disease (not afraid at all, barely afraid, a bit afraid, quite afraid or very afraid); self-perception of ageing; disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living.

Results: There was no significant difference between cohorts in the number of self-reported chronic conditions and chronic symptoms as well as the presence of difficulty in basic activities of daily living, depressive symptoms, fear of disease and negative self-perception of ageing. In women only, significant differences between cohorts were observed in self-rated health (p=0.005) and disability in instrumental activities of daily living (p=0.003), but these associations did not remain significant in logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and unhealthy behaviours.

Conclusions: Despite important sociodemographic differences between older baby boomers and earlier cohorts, most health indicators did not suggest any trend towards a compression of morbidity. Future studies comparing these three cohorts at more advanced age are required to further investigate whether differences emerge later in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368217PMC
February 2019

Detection of MRSA of Lineages CC130-mecC and CC398-mecA and Staphylococcus delphini-lnu(A) in Magpies and Cinereous Vultures in Spain.

Microb Ecol 2019 Aug 29;78(2):409-415. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Área de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad de La Rioja, Madre de Dios 51, 26006, Logroño, Spain.

The aim of this study was to determine the carriage rate of coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) in wild birds and to characterize recovered isolates. Tracheal samples from 324 wild birds, obtained in different Spanish regions during 2015-2016, were screened for CoPS carriage. The antimicrobial resistance profile and the virulence gene content were investigated. Molecular typing was performed by spa, agr, MLST, SCCmec, and S. delphini group classification. CoPS were recovered from 26 samples of wild birds (8.3%), and 27 isolates were further characterized. Two CoPS species were detected: S. aureus (n = 15; eight cinereous vultures and seven magpies) and S. delphini (n = 12; 11 cinereous vultures and one red kite). Thirteen S. aureus were methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and the remaining two strains were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA). Twelve MRSA were mecC-positive, typed as t843-ST1583/ST1945/ST1581/ST1571 (n = 11) and t1535-ST1945 (n = 1) (all of clonal-complex CC130); they were susceptible to the non-β-lactams tested. The remaining MRSA strain carried the mecA gene, was typed as t011-ST398-CC398-agrI-SCCmec-V, and showed a multiresistance phenotype. MSSA isolates were ascribed to lineages ST97-CC97 and ST425-CC425. All S. aureus lacked the studied virulence genes (lukS/F-PV, tst, eta, etb, and etd), and the IEC type E (with scn and sak genes) was detected in four mecC-positive and one MSSA isolates. S. delphini strains were methicillin-susceptible but showed resistance to at least one of the antimicrobials tested, with high penicillin (75%, with blaZ gene) and tetracycline [58%, with tet(K)± tet(L)] resistance rates. All S. delphini isolates presented the virulence genes lukS-I, siet, and se-int, and four carried the clindamycin-resistance lnu(A) gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-019-01328-4DOI Listing
August 2019

Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses.

J Virol 2013 May 13;87(9):4938-51. Epub 2013 Feb 13.

Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.

Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups, and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g., starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.03183-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3624294PMC
May 2013

Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain.

Ecotoxicology 2011 Jun 13;20(4):670-81. Epub 2011 Feb 13.

National Institute of Game Research-Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (UCLM-CSIC-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071, Ciudad Real, Spain.

The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 μg/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-011-0607-3DOI Listing
June 2011

Pathogenicity of two recent Western Mediterranean West Nile virus isolates in a wild bird species indigenous to Southern Europe: the red-legged partridge.

Vet Res 2011 Jan 18;42:11. Epub 2011 Jan 18.

Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal del Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (CISA-INIA), Ctra Algete-El Casar, s/n, 28130 Valdeolmos (Madrid), Spain.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen whose geographic spread and incidence in humans, horses and birds has increased significantly in recent years. WNV has long been considered a mild pathogen causing self-limiting outbreaks. This notion has changed as WNV is causing large epidemics with a high impact on human and animal health. This has been particularly noteworthy since its introduction into North America in 1999. There, native bird species have been shown to be highly susceptible to WNV infection and disease with high mortalities. For this reason, the effect of WNV infection in North American bird species has been thoroughly studied by means of experimental inoculations in controlled trials. To a lesser extent, European wild birds have been shown to be affected clinically by WNV infection. Yet experimental studies on European wild bird species are lacking. The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) is a gallinaceous bird indigenous to the Iberian Peninsula, widely distributed in South Western Europe. It plays a key role in the Mediterranean ecosystem and constitutes an economically important game species. As such it is raised intensively in outdoor facilities. In this work, red-legged partridges were experimentally infected with two recent WNV isolates from the Western Mediterranean area: Morocco/2003 and Spain/2007. All inoculated birds became viremic and showed clinical disease, with mortality rates of 70% and 30%, respectively. These results show that Western Mediterranean WNV variants can be pathogenic for some European bird species, such as the red-legged partridge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9716-42-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3037891PMC
January 2011

Serologic testing for avian influenza viruses in wild birds: comparison of two commercial competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

Avian Dis 2010 Mar;54(1 Suppl):729-33

Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real, Spain.

Serologic testing of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance poses problems due to species differences and nonspecific inhibitors that may be present in sera of wild birds. Recently available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits offer a new species-independent approach. In this study we compare two commercial competitive cELISAs, using a total of 184 serum and plasma samples from 23 species of wild birds belonging to 10 orders. Thirteen samples were from experimentally high pathogenicity AI and low pathogenicity AI infected red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), 77 samples were from a flock of sentinel hybrid ducks confirmed infected by AI by real-time PCR, and 94 samples were from wild birds admitted to a rehabilitation center. Both ELISAs detected AI antibodies in the experimentally infected partridges, whereas hemagglutination inhibition (HI) was negative. Concordance in results between the two ELISAs was 51.5%. When specific subtype-H5/H7 HI-positive samples were considered for comparison, ELISA 1 appeared to perform better on ducks, whereas ELISA 2 appeared to perform better in other wild bird species. Overall, 68.2% of H5/H7 positive samples tested positive by ELISA 1 and 36% by ELISA 2. Both ELISAs detected AIV-antibody-positive samples negative by specific HI against 9 of the 16 existing hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes. Presumably this reflects either higher sensitivity of cELISA when compared to HI, presence of antibodies against HA subtypes not tested, or unspecific reactions. Performance of ELISA 1 on ducks appears to be comparable to in-house cELISA previously used by other authors in wild birds, but requires a relatively large sample volume. Alternatively, although ELISA 2 required a smaller sample volume, it was less effective at identifying HI-positive samples. The results reflect the necessity of validation of cELISA tests for individual species or at least families, as required by the OIE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/8802-040109-ResNote.1DOI Listing
March 2010

Producing progeny from endangered birds of prey: treatment of urine-contaminated semen and a novel intramagnal insemination approach.

J Zoo Wildl Med 2002 Mar;33(1):1-7

Center for Studies on Iberian Raptors, Toledo, Spain.

Wild raptors brought into an ex situ environment often have poor semen quality that is further compromised by urine contamination. Generally, it is believed that in birds, artificial insemination into the cloaca or caudal vagina of females requires large doses of high-quality spermatozoa to maximize fertility. In an effort to define and overcome some of the challenges associated with reproduction in wild raptors, the objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate the frequency, impact, and remediation of urine contamination in fresh ejaculates for the purpose of maintaining sperm motility and viability in vitro, and 2) develop a deep insemination method that allows low numbers of washed sperm to be placed directly into the magnum to increase the probability of producing fertilized eggs. The species evaluated include golden eagle (Aquila chrysoetos), imperial eagle (A. adalberti), Bonelli's eagle (Hiernaetus fasciatus), and peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Semen samples were collected and pooled by species, and a minimum of 25 pooled ejaculates per species were evaluated for urine contamination, pH, sperm viability, and sperm motility; the samples were either unwashed or washed in neutral (pH 7.0) or alkaline (pH 8.0) modified Lake's diluent. Female golden eagles and peregrine falcons were inseminated via transjunctional, intramagnal insemination with washed spermatozoa from urine-contaminated samples. Urine contamination occurred in 36.8 +/- 12.8% (mean +/- SEM) golden eagle, 43.1 +/- 9.1% imperial eagle. 28.7 +/- 16.1% Bonelli's eagle, and 48.2 +/- 17.3% peregrine falcon ejaculates. The pH in urine-contaminated semen samples ranged from 6.48 +/- 0.3 to 6.86 +/- 0.2, and in noncontaminated samples it ranged from from 7.17 +/- 0.1 to 7.56 +/- 0.1. Sperm viability and motility were reduced (P < 0.05) in all species for unwashed vs. washed sperm after 30 min incubation at room temperature. Two peregrine falcon chicks and one golden eagle chick hatched after intramagnal insemination. This study demonstrates that urine contamination, a common and lethal acidifier in manually collected raptor ejaculates, can be circumvented by immediate, gentle seminal washing. Furthermore, these processed sperm, when deposited by transjunctional intramagnal insemination, can produce live young.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/1042-7260(2002)033[0001:PPFEBO]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
March 2002