Publications by authors named "Juan F Iglesias"

85 Publications

Distal Versus Conventional Radial Access for Coronary Angiography and Intervention (DISCO RADIAL).

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Cardiology, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the superiority of DRA compared with conventional TRA with respect to forearm RAO.

Background: Currently, transradial access (TRA) is the recommended access for coronary procedures because of increased safety, with radial artery occlusion (RAO) being its most frequent complication, which will increasingly affect patients undergoing multiple procedures during their lifetimes. Recently, distal radial access (DRA) has emerged as a promising alternative access to minimize RAO risk. A large-scale, international, randomized trial comparing RAO with TRA and DRA is lacking.

Methods: DISCO RADIAL (Distal vs Conventional Radial Access) was an international, multicenter, randomized controlled trial in which patients with indications for percutaneous coronary procedure using a 6-F Slender sheath were randomized to DRA or TRA with systematic implementation of best practices to reduce RAO. The primary endpoint was the incidence of forearm RAO assessed by vascular ultrasound at discharge. Secondary endpoints include crossover, hemostasis time, and access site-related complications.

Results: Overall, 657 patients underwent TRA, and 650 patients underwent DRA. Forearm RAO did not differ between groups (0.91% vs 0.31%; P = 0.29). Patent hemostasis was achieved in 94.4% of TRA patients. Crossover rates were higher with DRA (3.5% vs 7.4%; P = 0.002), and median hemostasis time was shorter (180 vs 153 minutes; P < 0.001). Radial artery spasm occurred more with DRA (2.7% vs 5.4%; P = 0.015). Overall bleeding events and vascular complications did not differ between groups.

Conclusions: With the implementation of a rigorous hemostasis protocol, DRA and TRA have equally low RAO rates. DRA is associated with a higher crossover rate but a shorter hemostasis time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2022.04.032DOI Listing
May 2022

Effect of Alirocumab Added to High-Intensity Statin Therapy on Coronary Atherosclerosis in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: The PACMAN-AMI Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2022 05;327(18):1771-1781

Department of Cardiology, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Importance: Coronary plaques that are prone to rupture and cause adverse cardiac events are characterized by large plaque burden, large lipid content, and thin fibrous caps. Statins can halt the progression of coronary atherosclerosis; however, the effect of the proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitor alirocumab added to statin therapy on plaque burden and composition remains largely unknown.

Objective: To determine the effects of alirocumab on coronary atherosclerosis using serial multimodality intracoronary imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The PACMAN-AMI double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial (enrollment: May 9, 2017, through October 7, 2020; final follow-up: October 13, 2021) enrolled 300 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction at 9 academic European hospitals.

Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive biweekly subcutaneous alirocumab (150 mg; n = 148) or placebo (n = 152), initiated less than 24 hours after urgent percutaneous coronary intervention of the culprit lesion, for 52 weeks in addition to high-intensity statin therapy (rosuvastatin, 20 mg).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS), near-infrared spectroscopy, and optical coherence tomography were serially performed in the 2 non-infarct-related coronary arteries at baseline and after 52 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the change in IVUS-derived percent atheroma volume from baseline to week 52. Two powered secondary end points were changes in near-infrared spectroscopy-derived maximum lipid core burden index within 4 mm (higher values indicating greater lipid content) and optical coherence tomography-derived minimal fibrous cap thickness (smaller values indicating thin-capped, vulnerable plaques) from baseline to week 52.

Results: Among 300 randomized patients (mean [SD] age, 58.5 [9.7] years; 56 [18.7%] women; mean [SD] low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 152.4 [33.8] mg/dL), 265 (88.3%) underwent serial IVUS imaging in 537 arteries. At 52 weeks, mean change in percent atheroma volume was -2.13% with alirocumab vs -0.92% with placebo (difference, -1.21% [95% CI, -1.78% to -0.65%], P < .001). Mean change in maximum lipid core burden index within 4 mm was -79.42 with alirocumab vs -37.60 with placebo (difference, -41.24 [95% CI, -70.71 to -11.77]; P = .006). Mean change in minimal fibrous cap thickness was 62.67 μm with alirocumab vs 33.19 μm with placebo (difference, 29.65 μm [95% CI, 11.75-47.55]; P = .001). Adverse events occurred in 70.7% of patients treated with alirocumab vs 72.8% of patients receiving placebo.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among patients with acute myocardial infarction, the addition of subcutaneous biweekly alirocumab, compared with placebo, to high-intensity statin therapy resulted in significantly greater coronary plaque regression in non-infarct-related arteries after 52 weeks. Further research is needed to understand whether alirocumab improves clinical outcomes in this population.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03067844.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2022.5218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8978048PMC
May 2022

Extremity Dysfunction After Large-Bore Radial and Femoral Arterial Access.

J Am Heart Assoc 2022 01 13;11(2):e023691. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Department of Cardiology Isala Heart Center Zwolle the Netherlands.

Background The use of large-bore (LB) arterial access and guiding catheters has been advocated for complex percutaneous coronary intervention. However, the impact of LB transradial access (TRA) and transfemoral access (TFA) on extremity dysfunction is currently unknown. Methods and Results The predefined substudy of the COLOR (Complex Large-Bore Radial PCI) trial aimed to assess upper and lower-extremity dysfunction after LB radial and femoral access. Upper-extremity function was assessed in LB TRA-treated patients by the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire and lower-extremity function in LB TFA-treated patients by the Lower Extremity Functional Scale questionnaire. Extremity pain and effect of access site complications and risk factors on extremity dysfunction was also analyzed. There were 343 patients who completed analyzable questionnaires. Overall, upper and lower-extremity function did not decrease over time when LB TRA and TFA were used for complex percutaneous coronary intervention, as represented by the median Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score (6.8 at baseline and 2.1 at follow-up, higher is worse) and Lower Extremity Functional Scale score (56 at baseline and 58 at follow-up, lower is worse). Clinically relevant extremity dysfunction occurred in 6% after TRA and 9% after TFA. A trend for more pronounced upper-limb dysfunction was present in female patients after LB TRA (=0.05). Lower-extremity pain at discharge was significantly higher in patients with femoral access site complications (=0.02). Conclusions Following LB TRA and TFA, self-reported upper and lower-limb function did not decrease over time in the majority of patients. Clinically relevant limb dysfunction occurs in a small minority of patients regardless of radial or femoral access. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03846752.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.023691DOI Listing
January 2022

Differential Effects of Newer-Generation Ultrathin-Strut Versus Thicker-Strut Drug-Eluting Stents in Chronic and Acute Coronary Syndromes.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 11;14(22):2461-2473

Department of Cardiology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland.

Objectives: The authors sought to compare the differential effects of ultrathin-strut and thicker-strut drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with chronic (CCS) versus acute (ACS) coronary syndromes.

Background: Newest-generation ultrathin-strut DES reduce target lesion failure (TLF) compared with thicker-strut second-generation DES in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing newer-generation ultrathin-strut (<70 μm) versus thicker-strut (≥70 μm) DES. Patients were divided based on baseline clinical presentation (CCS versus ACS). The primary endpoint was TLF, a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically indicated target lesion revascularization (TLR).

Results: A total of 22,766 patients from 16 randomized controlled trials were included, of which 9 trials reported TLF rates in ACS patients. At a mean follow-up of 12.2 months, the risk of TLF was lower among patients treated with ultrathin-strut compared with thicker-strut DES (risk ratio [RR]: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.75-0.95; P = 0.006). The difference was driven by a lower risk of clinically-indicated TLR (RR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.63-0.89; P < 0.001) among patients treated with ultrathin-strut DES. The treatment effect was consistent between patients presenting with CCS and ACS (relative RR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.73-1.31; P for interaction = 0.854). In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, TLF risk was lower among those treated with ultrathin- compared with thicker-strut DES (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.54-0.99; P = 0.049).

Conclusions: Ultrathin-strut DES reduce the risk of TLF compared with thicker-strut second-generation DES in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, a difference caused by a lower risk of ischemia-driven TLR. The treatment effect was consistent among patients with CCS and ACS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.09.028DOI Listing
November 2021

Distal versus conventional radial access for coronary angiography and intervention: Design and rationale of DISCO RADIAL study.

Am Heart J 2022 02 16;244:19-30. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Department of Cardiology, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: Transradial access (TRA) has become the default access method for coronary diagnostic and interventional procedures. As compared to transfemoral access, TRA has been shown to be safer, cost-effective and more patient-friendly. Radial artery occlusion (RAO) represents the most frequent complication of TRA, and precludes future coronary procedures through the radial artery, the use of the radial artery as a conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting or as arteriovenous fistula for patients on hemodialysis. Recently, distal radial access (DRA) has emerged as a promising alternative to TRA, yielding potential for minimizing the risk of RAO. However, an international multicenter randomized comparison between DRA, and conventional TRA with respect to the rate of RAO is still lacking.

Trial Design: DISCO RADIAL is a prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled, superiority trial. A total of 1300 eligible patients will be randomly allocated to undergo coronary angiography and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) through DRA or TRA using the 6 Fr Glidesheath Slender sheath introducer. Extended experience with both TRA and DRA is required for operators' eligibility and optimal evidence-based best practice to reduce RAO systematically implemented by protocol. The primary endpoint is the incidence of forearm RAO assessed by vascular ultrasound at discharge. Several important secondary endpoints will also be assessed, including access-site cross-over, hemostasis time, and access-site related complications.

Summary: The DISCO RADIAL trial will provide the first large-scale multicenter randomized evidence comparing DRA to TRA in patients scheduled for coronary angiography or PCI with respect to the incidence of RAO at discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.10.180DOI Listing
February 2022

Combined Cardiac PET-CT and Transcatheter Closure for Left Internal Mammary Artery Side Branch Steal Syndrome.

JACC Case Rep 2021 Feb 10;3(2):297-299. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Cardiology Department, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

We report on a patient with left internal mammary artery (LIMA) side branch steal syndrome and refractory angina who underwent successful transcatheter LIMA side branch closure after cardiac positron emission tomography-computed tomography assessment. The procedure resulted in improved myocardial ischemia, hyperemic blood flow, coronary flow reserve, and anginal symptoms. ().
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccas.2020.11.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8310985PMC
February 2021

Covered Stents for the Percutaneous Management of Delayed Coronary Wall Rupture Following Subadventitial Rotational Atherectomy.

JACC Case Rep 2020 Dec 2;2(15):2434-2436. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Cardiology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

We present herein the case of a delayed covered coronary wall rupture occurring as a rare complication of rotational atherectomy performed in the subintimal space after antegrade dissection reentry for percutaneous recanalization of a long and heavily calcified left anterior descending chronic total occlusion, which was successfully managed percutaneously with the implantation of 2 covered stents. ().
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccas.2020.09.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304589PMC
December 2020

Coronary steal syndrome: A greedy neighbour!

Cardiol J 2021 ;28(4):640-641

Structural Heart Unit, Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.2021.0070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277002PMC
September 2021

Randomized Comparison Between Radial and Femoral Large-Bore Access for Complex Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 06 18;14(12):1293-1303. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Cardiology, Isala Heart Center, Zwolle, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether transradial (TR) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is superior to transfemoral (TF) PCI in complex coronary lesions with large-bore guiding catheters with respect to clinically relevant access site-related bleeding or vascular complications.

Background: The femoral artery is currently the most applied access site for PCI of complex coronary lesions, especially when large-bore guiding catheters are required. With downsizing of TR equipment, TR PCI may be increasingly applied in these patients and might be a safer alternative compared with the TF approach.

Methods: An international prospective multicenter trial was conducted, randomizing 388 patients with planned PCI for complex coronary lesions, including chronic total occlusion, left main, heavy calcification, or complex bifurcation, to either 7-F TR access (TRA) or 7-F TF access (TFA). The primary endpoint was defined as access site-related clinically significant bleeding or vascular complications requiring intervention at discharge. The secondary endpoint was procedural success.

Results: The primary endpoint event rate was 3.6% for TRA and 19.1% for TFA (p < 0.001). The crossover rate from radial to femoral access was 3.6% and from femoral to radial access was 2.6% (p = 0.558). The procedural success rate was 89.2% for TFA and 86.0% for TRA (p = 0.285). There was no difference between TFA and TRA with regard to procedural duration, contrast volume, or radiation dose.

Conclusions: In patients undergoing PCI of complex coronary lesions with large-bore access, radial compared with femoral access is associated with a significant reduction in clinically relevant access-site bleeding or vascular complications, without affecting procedural success. (Complex Large-Bore Radial Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [PCI] Trial [Color]; NCT03846752).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.03.041DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of the PCSK9 antibody alirocumab on coronary atherosclerosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a serial, multivessel, intravascular ultrasound, near-infrared spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography imaging study-Rationale and design of the PACMAN-AMI trial.

Am Heart J 2021 08 2;238:33-44. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Cardiology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: The risk for cardiovascular adverse events after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains high despite potent medical treatment including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering with statins. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) antibodies substantially reduce LDL-C when added to statin. Alirocumab, a monoclonal antibody to PCSK9, reduces major adverse cardiovascular events after AMI. The effects of alirocumab on coronary atherosclerosis including plaque burden, plaque composition and fibrous cap thickness in patients presenting with AMI remains unknown.

Aims: To determine the effect of LDL-C lowering with alirocumab on top of high-intensity statin therapy on intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-derived percent atheroma volume (PAV), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived maximum lipid core burden index within 4 mm (maxLCBI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived fibrous cap thickness (FCT) in patients with AMI.

Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 300 patients with AMI (ST-elevation or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction) were randomly assigned to receive either biweekly subcutaneous alirocumab (150 mg) or placebo beginning <24 hours after the acute event as add-on therapy to rosuvastatin 20 mg. Patients undergo serial IVUS, NIRS and OCT in the two non-infarct related arteries at baseline (at the time of treatment of the culprit lesion) and at 52 weeks. The primary endpoint, change in IVUS-derived PAV, and the powered secondary endpoints, change in NIRS-derived maxLCBI, and OCT-derived minimal FCT, will be assessed 52 weeks post randomization.

Summary: The PACMAN-AMI trial will determine the effect of alirocumab on top of high-intensity statin therapy on high-risk coronary plaque characteristics as assessed by serial, multimodality intracoronary imaging in patients presenting with AMI.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT03067844.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.04.006DOI Listing
August 2021

Multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention with thin-strut biodegradable versus durable polymer drug-eluting stents in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A subgroup analysis of the BIOSTEMI randomized trial.

Int J Cardiol 2021 07 20;334:37-41. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Randomized evidence comparing newer-generation drug-eluting stents for multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is limited. We sought to investigate clinical outcomes in STEMI patients undergoing multivessel PCI with thin-strut biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (BP-SES) versus durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents (DP-EES).

Methods: We performed a subgroup analysis of the BIOSTEMI (NCT02579031) randomized trial, which included individual patient data from STEMI patients enrolled into the BIOSCIENCE (NCT02579031) study. STEMI patients randomly allocated to BP-SES or DP-EES were divided into those undergoing multivessel versus culprit lesion-only PCI. The primary endpoint was target lesion failure (TLF), a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial re-infarction or clinically indicated target lesion revascularization (TLR), within 24 months.

Results: Among 1707 STEMI patients, 145 patients underwent multivessel PCI. At 2 years, TLF occurred in 2 patients (2.8%) treated with BP-SES and 13 patients (18.7%) treated with DP-EES (hazard ratio [HR], 0.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.03-0.61; p = 0.009) in the multivessel PCI group, and in 40 (5.3%) and 61 (8.2%) patients treated with BP-SES and DP-EES respectively (HR, 0.64; 95%CI, 0.43-0.96; p = 0.03; p for interaction = 0.050) in the culprit lesion-only PCI group. In the multivessel PCI group, the rates of clinically indicated TLR (0% vs. 12.4%) and target vessel myocardial re-infarction (0% vs. 4.6%) at 2 years were lower in patients treated with BP-SES compared with DP-EES.

Conclusion: In a subgroup analysis of the BIOSTEMI trial, BP-SES were associated with lower 2-year TLF rates compared to DP-EES in STEMI patients undergoing multivessel PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.04.034DOI Listing
July 2021

Biodegradable- Versus Durable-Polymer Drug-Eluting Stents for STEMI: Final 2-Year Outcomes of the BIOSTEMI Trial.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 03;14(6):639-648

Division of Cardiology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of biodegradable-polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (BP-SES) compared with durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stents (DP-EES) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Background: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is an effective treatment for patients with STEMI, and long-term outcomes are determined by the safety and efficacy profile of the newest generation drug-eluting stents.

Methods: BIOSTEMI (A Comparison of an Ultrathin Strut Biodegradable Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent With a Durable Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stent for Patients With Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) was an investigator-initiated, multicenter, assessor-blind, randomized superiority trial using Bayesian methods. Patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI within 24 h of symptom onset were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive BP-SES (n = 649) or DP-EES (n = 651). The primary endpoint was target lesion failure (TLF), a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial reinfarction, and clinically indicated target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 2 years.

Results: Between April 2016 and March 2018, 1,300 patients were included. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the 2 treatment groups. Follow-up through 2 years was complete in 1,221 patients (94%). At 2 years, TLF occurred in 33 patients (5.1%) treated with BP-SES and in 53 patients (8.1%) treated with DP-EES (rate ratio: 0.58; 95% Bayesian credible interval: 0.40 to 0.84; posterior probability of superiority = 0.998). The difference was driven by a lower incidence of clinically indicated TLR in patients treated with BP-SES compared with DP-EES (2.5% vs. 5.1%; rate ratio: 0.52; 95% Bayesian credible interval: 0.30 to 0.87; posterior probability of superiority = 0.993). There were no significant differences in rates of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial reinfarction, and definite stent thrombosis between the 2 treatment arms.

Conclusions: In patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI, BP-SES were superior to DP-EES with respect to TLF at 2 years. The difference was driven by lower rates of ischemia-driven TLR. (A Comparison of an Ultrathin Strut Biodegradable Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent With a Durable Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stent for Patients With Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [BIOSTEMI]; NCT02579031).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.12.011DOI Listing
March 2021

Successful percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy of an Impella CP-related femoral artery thrombosis.

Cardiol J 2021 ;28(1):185-186

Department of Cardiology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland, Gabrielle- Perret-Gentil 4, 1205 Genève, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.2021.0016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105077PMC
September 2021

Five-Year Outcomes With Biodegradable-Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stents Versus Durable-Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stents in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Subgroup Analysis of the BIOSCIENCE Trial.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2022 01 25;34:3-10. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Cardiology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Thin-strut biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (BP-SES) have been shown to reduce target lesion failure (TLF) at one-year follow-up compared with durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents (DP-EES) among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The long-term clinical benefits of thin-strut BP-SES over DP-EES in ACS patients after complete degradation of the polymer coating remain uncertain.

Methods: We performed a post-hoc subgroup analysis of ACS patients included into the BIOSCIENCE randomized trial (NCT01443104). The primary endpoint was target lesion failure (TLF), a composite of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction or clinically indicated target lesion revascularization, at 5 years.

Results: Among 2119 patients enrolled between March 2012 and May 2013, 1131 (53%) presented with ACS. The 5-year cumulative incidence of TLF was significantly lower in patients with ACS compared to chronic coronary syndrome [16.5% vs. 22.9%; rate ratio (RR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.57-0.85; p < 0.001]. At 5 years, TLF occurred similarly in ACS patients treated with BP-SES and DP-EES (16.9% vs. 16.0%; RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.78-1.41; p = 0.78). The individual components of the primary endpoint did not differ between ACS patients treated with BP-SES or DP-EES at 5 years. Overall, there was no interaction between clinical presentation and treatment effect.

Conclusions: In a subgroup analysis of the BIOSCIENCE trial, we found no difference in long-term outcomes between ACS patients treated with BP-SES or DP-EES at 5 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2021.02.008DOI Listing
January 2022

Biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents vs durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A meta-analysis of individual patient data from 5 randomized trials.

Am Heart J 2021 05 17;235:140-148. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Cardiology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Newest generation drug-eluting stents combine biodegradable polymers with ultrathin stent platforms in order to minimize vessel injury and inflammatory response. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggested that differences in stent design translate into differences in clinical outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ultrathin strut, biodegradable polymer sirolimus eluting stents (BP SES) compared with thin strut, durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents (DP EES) among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: We pooled individual participant data from 5 randomized trials (NCT01356888, NCT01939249, NCT02389946, NCT01443104, NCT02579031) including a total of 5,780 patients, and performed a one-stage meta-analysis using a mixed effects Cox regression model.

Results: At a median duration of follow-up of 739 days (interquartile range 365-1,806 days), target-lesion failure occurred in 337 (10.3%) and 304 (12.2%) patients treated with BP SES and DP EES (HR 0.86, 95%CI 0.71-1.06, P = .16). There were no significant differences between BP SES and DP EES with regards to cardiac death (111 (3.4%) vs 102 (4.1%); HR 1.05, 95%CI 0.80-1.37, P = .73), target-vessel myocardial infarction (136 (4.1%) vs 126 (5.0%), HR 0.79, 95%CI 0.62-1.01, P = .061), and clinically-driven target-lesion revascularization (163 (5.0%) vs 147 (5.9%); HR 0.94, 95%CI 0.75-1.18, P = .61). The effect was consistent across major subgroups. In a landmark analysis, there was no significant interaction between treatment effect and timing of events.

Conclusions: In this patient-level meta-analysis of 5 randomized controlled trials, BP SES were associated with a similar risk of target-lesion failure compared with DP EES among patients undergoing PCI.

Study Registration: PROSPERO registry (CRD42018109098).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.02.009DOI Listing
May 2021

Left main coronary disease percutaneous coronary intervention: The quest to reconcile the inconsistencies.

Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2021 01;49(1):4-7

Department of Cardiology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5543/tkda.2020.96461DOI Listing
January 2021

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on acute coronary syndromes.

Swiss Med Wkly 2020 12 31;150:w20448. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Cardiology division, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

Aim: To assess the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on acute coronary syndromes and on the delay from symptom onset to first medical contact among patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), as well as to investigate whether there were patient-related reasons related to COVID-19 for delaying first medical contact.

Methods And Results: All patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at the Geneva University Hospitals for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) during the first COVID-19 wave were compared with a control group consisting of all ACS patients who underwent PCI during the same period in 2019 and those treated in the period immediately preceding the pandemic. The primary outcome measure was the difference in the delay from symptom onset to first medical contact in the setting of STEMI between the COVID-19 period and the control period. Secondary outcome measures were the difference in ACS incidence and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients’ decisions to call the emergency services, assessed using a questionnaire. Delay from symptom onset to first medical contact was longer among patients suffering from STEMI in the COVID-19 period compared with the control period (112 min vs 60 min, p = 0.049). The incidence rate of ACS was lower during the COVID-19 period (incidence rate ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.449–0.905). ACS patients delayed their call to the emergency services mainly because of fear of contracting or spreading COVID-19 following hospital admission, as well as of adding burden to the healthcare system.

Conclusion: We observed prolonged delays from symptom onset to first medical contact and a decline in overall ACS incidence during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, with a higher threshold to call for help among ACS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20448DOI Listing
December 2020

The dynamic effect of coronary artery bypass grafting on the instantaneous wave-free ratio in the collateral donor artery of a patient with chronic total occlusion.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 06;59(6):1347-1349

Cardiology Department, Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland.

Physiological assessment is challenging in patients with multivessel disease (MVD) with a chronic total occlusion (CTO) and may result in inappropriate treatment decisions. We report herein, for the first time to our knowledge, on the dynamic changes of the instantaneous wave-free ratio in the CTO collateral donor artery before and after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Our case highlights the paramount importance of collateral circulation when interpreting invasive indices of coronary stenosis severity to guide decision-making for CABG in MVD patients with a CTO. This may be particularly relevant to reduce the risk of early graft failure in patients with MVD undergoing CABG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezaa463DOI Listing
June 2021

The persistent illusion of using coronary angiography alone to guide decision-making for myocardial revascularization.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 01;59(1):283

Division of Cardiology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezaa200DOI Listing
January 2021

Complex Large-Bore Radial percutaneous coronary intervention: rationale of the COLOR trial study protocol.

BMJ Open 2020 07 20;10(7):e038042. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Cardiology, Isala Hospitals, Zwolle, The Netherlands

Introduction: The radial artery has become the standard access site for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in stable coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome, because of less access site related bleeding complications. Patients with complex coronary lesions are under-represented in randomised trials comparing radial with femoral access with regard to safety and efficacy. The femoral artery is currently the most applied access site in patients with complex coronary lesions, especially when large bore guiding catheters are required. With slender technology, transradial PCI may be increasingly applied in patients with complex coronary lesions when large bore guiding catheters are mandatory and might be a safer alternative as compared with the transfemoral approach.

Methods And Analysis: A total of 388 patients undergoing complex PCI will be randomised to radial 7 French access with Terumo Glidesheath Slender (Terumo, Japan) or femoral 7 French access as comparator. The primary outcome is the incidence of the composite end point of clinically relevant access site related bleeding and/or vascular complications requiring intervention. Procedural success and major adverse cardiovascular events up to 1 month will also be compared between both groups.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethical approval for the study was granted by the local Ethics Committee at each recruiting center ('Medisch Ethische Toetsing Commissie Isala Zwolle', 'Commissie voor medische ethiek ZNA', 'Comité Medische Ethiek Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg', 'Comité d'éthique CHU-Charleroi-ISPPC', 'Commission cantonale d'éthique de la recherche CCER-Republique et Canton de Geneve', 'Ethik Kommission de Ärztekammer Nordrhein' and 'Riverside Research Ethics Committee'). The trial outcomes will be published in peer-reviewed journals of the concerned literature.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03846752.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7375502PMC
July 2020

[Spontaneous coronary artery dissection : primum nihil nocere].

Rev Med Suisse 2020 Jun;16(696):1153-1158

Service de cardiologie, HUG, 1211 Genève 14.

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an important cause of acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death, among young patient with little/no traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Historically SCAD was considered as a rare pathology, associated primarily with pregnancy and the peripartum period. In recent years, SCAD diagnosis improved thanks to data derived from large registries, thanks to the increased use of diagnostic coronary angiography and the availability of intracoronary imaging. To date there are no randomized trials dedicated to SCAD. However, thanks to global efforts to build national SCAD registries, knowledge of SCAD has tremendously increased during the last years, demonstrating that SCAD is a distinct pathophysiological entity, and presents key differences in management and outcomes compared to ACS of atherosclerotic aetiology.
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June 2020

An unusual intracardiac foreign body.

Cardiol J 2019 ;26(6):814-815

Department of Cardiology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland, Gabrielle- Perret-Gentil 4, 1205 Genève, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.2019.0125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8083049PMC
August 2020

The 'de Winter' electrocardiogram pattern as a ST-elevation myocardial infarction equivalent: a case report.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2019 Dec 27;3(4):1-5. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: A 'STEMI equivalent' electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern reflects an acute thrombotic occlusion of a large epicardial coronary artery without ST-segment elevation. These ECG patterns are less known by caregivers.

Case Summary: We describe the case of a 56-year-old patient suffering from acute chest pain, presenting in our emergency department with a 'de Winter' ECG pattern: an upsloping ST-segment depression with tall symmetrical T waves associated with left anterior descending artery occlusion.

Discussion: The 'de Winter' ECG pattern, as other 'STEMI equivalent', must be recognized promptly and treated as soon as possible with emergent reperfusion by percutaneous coronary intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytz210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6939815PMC
December 2019

Determining the Predominant Lesion in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis and Coronary Stenoses: A Multicenter Study Using Intracoronary Pressure and Flow.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2019 12 22;12(12):e008263. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, United Kingdom (Y.A., J.P.H., C.C., C.R., R.A.-L., R.P., T.W., D.F., J.M., P.S., S.S.).

Background: Patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) often have coronary artery disease. Both the aortic valve and the coronary disease influence the blood flow to the myocardium and its ability to respond to stress; leading to exertional symptoms. In this study, we aim to quantify the effect of severe AS on the coronary microcirculation and determine if this is influenced by any concomitant coronary disease. We then compare this to the effect of coronary stenoses on the coronary microcirculation.

Methods: Group 1: 55 patients with severe AS and intermediate coronary stenoses treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) were included. Group 2: 85 patients with intermediate coronary stenoses and no AS treated with percutaneous coronary intervention were included. Coronary pressure and flow were measured at rest and during hyperemia in both groups, before and after TAVI (group 1) and before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (group 2).

Results: Microvascular resistance over the wave-free period of diastole increased significantly post-TAVI (pre-TAVI, 2.71±1.4 mm Hg·cm·s versus post-TAVI 3.04±1.6 mm Hg·cm·s [=0.03]). Microvascular reserve over the wave-free period of diastole significantly improved post-TAVI (pre-TAVI 1.88±1.0 versus post-TAVI 2.09±0.8 [=0.003]); this was independent of the severity of the underlying coronary stenosis. The change in microvascular resistance post-TAVI was equivalent to that produced by stenting a coronary lesion with an instantaneous wave-free ratio of ≤0.74.

Conclusions: TAVI improves microcirculatory function regardless of the severity of underlying coronary disease. TAVI for severe AS produces a coronary hemodynamic improvement equivalent to the hemodynamic benefit of stenting coronary stenoses with instantaneous wave-free ratio values <0.74. Future trials of physiology-guided revascularization in severe AS may consider using this value to guide treatment of concomitant coronary artery disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.119.008263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6924937PMC
December 2019
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