Publications by authors named "Juan Li"

3,502 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Improvement of Insulin Sensitivity Increases Pregnancy Rate in Infertile PCOS Women: A Systemic Review.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 30;12:657889. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of infertility in reproductive-age women. Insulin increases steroidogenesis, deranges granulosa cell differentiation, and affects follicle growth. However, results from randomized control trials (RCTs) were heterogeneous, and little strong evidence associated actual achievement of insulin sensitivity (IS) improvement with reproductive outcomes.

Objectives: To identify evidence of the reproductive benefit of IS improvement in infertile PCOS women by analyzing eligible RCTs.

Search Strategy: Different search strategies with unlimited keywords, including treatment, therapy, intervention, polycystic ovary syndrome/PCOS, insulin resistance, pregnancy, conceive, live birth, and randomized controlled trials/RCT were used in databases including Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science to November 20th, 2021.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two authors independently abstracted study details and assessed study quality.

Main Results: Ten RCTs that covered different races and met the inclusion criteria were included for analysis and discussion. Clinical pregnancy rate was increased in infertile PCOS women when they had significant improvement of IS after treatment regardless of the various interventions (non-surgical). The benefits of IS improvement appeared superior in PCOS women without severe obesity. The effect of IS improvement on pregnancy rate was independent of the change of BMI.

Conclusions: Nonsurgical therapeutic strategies that promote superior IS improvement may aid infertile PCOS women to increase their possibility of successful pregnancy regardless of the various interventions. The improvement of IS might be more important than the reduction of BMI in the improvement of pregnancy rate in infertile PCOS women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.657889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042389PMC
March 2021

Exploration of prognostic factors for critical COVID-19 patients using a nomogram model.

Sci Rep 2021 04 14;11(1):8192. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Medical Quality Management Office, Ningbo Medical Center Lihuili Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China.

The study aimed to explore the influencing factors on critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients' prognosis and to construct a nomogram model to predict the mortality risk. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic data and corresponding laboratory biomarkers of 102 critical COVID-19 patients with a residence time ≥ 24 h and divided patients into survival and death groups according to their prognosis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess risk factors for critical COVID-19 patients and a nomogram was constructed based on the screened risk factors. Logistic regression analysis showed that advanced age, high peripheral white blood cell count (WBC), low lymphocyte count (L), low platelet count (PLT), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were associated with critical COVID-19 patients mortality risk (p < 0.05) and these were integrated into the nomogram model. Nomogram analysis showed that the total factor score ranged from 179 to 270 while the corresponding mortality risk ranged from 0.05 to 0.95. Findings from this study suggest advanced age, high WBC, high hs-CRP, low L, and low PLT are risk factors for death in critical COVID-19 patients. The Nomogram model is helpful for timely intervention to reduce mortality in critical COVID-19 patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87373-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046984PMC
April 2021

Influence of 3D laparoscopic surgery on surgeon's visual pattern and mental workload.

J Med Eng Technol 2021 Apr 12:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang, P. R. China.

Previous studies have found that surgeons perform better in three-dimensional (3D) surgery than in two-dimensional (2D) surgery. However, no comparative studies have revealed the impact of 3D laparoscopic surgery on the surgeon's vision. To explore the effect of laparoscopic surgeons' depth perception during 3D laparoscopic surgery, 10 participants were recruited and performed 4 sets comparative simulated laparoscopic procedures in a virtual simulator, and eye movement signals were acquired, which were used to characteristics the visual differences. Fixation rate and saccade speed were used to characterise the influence of moderating variables for visual characteristics. The results from the data showed significant differences in eye movement behaviour. Compared with 2D laparoscopic surgery, surgeons have more average fixation rate (-values = 0.001, 0.000, 0.003 and 0.015, respectively) and faster saccade speed (-values = 0.037, 0.003, 0.073 and 0.105, respectively) in 3D laparoscopic surgery. The results of this study showed that surgeons had more efficient visual search in 3D laparoscopic surgery. At the same time, the results also indicated that surgeon's mental workload in 3D laparoscopic surgery was low. The relevant conclusions of this paper revealed the advantages of 3D laparoscopic surgery through visual efficiency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03091902.2021.1907466DOI Listing
April 2021

The Effects of Human Dermal-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Keratinocyte Proliferation and Apoptosis in Psoriasis.

Exp Dermatol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Stem Cell for Immunological Dermatosis, Institute of Dermatology, Taiyuan Central Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, No.5, east third lane, Jiefang Road, Taiyuan, 030009, Shanxi Province, China.

Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, characterized by epidermal hyperproliferation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) regulate inflammation and vascular proliferation in the psoriasis lesions. Whether dermal-derived mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs), the main MSCs in the dermis regulate keratinocyte proliferation and apoptosis remains unknown. In the present study, we assessed the proliferation and apoptosis of keratinocytes co-cultured with DMSCs isolated from either normal or psoriatic involved skin. Cell growth and apoptotic rates were determined, using Cell Count Kit-8 and annexin V-FITC staining, respectively. In addition, EDU kit was also used to measure the rate of keratinocyte proliferation. Our results showed that psoriatic DMSCs (pDMSCs) were more potent than normal DMSCs (nDMSCs) in stimulating keratinocyte proliferation. In contrast, the apoptotic rate and expression levels of caspase 3 protein were lower in pDMSC-treated than nDMSC-treated keratinocytes (p<0.001). Moreover, significantly higher contents of IL-6, IL-8, TNFα and IFN-γ were found in the culture medium of pDMSCs than in that of nDMSCs. In conclusion, pDMSCs were more potent than nDMSCs in stimulation of keratinocyte proliferation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines , while weaker in promoting apoptosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/exd.14353DOI Listing
April 2021

[Frontometaphyseal dysplasia 1 caused by variant of FLNA gene in a case].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;38(4):355-358

Shanghai Chindren's Medical Center Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127, China.

Objective: To explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of a child with frontometaphyseal dysplasia 1 (FMD1) due to variant of FLNA gene.

Methods: Clinical phenotype of the patient was analyzed. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out to detect pathogenic genetic variants. Sanger sequencing was used to verify the result in his parents.

Results: The 2-year-and-9-month-old boy presented with facial dysmorphism (supraorbital hyperostosis, down-slanting palpebral fissure and ocular hypertelorism), skeletal deformities (bowed lower limbs, right genu valgum, left genu varus, slight deformity of index and middle fingers, and flexion contracture of little fingers). He also had limited left elbow movement. High-throughput sequencing revealed that he has carried a de novo heterogeneous c.3527G>A (p.Gly1176Glu) missense variant of the FLNA gene. The same variant was found in neither parent.

Conclusion: The clinical manifestations of FMD1 such as joint contracture and bone dysplasia can occur in infancy and deteriorate with age, and require long-term follow-up and treatment. Above finding has expanded the spectrum of FLNA gene variants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20200523-00374DOI Listing
April 2021

Coaching by Age: An Analysis of Coaches' Paternalistic Leadership on Youth Athletes' Organizational Citizenship Behavior in China.

Front Psychol 2021 23;12:622703. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

Based on social cognitive theory, we studied the relationship between coaches' paternalistic leadership (PL) and youth athletes' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and the mediation effect of athletes' trust in coaches, in China. This age-specific research was conducted among more than 2,000 Chinese youth soccer players. Overall, 758 youth soccer players, aged 13-18 years, completed a self-report questionnaire. The results showed that the three dimensions of the coaches' PL have different relationships with OCB, and the differences were due to differences in athletes' ages. Additionally, we verified the mediation role of trust. Our research conclusions are of great significance to the study of Chinese youth soccer as in-depth research can provide a deeper and more precise understanding of the relationship between PL and the OCB of Chinese youth soccer players. This study expands the literature on social cognitive theory and sheds light on the relationship between coach leadership and athlete OCB by providing extensive evidence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.622703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021775PMC
March 2021

Considerations and perspectives on digestive diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic: a narrative review.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, the First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China; Key Laboratory for Gastrointestinal Diseases, Gansu Province, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initially reported in December 2019, and since then it has become a pandemic with newly confirmed cases and deaths increasing continuously. The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically impacted the organization and execution of activities in the clinical sector. Asymptomatic infections are increasingly being identified when patients seek medical advice for nonrespiratory system illnesses, particularly digestive system symptoms. This has posed a significant challenge for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Based on the clinical symptoms of patients with COVID-19 reported to date, patients with typical clinical symptoms of COVID-19 may also present with symptoms associated with the digestive system. Digestive illness symptoms in patients with COVID-19 are underscored by a bidirectional relationship between respiratory and digestive systems. Because the clinical diagnosis and treatment of digestive illnesses caused by COVID-19 have been challenging so far, we hypothesized that investigating the pathogenesis of digestive system diseases in patients with COVID-19 will provide potential novel targets for its prevention and treatment, and concurrently reduce COVID-19 virulence and sociosanitary burden. This review summarizes the relationship between the digestive and respiratory systems in patients with COVID-19 from the perspective of the "gut-lung" axis. We discuss extant literature on the pathogenesis of COVID-19-related digestive symptoms, which may facilitate differential diagnosis and treatment of this condition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-2124DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical risk score for predicting invasive fungal disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Analysis of the China Assessment of Antifungal Therapy in Hematological Diseases (CAESAR) study.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 Apr 7:e13611. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Peking University Institute of Hematology, Peking University, People's Hospital, Beijing Key Laboratory of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, No. 11 Xizhimen South Street, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background And Objective: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is associated with a high mortality for patients with hematological malignancies undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). This study aimed not only to develop a proven/probable IFD risk-scoring model but to identify high-risk populations that would benefit from anti-fungal prophylaxis.

Methods: Data from the China Assessment of Antifungal Therapy in Hematological Diseases (CAESAR) study were retrieved, and all patients (n=1053) undergoing allo-HSCT were randomly divided into the training set (n=685) for model development and the validation set (n=368) for model verification. A weighted risk score for proven or probable IFD was established through multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results: The study population had a mean age of 28.95 years and the majority underwent myeloablative transplantation in complete remission 1 (53.4%). Five risk factors of IFD were identified, namely neutropenia lasting longer than 14 days, corticosteroid use, diabetes, haploidentical donor, and unrelated donor. Based on the risk score for IFD, the patients were categorized into three groups: low risk (score 0-4, 1.5%-4.0%), intermediate risk (score 5-8, 9.8%), and high risk (score>8, 24.7%-14.0%). Anti-fungal prophylaxis may provide benefits for patients with intermediate (8.5% vs. 18.5%, P=0.0085) or high risk (19.4% vs. 30.8%, P=0.4651) but not low risk (2.1% vs. 3.8%, P=0.6136) of IFD.

Conclusion: A practical weighted risk score for IFD in patients receiving allo-HSCT was established, which can aid decision-making regarding administration of anti-fungal prophylaxis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13611DOI Listing
April 2021

The Effect of Acupuncture on Glucose Metabolism and Lipid Profiles in Patients with PCOS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 22;2021:5555028. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Methods: Databases, including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), Wanfang, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for the relevant literature, with the retrieval deadline being February 2020. Two reviewers independently screened, selected, and extracted the data and validated the results. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated with the risk of bias tool, and the meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.3.5 software.

Results: A total of 737 patients with PCOS from 10 randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. A pooled analysis showed significant decreases in body mass index (mean difference (MD) = -1.47, 95% CI -2.35 to -0.58,  < 0.001) and waist-to-hip ratio (MD = -0.04, 95% CI [-0.06, -0.02],  < 0.001) in the acupuncture group along with significant improvements in fasting plasma glucose (MD = -0.38, 95% CI [-0.70, -0.07],  = 0.02), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (MD = -0.22, 95% CI [-0.41, -0.02],  = 0.03), and triglycerides (MD = -0.26, 95% CI [-0.48, -0.04],  = 0.02). No significant differences were observed in the Ferriman-Gallwey score, 2 h fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, 2 h fasting insulin, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

Conclusion: Acupuncture is relatively effective and safe in improving glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in patients with PCOS. The included studies were generally of not bad methodological quality, but further large-scale, long-term randomized controlled trials with rigorous methodological standards are still warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5555028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007365PMC
March 2021

LncRNA SNHG4 sponges miR-200b to inhibit cell apoptosis in diabetic retinopathy.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 6:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu City, People's Republic of China.

This study aimed to investigate the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) small nucleolar RNA host gene 4 (SNHG4) in diabetic retinopathy (DR). We found that SNHG4 was downregulated in DR. SNHG4 could directly interact with miR-200b, while overexpression of miR-200b did not affect the expression of SNHG4 in human retinal pigment epithelial cells ARPE-19. In contrast, overexpression of SNHG4 led to the upregulation of oxidation resistance 1 (Oxr1), a target of miR-200b. Cell apoptosis analysis showed that overexpression of miR-200b increased the apoptotic rate of ARPE-19 cells under high glucose treatment. Oxr1 and SNHG4 played opposite roles and reduced the effects of overexpression of miR-200b. In conclusion, SNHG4 may sponge miR-200b to inhibit cell apoptosis in DR by upregulating Oxr1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2021.1900873DOI Listing
April 2021

Suppressing the Universal Occurrence of Microscopic Liquid Residues on Super-Liquid-Repellent Surfaces.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Apr 5;12(14):3577-3585. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Super-liquid-repellent (SLR) surfaces based on surface micro/nanotextures are generally regarded as "non-wettable", though careful examination shows that residual microdroplets remain atop surface textures upon drop shedding-off. Despite its great importance, the origin of microscopic liquid residues remains poorly explored, and how to suppress residue formation is an open question. Herein, on the basis of high-speed microscopic imaging and numerical simulations, we resolve the fast formation dynamics of liquid residues on micropillared SLR surfaces and show that the competition of contact line receding on micropillars and the pinch-off of microcapillary bridges governs residue formation. The local receding angle can temporarily reduce to be drastically lower than the intrinsic one accompanying occurrence of accelerated contact line receding, inevitably leading to capillary bridge pinch-off and residue formation. We further show a liquid-like coating can delay capillary bridge pinch-off and reduce residue volume on SLR surfaces by more than 80% compared to those with conventional perfluoroalkylsilane coatings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c00760DOI Listing
April 2021

Methamphetamine and HIV-Tat Protein Synergistically Induce Oxidative Stress and Blood-Brain Barrier Damage via Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 Channel.

Front Pharmacol 2021 17;12:619436. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

NHC Key Laboratory of Drug Addiction Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Synergistic impairment of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) induced by methamphetamine (METH) and HIV-Tat protein increases the risk of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in HIV-positive METH abusers. Studies have shown that oxidative stress plays a vital role in METH- and HIV-Tat-induced damage to the BBB but have not clarified the mechanism. This study uses the human brain microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 and tree shrews to investigate whether the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channel, a cellular effector of the oxidative stress, might regulate synergistic damage to the BBB caused by METH and HIV-Tat. We showed that METH and HIV-Tat damaged the BBB , producing abnormal cell morphology, increased apoptosis, reduced protein expression of the tight junctions (TJ) including Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAMA) and Occludin, and a junctional associated protein Zonula occludens 1 (ZO1), and increased the flux of sodium fluorescein (NaF) across the hCMEC/D3 cells monolayer. METH and HIV-Tat co-induced the oxidative stress response, reducing catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, as well as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malonaldehyde (MDA) level. Pretreatment with n-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) alleviated the oxidative stress response and BBB damage characterized by improving cell morphology, viability, apoptosis levels, TJ protein expression levels, and NaF flux. METH and HIV-Tat co-induced the activation and high protein expression of the TRPM2 channel, however, early intervention using 8-Bromoadenosine-5'-O-diphosphoribose (8-Br-ADPR), an inhibitor of TPRM2 channel, or TRPM2 gene knockdown attenuated the BBB damage. Oxidative stress inhibition reduced the activation and high protein expression of the TRPM2 channel in the model, which in turn reduced the oxidative stress response. Further, 8-Br-ADPR attenuated the effects of METH and HIV-Tat on the BBB in tree shrews-namely, down-regulated TJ protein expression and increased BBB permeability to Evans blue (EB) and NaF. In summary, the TRPM2 channel can regulate METH- and HIV-Tat-induced oxidative stress and BBB injury, giving the channel potential for developing drug interventions to reduce BBB injury and neuropsychiatric symptoms in HIV-infected METH abusers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.619436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010131PMC
March 2021

Characterization of Four Orphan Receptors (GPR3, GPR6, GPR12 and GPR12L) in Chickens and Ducks and Regulation of Expression in Ovarian Granulosa Cells by Progesterone.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Mar 27;12(4). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resources and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

The three structurally related orphan G protein-coupled receptors, GRP3, GPR6, and GPR12, are reported to be constitutively active and likely involved in the regulation of many physiological/pathological processes, such as neuronal outgrowth and oocyte meiotic arrest in mammals. However, the information regarding these orphan receptors in nonmammalian vertebrates is extremely limited. Here, we reported the structure, constitutive activity, and tissue expression of these receptors in two representative avian models: chickens and ducks. The cloned duck and duck/chicken and are intron-less and encode receptors that show high amino acid (a.a.) sequence identities (66-88%) with their respective mammalian orthologs. Interestingly, a novel GPR12-like receptor (named GPR12L) sharing 66% a.a. identity to that in vertebrates was reported in the present study. Using dual-luciferase reporter assay and Western blot, we demonstrated that GPR3, GPR6, GPR12, and GPR12L are constitutively active and capable of stimulating the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway without ligand stimulation in birds (and zebrafish), indicating their conserved signaling property across vertebrates. RNA-seq data/qRT-PCR assays revealed that and expression is mainly restricted to the chicken brain, while is highly expressed in chicken ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) and oocytes of 6 mm growing follicles and its expression in cultured GCs is upregulated by progesterone. Taken together, our data reveal the structure, function, and expression of GPR3, GPR6, GPR12, and GPR12L in birds, thus providing the first piece of evidence that expression is upregulated by gonadal steroid (i.e., progesterone) in vertebrates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12040489DOI Listing
March 2021

S-CoEA: Subproblems Co-Solving Evolutionary Algorithm for Uncertain Optimization.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Apr 2;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Existing techniques on dealing with uncertain optimization problems (UOPs) mostly rely on the preference information of decision makers (DMs) or the knowledge involved in probability distributions on uncertainties. Actually, accurate preferences and distribution information of uncertainties are hard to obtain due to the lack of knowledge. Besides, it is risky to make assumptions on this information to handle uncertainties when DMs do not have sufficient knowledge about the problem. This article attempts to treat UOPs in an a posteriori manner and proposes a subproblem co-solving evolutionary algorithm (EA) for UOPs, namely, S-CoEA. It decomposes a UOP into a series of correlated subproblems by using the proposed decomposition strategy embedded with an original ordered weighted-sum (OWS) operator. These subproblems are formulated in different aggregation forms of sampled function values and represent different preferences on uncertainties. They are co-solved in parallel by using information from neighboring subproblems. The sampling strategy is used to gather the distribution information of uncertain functions and alleviate the detrimental effects of uncertainties. A sample-updating scheme based on historical information is presented to further improve the performance of S-CoEA. The proposed S-CoEA is compared with two state-of-the-art competitors, including the EA with the exponential sampling method (E-sampling) and the population-controlled covariance matrix self-adaptation evolution strategy (pcCMSA-ES). Numerical experiments are conducted on a series of test instances with various characteristics and different strength levels of uncertainties. Experimental results show that S-CoEA outperforms or performs competitively against competitors in the majority of 26 continuous test instances and four test cases of discrete redundancy allocation problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2021.3064556DOI Listing
April 2021

Mixed Metal Metal-Organic Frameworks Derived Carbon Supporting ZnFeO/C for High-Performance Magnetic Particle Imaging.

Nano Lett 2021 Apr 2;21(7):2730-2737. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Cixi Institute of Biomedical Engineering, International Cooperation Base of Biomedical Materials Technology and Application, CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Zhejiang Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, China.

Recently, magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has shown diverse biomedical applications such as cell tracking, lung perfusion, image-guided hyperthermia, and so forth. However, the currently reported MPI agents cannot achieve the possible theoretical detection limit of MPI (20 nM). A previous theoretical study has shown that the MPI performance of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) can be enhanced by carbon supporting and metal doping. In the current study, a series of mixed metal metal-organic framework-derived carbon supporting SPIONs were synthesized by pyrolysis. Among the synthesized SPIONs, the MPI signal intensity of ZnFeO/C@PDA was found to be 4.7 times higher than the commercial MPI contrast (Vivotrax) having the same Fe concentration. ZnFeO/C@PDA also showed the highest MPI intensity in tumor-bearing-mice among all tested samples. Furthermore, they were found highly biocompatible and showed linear cell quantification. This work can open new avenues for the design and development of novel and high-performance MPI agents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04455DOI Listing
April 2021

A species-specific triplex PCR assay for authentication of .

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 19;6(3):1044-1049. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

A triplex PCR assay was developed to identify animal species and adulteration of a natural medicine (GGEC). Three species-specific primer sets were designed according to the difference in mitochondrial genome of , and . The PCR conditions were optimized and the assay was well validated for high specificity and sensitivity (1 mg/μL). Especially, when artificial adulterants made from the mixture of three species were analyzed, the assay has still exhibited strong capability of differentiation. By using this developed method, two batches out of fourteen commercial GGEC products were identified to be adulterated by . The newly proposed assay showed sufficient merits as a regular tool for the identification of counterfeits or adulterants of GGEC product for their pulverized and processed form, and even Chinese patent medicines composed of these species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1899075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995851PMC
March 2021

Unique MIL-53(Fe)/PDI Supermolecule Composites: Z-Scheme Heterojunction and Covalent Bonds for Uprating Photocatalytic Performance.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 1;13(14):16364-16373. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Lushan South Road, Yuelu District, Changsha 410082, People's Republic of China.

It is important to find an effective way to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of metal-organic frameworks. In this work, an organic supermolecule perylene diimide (PDI) semiconductor with a carboxyl terminal was added into the synthesis process of MIL-53(Fe) crystals. The PDI/MIL-53(Fe) (PM) composite photocatalyst was first obtained. The TC-H photodegradation rate of the most efficient 5PM was nearly 94.08% within 30 min, whose apparent reaction rate constant () is 4 times that of PDI and 33 times that of MIL-53(Fe), respectively. By investigation and characterization, it has been found that PDI nanofibers were dispersed and fixed in MIL-53(Fe) and bonded to each other by covalent bonds. The radical trap experiments and electron spin resonance analysis illustrated that hydroxyl radical (·OH), superoxide radical (·O), and photogenerated holes (h) were active species. Combined with the band structure of PDI and MIL-53(Fe), it is proposed that the PM photocatalyst was a Z-scheme heterojunction mechanism. Therefore, PM photocatalysts showed excellent charge separation and transfer ability. The performance improvement of 5PM is due to enhanced visible light absorption, efficient charge separation, and excellent redox potential. Five cyclic photocatalytic tests and experiments further demonstrate that the 5PM photocatalyst has a promising future for pollutant removal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01308DOI Listing
April 2021

Associations of Vascular Risk Factors, and Polymorphisms With Cognitive Function in Dementia-Free Chinese Older Adults: A Community-Based Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 15;12:617773. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Center on Aging Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The associations of vascular risk factors (VRFs), apolipoprotein E (), and translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 () with cognitive function have been investigated mostly in western societies. In the present study, we sought to examine the associations of VRFs [i.e., current smoking, current drinking, physical inactivity, obesity, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), diabetes, and hypertension] and variants located in (ε2/3/4) and (rs2075650) with global cognitive function in Chinese older adults, with a focus on their potential interactions. This is a cross-sectional study that included 422 permanent residents (mean age 69.2 years, 54.3% female) living in Beijing, who were free of dementia. Data were collected through interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory tests. The two genetic polymorphisms were genotyped, and participants were dichotomized as carriers vs. non-carriers of ε4 or G. Global cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Data were analyzed with multivariable linear regression models. Physical inactivity and diabetes were independently associated with a lower MMSE score (all < 0.05). When four putative VRFs (i.e., current smoking, physical inactivity, high LDL-C, and diabetes) were aggregated, an increasing number of having these factors was associated with a decreasing MMSE score in a dose-response manner ( = 0.001). polymorphisms, independent of the ε4 allele, interacted with aggregated VRFs to influence cognitive performance, such that having one or more of these VRFs was particularly detrimental to the cognition of carriers. Further analyses revealed interactions of the polymorphism with (i) physical inactivity and (ii) diabetes, such that having either physical inactivity or diabetes in combination with carrying a G allele, compared to having neither, was significantly associated with a markedly lower MMSE score (all < 0.05). This study provides some evidence supporting the association of vascular risk factors with poor cognitive performance among dementia-free Chinese older adults and further revealed their interactions with the polymorphism. The results underscore the vulnerability of global cognitive function to VRFs, which could be reinforced by carrying the rs2075650 G allele. These findings have potential implications for developing tailored intervention programs to maintain cognitive function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.617773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005534PMC
March 2021

Determination of 21 photoinitiators in human plasma by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry: A systemically validation and application in healthy volunteers.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Apr 19;1643:462079. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment, Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Joint Laboratory of Collaborative Innovation for Environmental Quality, Jinan University, Guangzhou 511443, China. Electronic address:

In the present study, a comprehensive and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of 21 PIs (nine benzophenones, eight amine co-initiators, and four thioxanthones) in human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Two different pre-treatment approaches (liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and LLE coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE)) and eight extraction solvents were studied to optimize sample treatment to obtain good recoveries and reduce any matrix effects. The procedure of LLE+SPE was selected as final sample treatment procedure because it obtained higher recoveries as well as lower matrix effects than that performed by LLE alone. The recoveries of 21 target analytes at three spiked concentrations (0.05, 0.5, and 5 ng/mL) ranged from 81% to 109%. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were between 2.5% and 13%. Accuracy and precision data indicated that the detection method was accurate and precise for most of the PIs. The linearities of the labeled dilution calibration curves at 10 concentration levels (iLOQ to 100 ng/mL or iLOQ to 200 ng/mL) were good with correlation coefficients ranged from 0.995 to 0.999. The method quantification limits were in the range of 1.7-16 pg/mL. The analytical method was applied to the analysis of PIs in 14 human plasma samples collected from pregnant women in Guangdong Province, China. Fifteen PIs were detected with total concentrations ranging from 318 to 2772 pg/mL. The ubiquitous contamination of human plasma with PIs suggests that there is widespread exposure to these compounds. Consequently, there should be increased awareness of these pollutants in the environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462079DOI Listing
April 2021

Cell Division Cycle Associated Genes as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 11;8:657161. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Key Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology of Herbal Medicines, Guizhou Education Department, School of Basic Medicine, Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guiyang, China.

With high mortality and poor prognosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) has become the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Most of the LIHC patients missed the best treatment period because of the untimely diagnosis. For others, even if they are temporarily cured, they have to face a very low prognostic survival rate and a very high risk of recurrence. Based on the characteristics of abnormal proliferation and uncontrolled growth of tumor cells. Cell Division Cycle Associated () family genes, which are responsible for regulating the cell cycle and proliferation, were selected as our research object to explore the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis. To this end, we investigated the expression profiles of family genes in LIHC and corresponding normal tissues, and the effect of expression on the survival of prognosis and immune cell infiltration through bioinformatics analysis methods and the publicly accessible online databases. In addition, we also analyzed the expression correlation of and screened the neighboring genes related to functional . The results revealed that the expression levels of were significantly increased in LIHC, regardless of stage, sex, race, drinking behavior, and other clinical factors. expression was significantly correlated with poor prognosis and was positively correlated with the infiltration of dendritic cells, B cells, and macrophages. We also found that the most relevant neighboring genes to in LIHC were , , , , and . In general, our work suggests that has the potential to be a diagnostic gene in hepatocarcinogenesis and prognostic biomarkers for LIHC patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.657161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991583PMC
March 2021

Comparison Between Pioglitazone/Metformin Combination Therapy and Sitagliptin/Metformin Combination Therapy on the Efficacy in Chinese Type 2 Diabetic Adults Insufficiently Controlled with Metformin: Study Protocol of an Open-Label, Multicenter, Non-Inferiority Parallel-Group Randomized Controlled Trial.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 18;14:1243-1252. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has risen substantially in China, where its pathophysiology is primarily characterized by insulin resistance (IR). Alleviating IR may help with the management of T2D in the Chinese population. Pioglitazone and sitagliptin are two hypoglycemic medications with different pharmacological actions, both of which are optimal choices for use in combination with metformin. Previous studies have yielded mixed findings regarding the differences in hypoglycemic effects between the two agents. Though pioglitazone is associated with weight gain, both drugs have been shown to decrease visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and improve IR in individuals with T2D. There is a lack of direct comparisons between pioglitazone and sitagliptin among Chinese individuals with T2D. Therefore, this paper describes a protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that investigates the differences in hypoglycemic efficacy, IR improvement, and safety profiles between these drugs.

Methods And Analysis: This is a 24-week, open-label, multicenter, non-inferiority parallel-group RCT with a 1:1 allocation ratio. It compares pioglitazone/metformin (15 mg/500 mg) combination therapy with sitagliptin/metformin (50 mg/500 mg) combination therapy in Chinese adults with T2D insufficiently controlled with metformin. The primary outcomes are HbA1c reduction, insulin level increase, and IR index change. The secondary outcomes are body weight and abdominal VAT decreases, lipid profiles, and inflammatory indicators. Tolerability and safety data will also be collected.

Conclusion: It is believed that the direct comparisons of the hypoglycemic effects, VAT reductions, and safety profiles between pioglitazone and sitagliptin will help to optimize treatments for Chinese adults with T2D who are primarily characterized by IR.

Trial Registration Number: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR1900021861).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S293307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987276PMC
March 2021

Down-regulation of long non-coding RNA antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus suppresses OVCAR-3 cells proliferation and induction of apoptosis by Wnt/β -catenin.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Gynecology, Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital of Shandong Province, Jinan City, Shandong Province,  China.

Objectives: Ovarian cancer is a lethal gynecological malignancy. Long non-coding RNA antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (lncRNA ANRIL) was reported to have a critical role in cancer advancement. The ANRIL-mediated oncogenic underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood in ovarian cancer. We aimed to study ANRIL silencing effects on the proliferation and apoptosis of OVCAR-3 cells.

Methods: The ANRIL was Knockdown by transfection of OVCAR-3 cells with si-RNA against ANRIL. MTT assay and cell death ELISA kit were used to evaluate cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The expression levels of ANRIL, pro-and anti-apoptotic genes were assessed using q-RT-PCR. Western blotting was used to assess Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway.

Key Findings: ANRIL down-regulating in OVCAR-3 cell lines resulted in significant inhibition of cellular proliferation, apoptosis induction, as well as suppression of cellular invasion. Besides, knockdown of ANRIL led to pro-apoptotic genes up-regulation, Bad and Bax and anti-apoptotic genes down-regulation, Bid and Bcl-2. More importantly, we observed that ANRIL inhibition suppressed the vital components expression of the Wnt/β-catenin cascade.

Conclusion: Our findings showed that down-regulation of lncRNA ANRIL resulted in the effective suppression of OVCAR-3 cell proliferation and invasion and induction of apoptosis by preventing Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpp/rgab042DOI Listing
March 2021

Changes in ambient temperature increase hospital outpatient visits for allergic rhinitis in Xinxiang, China.

BMC Public Health 2021 Mar 27;21(1):600. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, 453003, China.

Background: The effect of ambient temperature on allergic rhinitis (AR) remains unclear. Accordingly, this study aimed to explore the relationship between ambient temperature and the risk of AR outpatients in Xinxiang, China.

Method: Daily data of outpatients for AR, meteorological conditions, and ambient air pollution in Xinxiang, China were collected from 2015 to 2018. The lag-exposure-response relationship between daily mean temperature and the number of hospital outpatient visits for AR was analyzed by distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM). Humidity, long-time trends, day of the week, public holidays, and air pollutants including sulfur dioxide (SO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO) were controlled as covariates simultaneously.

Results: A total of 14,965 AR outpatient records were collected. The relationship between ambient temperature and AR outpatients was generally M-shaped. There was a higher risk of AR outpatient when the temperature was 1.6-9.3 °C, at a lag of 0-7 days. Additionally, the positive association became significant when the temperature rose to 23.5-28.5 °C, at lag 0-3 days. The effects were strongest at the 25th (7 °C) percentile, at lag of 0-7 days (RR: 1.32, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.05-1.67), and at the 75th (25 °C) percentile at a lag of 0-3 days (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02-1.29), respectively. Furthermore, men were more sensitive to temperature changes than women, and the younger groups appeared to be more influenced.

Conclusions: Both mild cold and mild hot temperatures may significantly increase the risk of AR outpatients in Xinxiang, China. These findings could have important public health implications for the occurrence and prevention of AR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10671-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004401PMC
March 2021

Asymmetric Core-shell Gold Nanoparticles and Controllable Assemblies for SERS Ratiometric Detection of MicroRNA.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Fuzhou University, Qi Shan Campus of Fuzhou University, 2 Xue Yuan Road, University Town, 350108, Fuzhou, CHINA.

Owing to their unique optical properties that depend on shape, morphology, and orientation, diverse plasmonic nanostructures have been the focus of vigorous development and study. Herein, we present a series of Janus nanogap gold nanoparticles (JAuNNPs) with varying proportions of Au shell coverage of approximately 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25%. The internal nanogap between the partial Au shell and core caused asymmetric optical behavior, in addition to their tunability being highly dependent on the degree of Au shell coverage and structural asymmetry. Importantly, the "shell-to-shell" or "core-to-core" JAuNNDs(50%) were self-assembled from amphiphilic JAuNNPs(50%) merely by tuning the hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer brushes on the Au core or shell. The positions of electromagnetic field enhancement of JAuNNDs varied with geometrical configurations because of hybridized plasmonic coupling effects based on the calculation results. Furthermore, DNA linkers were utilized to form JAuNND 12 (50%). By combining with Raman molecules, ratiometric SERS signals could be generated, enabling JAuNND 12 (50%) to image the distribution of miR-21 in living cells and tumors. Consequently, asymmetric JAuNNPs allowed facile conjugation of various linkage molecules to fabricate dimeric nanostructures, representing powerful SERS ratiometric nanoprobes for biosensing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202102893DOI Listing
March 2021

Hydrogen Attenuates Endotoxin-Induced Lung Injury by Activating Thioredoxin 1 and Decreasing Tissue Factor Expression.

Front Immunol 2021 9;12:625957. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Anesthesiology, Jiangning Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Endotoxin-induced lung injury is one of the major causes of death induced by endotoxemia, however, few effective therapeutic options exist. Hydrogen inhalation has recently been shown to be an effective treatment for inflammatory lung injury, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. In the current study we aim to investigate how hydrogen attenuates endotoxin-induced lung injury and provide reference values for the clinical application of hydrogen. LPS was used to establish an endotoxin-induced lung injury mouse model. The survival rate and pulmonary pathologic changes were evaluated. THP-1 and HUVECC cells were cultured . The thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) inhibitor was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of hydrogen. Hydrogen significantly improved the survival rate of mice, reduced pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, infiltration of neutrophils, and IL-6 secretion. Inhalation of hydrogen decreased tissue factor (TF) expression and MMP-9 activity, while Trx1 expression was increased in the lungs and serum of endotoxemia mice. LPS-stimulated THP-1 and HUVEC-C cells and showed that hydrogen decreases TF expression and MMP-9 activity, which were abolished by the Trx1 inhibitor, PX12. Hydrogen attenuates endotoxin-induced lung injury by decreasing TF expression and MMP-9 activity activating Trx1. Targeting Trx1 by hydrogen may be a potential treatment for endotoxin-induced lung injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.625957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985449PMC
March 2021

Aptima HPV messenger RNA testing and histopathologic follow-up in women with HSIL cytology: A study emphasizing additional review of HPV-negative cases.

Cancer Cytopathol 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Pathology, Magee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Background: High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) messenger RNA (mRNA) testing, the Food and Drug Administration-approved testing platform since 2013, has been increasing as a cervical screening alternative to hrHPV DNA testing methods. This study reports the largest routine clinical follow-up study reported to date of hrHPV mRNA cotesting and histopathologic follow-up results for women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) cytology results.

Methods: HSIL Papanicolaou test results for women cotested with Aptima hrHPV mRNA testing between June 2015 and November 2020 were analyzed along with recorded histopathologic follow-up results within 6 months of screening.

Results: Aptima hrHPV mRNA-positive results were reported for 95.2% of the cotested HSIL cytology cases (905 of 951). Histopathologic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was diagnosed on follow-up in 538 of 701 hrHPV mRNA-positive cases (76.8%) and in 15 of 36 hrHPV mRNA-negative cases (41.7%). Additional reviews of the hrHPV mRNA-negative HSIL cases showed variable interpretations, and confirmatory blinded-review interpretations of HSIL or atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion were more likely in cases with histopathologic CIN2+ (77.5% [93 of 120]) than those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or negative findings (63.1% [101 of 160]; P < .01).

Conclusions: This large routine-clinical-practice study confirms the previously reported high sensitivity of hrHPV mRNA testing for the detection of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancers. The blinded-review findings indicate that additional cytology review may be helpful for confirming an interpretation of HSIL in daily practice, especially for hrHPV-negative HSIL cases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncy.22421DOI Listing
March 2021

First Report of Round Spot Disease of Zanthoxylum armatum DC Caused by Fusarium fujikuroi in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

chengdu, China;

Zanthoxylum armatum DC, a deciduous tree in Rutaceae, has significant economic value as an important food condiment, spice, and medicine (Cao et al. 2019). Recently, an unknown round leaf spot disease has been found on Z. armatum in Meishan and surroundings areas of Sichuan province. The disease mainly affected the leaves, mostly on seedlings, with incidence of approximately 50%. Isolate HJYB-4 was isolated from typical diseased leaves and purified on potato dextrose agar (PDA). The isolate produced floccose white, magenta, or grey aerial mycelium. On the reverse side of the culture, the colony had the pigment of pale gray or magenta, with concentric rings of dark red and pale brown in the center. Morphological characteristics were recorded using a pure culture grown on PDA and Synthetic low nutrient agar (SNA). The hyphae of the isolate were colorless and septate. There were two types of conidia on SNA, microconidia, and macroconidia. Macroconidia were long and slender with parallel dorso-ventral sides, usually 3 to 5 septate, 21.89 to 47.21 × 3.33 to 4.73 μm. Microconidia were oval, melon-shaped, ovate, 0-1 septate, mostly no septate, 5.35 to 11.22 × 2.24 to 3.79 μm. A few pyriform microconidia and chlamydospores were observed. DNA of the isolate was extracted using the Column Fungal DNAout 2.0 (Tiandz Inc., Irvine, Beijing, China). PCR was performed using the following primers, ITS1/ITS4, TEF1/TEF2, TUBT1/TUBT2, fRPB2-5f2/fRPB2-7cr, LR0R/LR5, and NL1/NL4 to amplify the loci of the representative isolate in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS), translation elongation factor EF-1α (TEF1), β-tubulin 2 (TUB2), RNA polymerase II largest-subunit (RPB2), the Large subunit (LSU) region of rDNA, 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain. The products were sequenced and Blasted. Blast analysisf the ITS, TFE, TUB2, RPB2, LSU, and NL amplicon revealed more than 99% of sequence identify with Fusarium fujikuroi. These sequences were submitted to GenBank and the GenBank accession numbers were as follows MT864359 (ITS), MT864358 (LSU), MT877222 (NL), MT902141 (RPB2), MT902140 (TEF), and MT902139 (TUB2). The phylogenetic tree was inferred from the combined datasets (TEF, TUB, and PRB2) from members of the F. fujikuroi species complex analyzed in this study (Jayawardena et al. 2019). The Phylogenetic tree revealed isolate HJYB-4 matched F. fujikuroi with a clade credibility value of 100%. According to the morphological characteristics and multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, the isolate was identified as F. fujikuroi. To complete pathogenicity tests, healthy leaves were needle-wound inoculated with mycelial plugs. The leaves that were inoculated with PDA-only plugs served as the control. After 3 days incubation at 26±2°C and 100% relative humidity, brown lesions that developed from inoculated leaves were similar to those in the field. No symptoms developed in the controlled leaves. Typical fungal cultures consistently isolated from symptomatic leaves, indicating that the fungus was responsible for the development of the disease. F. fujikuroi has been reported to cause root rot on Reineckia carnea (Sun et al. 2018), black rot on Macleaya cordata (Yu et al. 2019), and a wilt disease on sugarcane (Bao et al. 2020). This is the first report of F. fujikuroi attacking leaf of Z. armatum in China. The identification of this disease could provide the basis for the prevention and control of the disease at the seedling stage of Z. armatum.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-20-2315-PDNDOI Listing
March 2021

First Report of Fusarium Root Rot of Tobacco Caused by Fusarium sinensis in Henan Province China.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Xuchang, China;

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is an economically important crop in China, with an estimated production of 2.2 million tons every year. In June 2018, tobacco plants within the municipality of Sanmenxia (Henan, China) showed symptoms of wilting with leaf yellowing and stunting. Diseased plants exhibited severe necrosis that advanced through the main root (Figure 1 A). The symptoms were observed in nineteen surveyed tobacco fields, 60 ha in total, and approximately 25% of the plants were symptomatic. The disease resulted in a severe loss in tobacco leaf production. Five symptomatic tobacco plants were sampled. Diseased tissues from roots were surface sterilized in 75% ethanol and placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. Eighteen of the 25 diseased tissues had cultures growing from them, and all the cultures were white colonies with abundant aerial mycelium produced scarlet pigmentation on PDA. One pure culture was obtained by single-spore culturing (SL1). A 10-day-old culture grown on CLA (carnation leaf agar) produced macroconidia that were falcate, straight or slightly curved, 3-septate, 25-35×3.5-4.5 μm (average 26.8×3.7 μm) (n=50). Two types of microconidia (napiform and fusiform) were formed on CLA that were hyaline, with one to two cells. Napiform conidia were 4.5-9.3×3.8-5.9 (average 7.3×5.0 μm) (n=50); fusiform conidia were 6.9-15.8×1.8-3.1 (average 9.9×2.5 μm). Spherical chlamydospores (7-12.5 μm) (n=50) were terminal or intercalary and produced in clumps or in chains (Figure1 B-D). Morphological characteristics of the isolate were similar to the features of Fusarium sinensis previously described by Zhao and Lu (2008). Molecular identification was performed using partial sequences of EF1-α gene (primers EF1/EF2, O'Donnell et al. 1998). Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood-based methods were fitted using MEGA 7 (Moreira et al. 2019,Figure 2). The isolate was also sequenced for β-tubulin (primers T1/Bt-2b, O'Donnell & Cigelnik 1997),ribosomal RNA gene (LSU, LROR/LR5 primers, Vu et al. 2019) and rDNA-ITS (ITS 1/ ITS 4 primers, White et al. 1990). Sequences were deposited in GenBank under accession numbers MT947797 (EF1-α), MW484999 (β-tubulin), MW486649 (LSU) and MT907471 (ITS). The obtained EF1-α sequence was 98.10% identity with those of F. sinensis (MG670388.1) in the GenBank database, whereas the β-tubulin, LSU and ITS sequences showed 100% identities to the corresponding DNA sequences in F. sinensis (GenBank Acc. Nos. KX880370.1, NG_067454.1 and MH863232.1, respectively). Morphological and molecular results confirmed this species as F. sinensis (Zhao and Lu 2008). Pathogenicity tests were performed on tobacco seedlings grown on an autoclaved matrix (YC/T310-2009). Healthy 6-leaf stage tobacco seedlings were inoculated by pouring a 20 mL conidial suspension (1×10 conidia/mL-1) around the stem base of each plant, 30 plant were inoculated. Thirty control seedlings received sterilized water. All treatments were maintained for 30 days under greenhouse conditions with a 12-h light/dark photoperiod at 25±0.5℃ and 70% relative humidity. The assay was conducted three times. Root rot and foliage chlorosis similar to the ones observed on infected plants in the field were observed on the inoculated tobacco seedlings, whereas the control seedlings remained asymptomatic after 30 days (Figure1 E). The pathogen isolated from the inoculated plant exhibited morphological characteristics identical to F. sinensis and was identified by a partial EF1-α gene sequence. This disease has previously been reported as the causal agent of root and crown rot of wheat in China (Zhao and Lu 2008; Xu et al. 2018). To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. sinensis causing root rot on tobacco in China. Funding: Funding was provided by the Science and Technology Project of Henan Provincial Tobacco Company (2020410000270012), Independent Innovation Project of Hennan Academy of Agricultural Sciences (2020ZC18) and Research and Development project of Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences (2020CY010). References: Moreira, G.M., et al. 2019 Plant Dis. O'Donnell, K., et al. 1998. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:2011. O'Donnell, K., et al. 2008. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:2477. Xu, F., et al. 2018. Front Microbiol. 9:1054. Zhao, Z.H., and Lu, G. Z., 2008. Mycologia, 100:746. The author(s) declare no conflict of interest. Keywords: tobacco root rot, Henan Province, Fusarium sinensis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-20-2466-PDNDOI Listing
March 2021

Egoistic punishment outcompetes altruistic punishment in the spatial public goods game.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 22;11(1):6584. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

School of economics and management, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024, China.

The evolution of costly punishment is a puzzle due to cooperators' second-order free-riding. Previous studies have proposed many solutions mainly focused on reducing the punishment cost or punishing second-order free riders directly or indirectly. We attempt to explain this confusion from the perspective of punishment motivation, which is why the punisher is willing to pay the cost. The answer is that the punisher is egoistic. Egoistic punishment aims to protect punishers' own cooperative benefits shared by the defectors. In such case, egoistic punishers would pay a cost in punishing defectors and retrieve lost payoffs from defectors. Here, we examined the evolution and performance of egoistic punishment and compared it with typical altruistic punishment using classic peer-punishment and pool-punishment modes. Results showed egoistic punishment can evolve and effectively promote cooperation within a large parameter range, whether in a well-mixed or structured population, or through peer-punishment or pool-punishment modes. This result is also robust to different strategy-updating rules. The evolution under the pool-punishment mechanism is more complicated. The influence of parameters is counter-intuitive because of cycle dominance; namely, the cost is the key factor to control the level of cooperation and the fine determines the ratio of the punishers and cooperators. Compared with altruistic punishment, egoistic punishment can promote cooperation in a lower-fine and higher-cost area, especially in the pool punishment mode, and the egoistic punishers have stronger survivability. Egoistic punishers represent the natural fairness in a social system. Results revealed that focusing on individual equity can significantly promote collective cooperation. This study provides another explanation for the evolution of costly punishment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85814-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985383PMC
March 2021