Publications by authors named "Juan Du"

1,983 Publications

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Evidence for Plant-Conserved Region Mediated Trimeric CESAs in Plant Cellulose Synthase Complexes.

Biomacromolecules 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, Pennsylvania 16802, United States.

Higher plants synthesize cellulose using membrane-bound, six-lobed cellulose synthase complexes, each lobe containing trimeric cellulose synthases (CESAs). Although molecular biology reports support heteromeric trimers composed of different isoforms, a homomeric trimer was reported for in vitro studies of the catalytic domain of CESA1 of (AtCESA1CatD) and confirmed in cryoEM structures of full-length CESA8 and CESA7 of poplar and cotton, respectively. In both structures, a small portion of the plant-conserved region (P-CR) forms the only contacts between catalytic domains of the monomers. We report inter-subunit lysine-crosslinks that localize to the small P-CR, negative-stain EM structure, and modeling data for homotrimers of AtCESA1CatD. Molecular dynamics simulations for AtCESA1CatD trimers based on the CESA8 cryoEM structure were stable and dependent upon a small set of residue contacts. The results suggest that homomeric CESA trimers may be important for the synthesis of primary and secondary cell walls and identify key residues for future mutagenic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.2c00550DOI Listing
August 2022

Chloroquine regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of palate development on mice embryo by activating P53 through blocking autophagy in vitro.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Laboratory of Orofacial Development, Laboratory of Molecular Signaling and Stem Cells Therapy, Molecular Laboratory for Gene Therapy and Tooth Regeneration, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing, 100050, China.

Cleft lip and palate is one of the most frequent congenital developmental defects. Autophagy is a highly conserved process of cell self-degradation in eukaryotes, involving multiple biological processes in which chloroquine (CQ) is the most common inhibitor. However, whether CQ affects and how it affects palate development is unknown. Mouse embryonic palatal cells (MEPCs) were treated with CQ to observe cell viability, apoptosis, migration, osteogenic differentiation by cell proliferation assay, flow cytometric analysis, scratch assay, and alizarin red staining. PI staining was used to measure cell cycle distribution. Immunofluorescence (IF) assay and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect autophagosomes. The autophagy-related factors (LC3 and P62), apoptosis-related markers (P53, caspase-3 cleaved caspase-3, BAX, and BCL-2), and cell cycle-related proteins (P21, CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, and cyclin E) were all measured by western blot. CQ inhibited the proliferation of MEPCs by arresting the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with cell cycle-related proteins P21 upregulated and CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, and cyclin E downregulated. Then we detected CQ also induced cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing the BCL-2/BAX ratio and increasing cleaved caspase-3. Next, it was investigated that migration and osteogenesis of MEPCs decreased with CQ treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, CQ blocked the autophagy pathway by upregulating LC3II and P62 expressions which activated the P53 pathway. CQ activates P53 which affects MEPC biological characteristics by changing the proliferation and apoptosis of MEPCs through inhibiting autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11626-022-00704-8DOI Listing
August 2022

Predictors of HbA1c reduction and hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals switching from premixed to basal insulin: an exploratory analysis of optimization study.

Curr Med Res Opin 2022 Aug 9:1-8. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Sanofi Medical, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To identify population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are more likely to benefit from switching to basal insulin (BI) treatment from premixed insulin.

Methods: This secondary analysis included data from a previously published study (Optimization: NCT00693771) which was a single-arm, multicenter, 16 weeks, phase IV study. The analysis included participants with T2DM inadequately controlled with premixed insulin plus oral hypoglycemic drugs (OADs) who switched to BI plus OADs.

Results: Among the 297 participants included for analysis, subjects with fasting C-peptide (FCP)>1.2 nmol/L group showed a trend for greater reduction in HbA1c [Least square mean difference (LSMD), -0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.98 to -0.21;  = 0.003] and FPG (LSMD, -1.36; 95% CI, -2.20 to -0.53;  = 0.002) than those with FCP ≤ 0.4 nmol/L. The baseline insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100) dose increased significantly in 0.4 to ≤ 1.2 nmol/L group with LS mean difference (SE) of 0.16 (0.01) U/kg/day ( = 0.008) compared to FCP ≤ 0.4 nmol/L group. When combined with Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) score, participants with a C-peptide level of 0.4 to ≤1.2 nmol/L (OR, 4.05; 95% CI, 1.08 to 15.22;  = 0.039) had significantly higher odds of achieving HbA1c <7%. The number of participants experiencing documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia (≤3.9 mmol/L) was higher in the FCP ≤0.4 nmol/L group compared to those in 0.4 to ≤1.2 nmol/L FCP group at any time of the day (31.6 vs. 17.1%) and during night (00:00 ∼ 05:59) (17.1 vs. 7.5%).

Conclusion: The findings from this study proposed that FCP is an important biomarker to identify T2DM participants who experience improved glucose control without compromising on hypoglycemia levels during switch from premixed insulin to BI. Participants especially with FCP levels >1.2 nmol/L may respond better in terms of HbA1c reduction without increased hypoglycemia risk compared to those with lower FCP values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007995.2022.2105538DOI Listing
August 2022

Glycometabolism-related gene signature of hepatocellular carcinoma predicts prognosis and guides immunotherapy.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 22;10:940551. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Center of Integrative Medicine, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a severe cancer endangering human health. We constructed a novel glycometabolism-related risk score to predict prognosis and immunotherapy strategies in HCC patients. The HCC data sets were obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and the glycometabolism-related gene sets were obtained from the Molecular Signature Database. The least absolute contraction and selection operator (LASSO) regression model was used to construct a risk score based on glycometabolism-related genes. A simple visual nomogram model with clinical indicators was constructed and its effectiveness in calibration, accuracy, and clinical value was evaluated. We also explored the correlation between glycometabolism-related risk scores and molecular pathways, immune cells, and functions. Patients in the low-risk group responded better to anti-CTLA-4 immune checkpoint treatment and benefited from immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy. The study found that glycometabolism-related risk score can effectively distinguish the prognosis, molecular and immune-related characteristics of HCC patients, and may provide a new strategy for individualized treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2022.940551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354664PMC
July 2022

The association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with bone mineral density in type 2 diabetes.

Eur J Med Res 2022 Aug 8;27(1):143. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of General Medicine, Chengdu Second People's Hospital, Chengdu, 610000, China.

Objective: We examined the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and lumbar spine bone mineral density in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes.

Methods: The lumbar BMD of 1088 subjects was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Liver fat content was quantified via B-mode ultrasound. Multivariable linear regression was used to study the association between NAFLD and lumbar BMD in participants with and without T2DM.

Results: The lumbar BMD in the T2DM group and the non-diabetes group was higher in the NAFLD group than in the non-NAFLD group (P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis in the T2DM group showed that after adjusting for confounders, the positive association between lumbar spine BMD and NAFLD remained (P = 0.027). In the non-diabetes group, after adjusting for confounders, the association between NAFLD and lumbar spine BMD disappeared.

Conclusions: The relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and lumbar bone mineral density may differ in individuals with and without diabetes. The effect of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease on bone mineral density needs to be evaluated in different clinical contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40001-022-00775-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9358869PMC
August 2022

Broad-spectrum chemicals block ROS detoxification to prevent plant fungal invasion.

Curr Biol 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

College of Plant Health and Medicine, Engineering Research Center for Precision Pest Management for Fruits and Vegetables of Qingdao, Shandong Engineering Research Center for Environment-Friendly Agricultural Pest Management, Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Applied Mycology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China. Electronic address:

Plant diseases cause a huge impact on food security and are of global concern. While application of agrochemicals is a common approach in the control of plant diseases currently, growing drug resistance and the impact of off-target effects of these compounds pose major challenges. The identification of pathogenicity-related virulence mechanisms and development of new chemicals that target these processes are urgently needed. One such virulence mechanism is the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by host plants upon attack by pathogens. The machinery of ROS detoxification might therefore serve as a drug target for preventing plant diseases, but few anti-ROS-scavenging drugs have been developed. Here, we show that in the model system Botrytis cinerea secretion of the cytochrome c-peroxidase, BcCcp1 removes plant-produced HO and promotes pathogen invasion. The peroxidase secretion is modulated by a Tom1-like protein, BcTol1, through physical interaction. We show that BcTol1 is regulated at different levels to enhance the secretion of BcCcp1 during the early infection stage. Inactivation of either BcTol1 or BcCcp1 leads to dramatically reduced virulence of B. cinerea. We identify two BcTol1-targeting small molecules that not only prevent B. cinerea invasion but also have effective activity against a wide range of plant fungal pathogens without detectable effect on the hosts. These findings reveal a conserved mechanism of ROS detoxification in fungi and provide a class of potential fungicides to control diverse plant diseases. The approach described here has wide implications for further drug discovery in related fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2022.07.022DOI Listing
August 2022

Prognosis of systemic inflammation at an early stage of cirrhosis using the monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio during malnutrition risk screening: a prospective cohort study.

Postgrad Med 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatopathy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, China.

Objectives: To determine whether the monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), as a systemic inflammation index, predicts malnutrition risk during the early stages of cirrhosis.

Methods: We conducted a single-center prospective cohort study, enrolling patients from June 2016 to September 2020. The patients underwent malnutrition risk assessments upon admission. The patients were classified into five clinical stages according to portal hypertension. The malnutrition risk was scored using the Royal Free Hospital-Nutritional Prioritizing Tool (RFH-NPT) and validated by the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) or Liver Disease Undernutrition Screening Tool (LDUST). Routine clinical laboratory measurements were performed to calculate the MLR, Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class, and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. The patients were followed up for 2 years.

Results: Among the 154 patients with cirrhosis, 60 had compensated cirrhosis and 94 had decompensated cirrhosis. The optimal cutoff value of the MLR, >0.4, was effective in predicting malnutrition related to death or liver transplantation. Those with a high malnutrition risk defined by the NRS-2002 or RFH-NPT had a higher MLR than those with a low malnutrition risk. For patients with class A CTP cirrhosis or a MELD score of <10, an MLR cutoff of <0.4 significantly distinguished more patients with a low malnutrition risk than those with a high malnutrition risk. Both the RFH-NPT score and MLR increased significantly across the decompensated cirrhosis substages. Interestingly, the MLR exhibited a positive correlation with the RFH-NPT score until varices appeared, but the correlation was the highest at the substage of a history of variceal bleeding (r = 0.714, P = 0.009). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that an MLR of >0.4 was an independent factor for malnutrition risk by screening with the RFH-NPT, and this was confirmed using the LDUST and NRS-2002.

Conclusion: Immune-related inflammatory dysfunction predicts malnutrition risk during the early stages of cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00325481.2022.2110600DOI Listing
August 2022

AAV-Mediated Gene Replacement Therapy Restores Viability of BCD Patient iPSC Derived RPE Cells and Vision of Cyp4v3 Knockout Mice.

Hum Mol Genet 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Key Laboratory of Vision Loss and Restoration, Department of Ophthalmology, Ministry of Education, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy (BCD) is an autosomal recessive retinal degenerative disease characterized by yellow-white crystal deposits in the posterior pole, degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and sclerosis of the choroid. Mutations in the cytochrome P450 4 V2 gene (CYP4V2) cause BCD, which is associated with lipid metabolic disruption. The use of gene replacement therapy in BCD has been hampered by the lack of disease models. To advance CYP4V2 gene replacement therapy, we generated BCD patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-RPE cells and Cyp4v3 knockout (KO) mice as disease models and AAV2/8-CAG-CYP4V2 as treatment vectors. We demonstrated that after AAV-mediated CYP4V2 gene replacement therapy BCD-iPSC-RPE cells presented restored cell survival and reduced lipid droplets accumulation; restoration of vision in Cyp4v3 KO mice was revealed by elevated electroretinogram amplitude and ameliorated RPE degeneration. These results suggest that AAV-mediated gene replacement therapy in BCD patients is a promising strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddac181DOI Listing
August 2022

Consumption of Wheat Peptides Improves Functional Constipation: A Translational Study in Humans and Mice.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2022 Aug 3:e2200313. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Scope: Wheat peptides (WP) are rich in glutamic acid, glutamine, and other bioactive compounds that may benefit gut function and health. This study aims to evaluate the effects of regular consumption of WP on constipation-induced complications and gut microbiota in humans and mice.

Methods And Results: A randomized trial of 49 functional constipation participants is conducted. The weekly amount of spontaneous bowel movements (SBM) increases by 2.09 per week after WP treatment, and by 0.40 per week among the placebo group (PL). Concomitantly, the secondary outcomes show significant improvements in the quality of life-related to constipation (PAC-QOL), constipation severity, and satisfaction with the intervention. In the animal study, WP effectively alleviates constipation symptoms and affects the secretion of intestinal mobility-related neurotransmitters and gastrointestinal hormones in loperamide-induced constipation mice. Additionally, WP regulates the gene and protein expression levels of water-electrolyte metabolism and intestinal mobility. Furthermore, WP treatment decreases the abundance of several gut microbiota positively correlated to constipation (Turicibacter, Bacteroides_f_Bacteroidaceae, and Streptococcus) in mice.

Conclusion: WP ameliorates constipation in humans and mice, which could be partly explained by improving water-electrolyte metabolism, boosting intestinal motility, and reshaping gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202200313DOI Listing
August 2022

PDGFR kinase inhibitor protects against septic death via regulation of BTLA.

Sci China Life Sci 2022 Sep 29. Epub 2022 Sep 29.

Department of Trauma Medical Center, Daping Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Army Medical University, Chongqing, 400042, China.

Sepsis, defined as life-threatening organ failure caused by a dysregulated host response to severe infection, is a major cause of death among intensive care unit patients. Therapies targeting on immunomodulatory is a new research field in sepsis treatment. B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is an inhibitory costimulatory factor molecule of B and T lymphocytes. Studies have shown that elevated expression of BTLA in lymphocytes can reduce mortality in sepsis, but its regulatory compounds and the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that treatment with CP-673451 significantly decreases mortality of septic mouse. CP-673451 is a PDGFR kinase inhibitor which can promote the expression of BTLA, inhibit the release of chemokines such as CXCL13, and reduce first the chemotaxis of B cells to the peripheral blood and vital organs. CP-673451 also inhibits both the release of cytokines and chemokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, CCL1, CCL2 and CCL7 and reduces both the chemotactic ability of T cells. This suggests that CP-673451 may prevent septic death by inhibiting lymphocyte chemotaxis and alleviating "cytokine storm". In conclusion, our study provides a new therapeutic target and an effective compound for sepsis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-021-2136-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9345782PMC
September 2022

Perfluorononanoate and perfluorobutane sulfonate induce cardiotoxic effects in zebrafish.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2022 Jul 28. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Clinical Research Center, Wuhan Children's Hospital (Wuhan Medical and Health Center for Women and Children), Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, 430016, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Globally, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are common artificial ingredients in industrial and consumer products. Recently, they have been shown to be an emerging human health risk. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)/perfluorononanoate and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS)/perfluorobutane sulfonate cause reproductive toxicity and hepatotoxicity, disrupt thyroid functions, and damage embryonic development in zebrafish. However, cardiotoxic effects of PFNA and PFBS have not been fully established. We found that PFNA and PFBS exposures repress hatchability while increasing malformation and mortality in zebrafish embryos. Hematoxylin and eosin staining as well as assessment of the transgenic zebrafish line Tg(myl7:nDsRed) revealed that exposures of embryos to PFNA increases the occurrence of severe cardiac malformations, relative to exposure to PFBS. Moreover, we evaluated the differential expressions of cardiac development-associated genes in response to PFNA and PFBS, which validated the potential cardiotoxic effects, consistent with cardiac dysfunctions. Overall, our findings reveal novel cardiotoxic effects of PFNA and PFBS in zebrafish, implying that they may exert some cardiotoxic effect in humans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that PFNA exerts more severe cardiotoxic effects in zebrafish, when compared to PFBS. Based on these findings, studies should evaluate the mechanisms of their cardiotoxic effects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2022 SETAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.5447DOI Listing
July 2022

Advances in the Therapeutic Effects of Apoptotic Bodies on Systemic Diseases.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jul 26;23(15). Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Laboratory of Tissue Regeneration and Immunology and Department of Periodontics, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, School of Stomatology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China.

Apoptosis plays an important role in development and in the maintenance of homeostasis. Apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs) are specifically generated from apoptotic cells and can contain a large variety of biological molecules, which are of great significance in intercellular communications and the regulation of phagocytes. Emerging evidence in recent years has shown that ApoBDs are essential for maintaining homeostasis, including systemic bone density and immune regulation as well as tissue regeneration. Moreover, studies have revealed the therapeutic effects of ApoBDs on systemic diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hepatic fibrosis, and wound healing, which can be used to treat potential targets. This review summarizes current research on the generation, application, and reconstruction of ApoBDs regarding their functions in cellular regulation and on systemic diseases, providing strong evidence and therapeutic strategies for further insights into related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9331698PMC
July 2022

Molecular interplay of an assembly machinery for nitrous oxide reductase.

Nature 2022 Jul 27. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Institut für Biochemie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Emissions of the critical ozone-depleting and greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (NO) from soils and industrial processes have increased considerably over the last decades. As the final step of bacterial denitrification, NO is reduced to chemically inert N (refs. ) in a reaction that is catalysed by the copper-dependent nitrous oxide reductase (NOR) (ref. ). The assembly of its unique [4Cu:2S] active site cluster Cu requires both the ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) complex NosDFY and the membrane-anchored copper chaperone NosL (refs. ). Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of Pseudomonas stutzeri NosDFY and its complexes with NosL and NOR, respectively. We find that the periplasmic NosD protein contains a binding site for a Cu ion and interacts specifically with NosL in its nucleotide-free state, whereas its binding to NOR requires a conformational change that is triggered by ATP binding. Mutually exclusive structures of NosDFY in complex with NosL and with NOR reveal a sequential metal-trafficking and assembly pathway for a highly complex copper site. Within this pathway, NosDFY acts as a mechanical energy transducer rather than as a transporter. It links ATP hydrolysis in the cytoplasm to a conformational transition of the NosD subunit in the periplasm, which is required for NosDFY to switch its interaction partner so that copper ions are handed over from the chaperone NosL to the enzyme NOR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05015-2DOI Listing
July 2022

A dZnONPs Enhanced Hybrid Injectable Photocrosslinked Hydrogel for Infected Wounds Treatment.

Gels 2022 Jul 24;8(8). Epub 2022 Jul 24.

Department of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, 600 Yishan Rd., Shanghai 200233, China.

Chronic wounds caused by related diseases such as ischemia, diabetes, and venous stasis are often hard to manage, mainly because of their susceptibility to infection and the lack of healing-promoting growth factors. Functional hydrogel is a promising material for wound treatment due to its regulable swelling rate and its ability to absorb wound exudate, which can keep the wound isolated from the outside world to prevent infection. In this study, a photocrosslinked physicochemical double-network hydrogel with injectable, antibacterial, and excellent mechanical properties was prepared. The dZnONPs enhanced hybrid injectable photocrosslinked double-network hydrogel ([email protected]/HGT) was synthetized starting from acylated hyaluronic acid and tannic acid via free radical reaction and hydrogen bonding, following doped with ebselen (Ebs) loaded dendritic zinc oxide nanoparticles (dZnONPs) to prepare the [email protected]/HGT hydrogel. The physicochemical characterization confirmed that the [email protected]/HGT hydrogel had excellent mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, and injectable properties, and could fit irregular wounds well. In vitro experiments revealed that the [email protected]/HGT hydrogel presented credible cytocompatibility and prominent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli () and Staphylococcus aureus (). In vivo experiments further demonstrated that the [email protected]/HGT hydrogel had excellent biosafety and could improve re-epithelialization in the wound area, thus significantly accelerating wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/gels8080463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9329969PMC
July 2022

Response of Soil Fauna to the Shift in a Riparian Landscape along an Urban-Rural Habitat Gradient.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jul 17;19(14). Epub 2022 Jul 17.

College of Landscape Architecture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Urbanization is accelerating worldwide, resulting in drastic alterations of natural riverbanks, which seriously affects the ecological functions and services of riparian landscapes. Our understanding of how anthropogenic activities influence soil animal communities within riparian zones is scarce. The soil fauna represents an important biotic component of the soil ecosystem and greatly contributes to soil structure and fertility formation. We investigated the richness, abundance, diversity, and distribution of soil animal groups, including macro- and mesofauna, in different riparian landscapes along an urban-rural habitat gradient. In natural riparian zones with permeable revetments, the soil fauna was richest and most abundant, mainly because of the low levels of human disturbance and the more suitable habitat conditions. Different soil animal groups responded differently to revetment type and distance from the water flow. The hygrophilous soil mesofauna, requiring a more humid environment, was more sensitive to shifts in revetment types, the location on the riverbank, and the seasons. In summer, when precipitation in the study area was highest, the abundance of the hygrophilous soil mesofauna was significantly higher than in autumn. Distance from the water flow significantly affected the abundance of the hygrophilous soil mesofauna. Our results demonstrated that hygrophilous soil mesofauna can serve as a good indicator in riparian zones, reflecting the hydrological conditions. We also observed interactions between revetment type and distance from the water flow; the distance effect was stronger in the natural riparian zone with a permeable revetment type. Our results highlight the importance of anthropogenic effects on soil ecosystem processes and functions in riparian landscapes, and the necessity of protecting and retaining the natural riverbank and native vegetation patches in riparian landscape planning and construction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9316243PMC
July 2022

Ruegeria alba sp. nov., Isolated from a Tidal Flat Sediment.

Curr Microbiol 2022 Jul 26;79(9):267. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiomics and Precision Application, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Microbial Culture Collection Center (GDMCC), Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510070, People's Republic of China.

A novel Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, and white-colored bacterium designated as 1NDH52C was isolated from a tidal flat sediment and its taxonomic position was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The microorganism was found to grow at 10-37 °C, pH 6.0-9.0, and in the presence of 0-2% (w/v) NaCl, and to hydrolyze gelatin and aesculin. The major cellular fatty acid of strain 1NDH52C was summed feature 8 (C ω7c and/or C ω6c); the polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an aminolipid, and a lipid; the respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10. The 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis showed that strain 1NDH52C was closely related to members of the genus Ruegeria with the identity of 98.2% to the type strain Ruegeria pomeroyi DSM 15711. The genome DNA G + C content of strain 1NDH52C was 63.6%. The phylogenomic analysis indicated that strain 1NDH52C formed an independent branch distinct from reference type strains of species within this genus. Digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values between strain 1NDH52C and reference strains were, respectively, 19.1-41.5% and 78.3-91.3%, which are far below the thresholds of 70% and 95-96% for species definition, respectively, indicating that strain 1NDH52C represents a novel genospecies of the genus Ruegeria. Based on phenotypic and genotypic data, strain 1NDH52C is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Ruegeria, for which the name Ruegeria alba sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of the species is 1NDH52C (= GDMCC 1.2382 = KCTC 82664).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-022-02968-5DOI Listing
July 2022

Interleukin 32 as a Potential Marker for Diagnosis of Tuberculous Pleural Effusion.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Jul 26:e0255321. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine and Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Accurate differential diagnosis is the key to choosing the correct treatment for pleural effusion. The present study aimed to assess whether interleukin 32 (IL-32) could be a new biomarker of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) and to explore the biological role of IL-32 in TPE. IL-32 levels were evaluated in the pleural effusions of 131 patients with undetermined pleural effusion from Wuhan and Beijing cohorts using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Macrophages from TPE patients were transfected with IL-32-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), and adenosine deaminase (ADA) expression was determined by real-time PCR and colorimetric methods. With a cutoff value of 247.9 ng/mL, the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for IL-32 was 0.933 for TPE, and the sensitivity and specificity were 88.4% and 93.4%, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model with relatively good diagnostic performance was established. IL-32-specific siRNA downregulated ADA expression in macrophages, and IL-32γ treatment significantly induced ADA expression. Our results indicate that IL-32 in pleural effusion may be a novel biomarker for identifying patients with TPE. In addition, our multivariate model is acceptable to rule in or rule out TPE across diverse prevalence settings. Furthermore, IL-32 may modulate ADA expression in the tuberculosis microenvironment. (This study has been registered at ChiCTR under registration number ChiCTR2100051112 [https://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx].) Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is a common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, with manifestations ranging from benign effusion with spontaneous absorption to effusion with pleural thickening, empyema, and even fibrosis, which can lead to a lasting impairment of lung function. Therefore, it is of great significance to find a rapid method to establish early diagnosis and apply antituberculosis therapy in the early stage. This study indicates that interleukin 32 (IL-32) in pleural effusion is a new high-potency marker to distinguish TPE from pleural effusions with other etiologies. A multivariate model combining age, adenosine deaminase (ADA), lactic dehydrogenase, and IL-32 may reliably rule in TPE in intermediate- or high-prevalence areas. Additionally, we observed that IL-32 might regulate ADA expression in macrophages in the tuberculosis microenvironment. Therefore, this study provides new insights into the role of IL-32 in the tuberculosis microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.02553-21DOI Listing
July 2022

Occupational Stress and Insomnia Symptoms Among Nurses During the Outbreak of COVID-19 in China: The Chain Mediating Effect of Perceived Organizational Support and Psychological Capital.

Front Psychiatry 2022 7;13:882385. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

School of Nursing, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Nurses play an important role in medical and health services and insomnia symptoms were relatively high among nurses, especially during the epidemic of 2019 coronavirus disease. Insomnia not only damages the physical and mental health of the individual, but also reduces the efficiency of their work and the quality of care, ultimately impacting on patient care.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the role of perceived organizational support and psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and insomnia among Chinese nurses.

Methods: A cross-sectional study has been carried out in a tertiary grade A hospital in Shandong Province, China from March 2021 to May 2021. The self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 810 nurses, which including Chinese Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Athens Insomnia Scale, Perceived Organizational Support Questionnaire, Chinese Psychological Capital Questionnaire, gender, age, education level and other demographic characteristics. Effective respondents were 658 (81.2%). Descriptive analysis, independent-samples -test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlation analyses, ordinary least-squares regression and the bootstrap method were used for data analysis.

Results: The prevalence of insomnia symptoms in this study was found to be 57.3%. There were significant differences in insomnia symptoms in weekly working hours ( = -2.027, = 0.043), with chronic disease ( = -2.825, = 0.005), negative life events ( = -5.340, < 0.001), departments ( = 3.077, = 0.006) and position ( = 2.322, = 0.021) among nurses. Overall, the serial-multiple mediations of perceived organizational support and psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and insomnia were found to be statistically significant.

Conclusions: The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was comparatively high among Chinese nurses, and occupational stress had direct negative influence on it. Perceived organizational support and psychological capital acted as chained mediating factor could partially relieve insomnia symptoms related to occupational stress. Supportive working environment should be provided, and improving psychological capital levels to help nurses coping with insomnia symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.882385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9300995PMC
July 2022

Effectiveness of indoor residual spraying on malaria control: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Infect Dis Poverty 2022 Jul 23;11(1):83. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

Department of Laboratorial Science and Technology & Vaccine Research Center, School of Public Health, Peking University, No. 38, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100191, People's Republic of China.

Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is one of the key interventions recommended by World Health Organization in preventing malaria infection. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of global studies about the impact of IRS on malaria control.

Method: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus for relevant studies published from database establishment to 31 December 2021. Random-effects models were used to perform meta-analysis and subgroup analysis to pool the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Meta-regression was used to investigate potential factors of heterogeneity across studies.

Results: Thirty-eight articles including 81 reports and 1,174,970 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. IRS was associated with lower rates of malaria infection (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.27-0.44). The significantly higher effectiveness was observed in IRS coverage ≥ 80% than in IRS coverage < 80%. Pyrethroids was identified to show the greatest performance in malaria control. In addition, higher effectiveness was associated with a lower gross domestic product as well as a higher coverage of IRS and bed net utilization.

Conclusions: IRS could induce a positive effect on malaria infection globally. The high IRS coverage and the use of pyrethroids are key measures to reduce malaria infection. More efforts should focus on increasing IRS coverage, developing more effective new insecticides against malaria, and using multiple interventions comprehensively to achieve malaria control goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-022-01005-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9308352PMC
July 2022

Global trends and age-specific incidence and mortality of cervical cancer from 1990 to 2019: an international comparative study based on the Global Burden of Disease.

BMJ Open 2022 07 22;12(7):e055470. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Wuhan Children's Hospital (Wuhan Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital), Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Wuhan, Hubei, China

Objective: To describe the trends of incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in different age groups and regions from 1990 to 2019.

Design: An international comparative study based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study estimates.

Participants: Data were publicly available and individuals were not involved.

Methods: We collected detailed information on cervical cancer from the GBD study between 1990 and 2019. Average annual percentage changes (AAPCs) of age-standardised incidence and mortality rate (ASIR and ASMR) in cervical cancer, by age group and region, were calculated to quantify the temporal trends.

Results: Globally, the absolute numbers of incident cases and deaths were increasing, with the most cervical cancer cases and deaths being reported in China, India and Brazil. Although the ASIR and ASMR have declined overall from 1990 to 2019, an increasing or stable trend was also observed in East Asia and Southern sub-Saharan Africa. Particularly, we found that the age-specific AAPC of incidence showed an increasing trend in the age group of 15-49 years globally, and the high Sociodemographic Index region increased the most.

Conclusions: Cervical cancer remains a concerning disease that affects women all over the world, although the ASIR and ASMR are decreasing. Efforts to control the younger trend and to reduce the disparity between regions are imminent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055470DOI Listing
July 2022

Change in willingness to COVID-19 vaccination in China: Two online surveys during the pandemic.

J Med Virol 2022 Jul 18. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Laboratorial Science and Technology & Vaccine Research Center, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Objective: As the variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue to emerge, periodic vaccine booster immunization may become a normal policy. This study investigated the changes and factors associated with vaccination intentions in various epidemic situations, which can provide suggestions for the construction and modification of routine vaccination program strategies.

Methods: Two cross-sectional online surveys were conducted in January and June of 2021. The willingness and confidence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination were measured following propensity score matching (PSM) treatment. The difference in the willingness for COVID-19 Vaccination in the two surveys was analyzed by single or multi-factor analyses.

Results: The willingness to accept the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was higher in the second survey than that in the first survey (90.5% vs. 66.6%, p < 0.001). Concerns about the vaccine's safety declined (71.0% vs. 47.6%, p < 0.001), but concerns about the efficacy increased (22.4% vs. 30.9%, p < 0.001). Confidence in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine had an important impact on the increased uptake willingness (odds ratio = 3.19, 95% confidence interval: 2.23-4.58, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: There has been a significant increase in attitudes towards the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine which was associated with higher vaccine confidence. Vaccine effectiveness received more concerns from respondents rather than safety after nearly 6 months' utilization of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. It indicates that aggressive communication and timely disclosure of vaccine data can build vaccine confidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.28004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9349959PMC
July 2022

Analysis of Fertility Preservation by Ovarian Tissue Cryopreservation in Pediatric Children in China.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 29;13:930786. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) is the only method of fertility preservation (FP) in prepubertal girls, but the experience remains limited. This study investigates the effectiveness and feasibility of FP of OTC in children facing gonadotoxicity treatment in Chinese first ovarian tissue cryobank.

Procedure: OTC and evaluation of 49 children ≤14 years old in the cryobank of Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, from July 2017 to May 19, 2022, were analyzed retrospectively. We compared children's general characteristics, follicle numbers, and hormone levels with and without chemotherapy before OTC.

Results: The age of 49 children at the time of OTC was 7.55 (1-14) years old. There were 23 cases of hematological non-malignant diseases, eight cases of hematological malignant diseases, four cases of gynecological malignant tumors, one case of neurological malignant tumors, one case of bladder cancer, five cases of sarcoma, three cases of mucopolysaccharidosis, one case of metachromatic leukodystrophy, two cases of dermatomyositis, one case of Turner's syndrome. The median follicular count per 2-mm biopsy was 705. Age and AMH were not correlated (r = 0.084, 0.585). Age and follicle count per 2-mm biopsy was not correlated (r = -0.128, 0.403). Log10 (follicle count per 2-mm biopsy) and Log10 (AMH) were not correlated (r = -0.118, 0.456). Chemotherapy before OTC decreased AMH levels but had no significant effect on the number of follicles per 2-mm biopsy.

Conclusions: OTC is the only method to preserve the fertility of prepubertal girls, and it is safe and effective. Chemotherapy before OTC is not a contraindication to OTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.930786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9277002PMC
June 2022

The Impact of COVID-19 on Postdischarge Outcomes for Dialysis Patients in the United States: Evidence from Medicare Claims Data.

Kidney360 2022 06 15;3(6):1047-1056. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Kidney Epidemiology and Cost Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Background: Recent investigations have shown that, on average, patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have a poorer postdischarge prognosis than those hospitalized without COVID-19, but this effect remains unclear among patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) who are on dialysis.

Methods: Leveraging a national ESKD patient claims database administered by the US Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, we conducted a retrospective cohort study that characterized the effects of in-hospital COVID-19 on all-cause unplanned readmission and death within 30 days of discharge for patients on dialysis. Included in this study were 436,745 live acute-care hospital discharges of 222,154 Medicare beneficiaries on dialysis from 7871 Medicare-certified dialysis facilities between January 1 and October 31, 2020. Adjusting for patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and prevalent comorbidities, we fit facility-stratified Cox cause-specific hazard models with two interval-specific (1-7 and 8-30 days after hospital discharge) effects of in-hospital COVID-19 and effects of prehospitalization COVID-19.

Results: The hazard ratios due to in-hospital COVID-19 over the first 7 days after discharge were 95% CI, 1.53 to 1.65 for readmission and 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.70 for death, both with <0.001. For the remaining 23 days, the hazard ratios were 95% CI, 0.89 to 0.96 and 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.07, with <0.001 and =0.50, respectively. Effects of prehospitalization COVID-19 were mostly nonsignificant.

Conclusions: In-hospital COVID-19 had an adverse effect on both postdischarge readmission and death over the first week. With the surviving patients having COVID-19 substantially selected from those hospitalized, in-hospital COVID-19 was associated with lower rates of readmission and death starting from the second week.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34067/KID.0000242022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9255877PMC
June 2022

Exploring the potential targets of Sanshimao formula for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment by a method of network pharmacology combined with molecular biology.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jul 15;297:115531. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Naval Military Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The Sanshimao (SSM) formula is an effective prescription for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy in the clinical setting. This prescription is made up of four herbals, Maorenshen, Shijianchuan, Shishangbai and Shidachuan, which are used for detoxification and removing blood stasis. However, its mechanism in the treatment of HCC remains ambiguous.

Aim Of The Study: To explore the potential targets of SSM against HCC by network pharmacology analysis and verify the data using molecular biological methods.

Materials And Methods: We screened active components and potential targets by data mining, constructed a network, and performed functional analysis and pathway enrichment to explore the therapeutic targets of SSM for HCC treatment. Then, the effects of SSM on HCC cells were studied to validate the data from network pharmacology analysis.

Results: Eighty-eight common targets were obtained by mapping 932 HCC-related genes, and 325 targets corresponded to 11 active components of SSM. They were enriched in various biological processes, such as the response to inorganic substances, response to toxic substances and apoptotic signalling pathway, and multi-pathways involved pathways in cancer, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, and AGE-RAGE signalling pathway in diabetic complications, as evaluated by the analysis of advanced functions and pathways. TP53, JUN, HSP90AA1, EGFR, AR and MAPK1 might be the core targets closely related to the effects of SSM on HCC according to PPI analysis. Treatment with SSM decreased cell viability and migration, promoted apoptosis and inhibited the EGFR/FAK/AKT signalling pathway.

Conclusion: This research preliminarily indicates that SSM treats HCC via multiple components and pathways. EGFR/FAK/AKT are promising therapeutic targets of SSM for HCC treatment. This provides objective evidence for further mechanistic research and the future development and clinical application of SSM in HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2022.115531DOI Listing
July 2022

Impact of patent ductus arteriosus shunt size and duration on risk of death or severe respiratory morbidity in preterm infants born in China.

Eur J Pediatr 2022 Aug 15;181(8):3131-3140. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Dr, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA.

The purpose of this study is to assess whether duration and size of the arterial duct were associated with severe respiratory morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. All echocardiography evaluations for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in a cohort of preterm infants, born at a gestational age less than 28 weeks, from birth up to 36 weeks of postconceptional age or final ductal closure were reviewed. Ductal size was measured at the pulmonary end. PDA was classified as small (E1: ductal diameter (DD) ≤ 1.5 mm), moderate (E2: 1.5 mm < DD ≤ 2.5 mm), or large (E3) (DD > 2.5 mm). The primary outcome was adverse outcome defined by the composite outcome of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death. Infants in whom the primary outcome occurred were classified as "high-risk" whereas patients who did not satisfy this outcome were classified as "low-risk". Intergroup comparison (high vs. low risk) was performed using univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 135 infants, born between 2010 and 2020, were evaluated. The primary outcome was satisfied in 46 (34.1%) patients. The high-risk group was characterized by increased duration of exposure to PDA of any (E1/E2/E3) grade (44 vs. 25.5 days, p = .0004), moderate or large (E2/E3) PDA (30.5 vs. 11.5 days, p < .0001), moderate (E2) PDA (10.8 vs.6 days, p = 0.05), and large (E3) PDA (11.5 vs.0 days, p < .0001) compared with low-risk group. Lower gestational age, prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation, higher rate of inotrope use, pharmacological therapy, and PDA ligation were also associated with development of BPD or death (high-risk group). After adjusting for confounders, the rate of inotrope use [OR 2.688, 95% CI (1.011-7.142), p = 0.047], duration of large (E3) PDA [OR 1.060, 95% CI (1.005-1.118), p = 0.03], and mechanical ventilation [OR 1.130, 95% CI (1.064-1.200), p = 0.0001] were independently associated with the composite of BPD or death. Among infants who developed BPD, 27 were classified as grade I and 18 as grade II BPD, respectively. Infants with grade II BPD had prolonged MV (20.0 vs. 9.0 days, p = 0.024), prolonged exposure to PDA of any grade (55.8 vs. 36.0 days, p = 0.03), and prolonged exposure to large (E3) PDA compared with infants with grade I BPD.   Conclusion: Prolonged exposure to a large PDA was associated with severe respiratory morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. The modulator role of early intervention, in the most pathologic shunts, on severe respiratory morbidity in preterm infants should be tested in well-designed clinical trials. What is Known: • Current guidelines recommended against accelerating PDA closure of preterm infants within 2 weeks of life, with low certainty evidence indicating improved long-term outcomes. • Recent studies suggest that conservative approach regarding PDA management has detrimental effects on the respiratory outcomes in a subgroup population. What is New: • Persistent patency of significant PDA is associated with increased risk of BPD/death in extremely preterm infants. • Targeted intervention of PDA is beneficial for the at-risk preterm infants with increased PDA hemodynamic significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-022-04549-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9352633PMC
August 2022

Challenges and tissue engineering strategies of periodontal guided tissue regeneration.

Tissue Eng Part C Methods 2022 Jul 15. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Laboratory of Tissue Regeneration and Immunology and Department of Periodontics, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction,, Tian Tan Xi Li No.4, Beijing, Beijing , China, 100050;

Periodontitis is a chronic infectious oral disease with a high prevalence rate in the world, and is a major cause of tooth loss. Nowadays, people have realized that the local microenvironment that includes proteins, cytokines, and extracellular matrix has a key influence on the functions of host immune cells and periodontal ligament stem cells during a chronic infectious disease such as periodontitis. The above pathological process of periodontitis will lead to a defect of periodontal tissues. Through the application of biomaterials, biological agents, and stem cells therapy, guided tissue regeneration (GTR) makes it possible to reconstruct healthy periodontal ligament tissue after local inflammation control. To date, substantial advances have been made in periodontal guided tissue regeneration. However, the process of periodontal remodeling experiences complex microenvironment changes, and currently periodontium regeneration still remains to be a challenging feat. In this review, we summarized the main challenges in each stage of periodontal regeneration, and try to put forward appropriate biomaterial treatment mechanisms or potential tissue engineering strategies that provide a theoretical basis for periodontal tissue engineering regeneration research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEC.2022.0106DOI Listing
July 2022

Macrophages and monocytes mediated activation of oxidative phosphorylation implicated the prognosis and clinical therapeutic strategy of Wilms tumour.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2022 27;20:3399-3408. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518172, Guangdong, China.

Wilms tumour is the fourth leading cause of paediatric malignancy, but the detailed relationship between the tumour microenvironment and prognosis remains largely unclear. In this research, gene expression profile and clinical information from TARGET and the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University were collected. After comparing the prognostic value of the associated immune cells, we established a nomogram to predict the prognosis of Wilms tumour based on monocyte infiltration, macrophage infiltration, stage, and sex. Further results showed that the most significant relationship between matrix metallopeptidase 9 and prognosis or macrophage infiltration. Meanwhile, by gene set enrichment or variation analyses and immunohistochemistry staining, we demonstrated that the most highly enriched hub genes were closely related to the activated oxidative phosphorylation pathway. Finally, through tumour immune dysfunction and an exclusion algorithm, the satisfactory discriminative performance of our nomogram was revealed for predicting the response to clinical therapy. Anti-PD1 therapy is more suitable for Wilms tumour patients with high nomogram points, and chemotherapies are more effective for patients with low nomogram score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2022.06.052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9271979PMC
June 2022

Enhanced Amplified Spontaneous Emission in Quasi-2D Perovskite by Facilitating Energy Transfer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jul 13. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics and CAS Center for Excellence in Ultra-Intense Laser Science, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, China.

Despite the superior optoelectronic properties of quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) Ruddlesden-Popper halide perovskites, the inhomogeneous distribution of mixed phases result in inefficient energy transfer and multiple emission peaks. Herein, the insufficient energy funneling process at the high-energy phase is almost completely suppressed and the excitonic understanding of gain nature is studied in the energy funneling managed quasi-2D perovskite via introducing poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) additive. The energy transfer process is facilitated from 0.37 to 0.26 ps after introducing the PVP additive, accelerating the exciton accumulation in the emissive state, and increasing the ratio of the high-dimensional phase for enhancing radiative emission. The gain lifetime is promoted to be as fast as 28 ps to outcompete nonradiative recombination during the build-up of population inversion. Simultaneously, the net gain coefficient is increased by more than twofold that of the pristine perovskite film. Owing to the remarkable gain properties, room-temperature amplified spontaneous emission is realized with a low threshold of 11.3 μJ/cm, 4 times lower than 43 μJ/cm of the pristine film. Our findings suggest that the PVP-treated quasi-2D perovskite shows great promise for high-performance laser devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c07633DOI Listing
July 2022

Individuals With Higher CD4/CD8 Ratio Exhibit Increased Risk of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and In-Hospital Mortality During Acute SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 23;9:924267. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Medicine and Life Sciences Department, Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: CD4/CD8 ratio has been used as a quantitative prognostic risk factor in patients with viral infections. This study aims to assess the association between in-hospital mortality and at admission CD4/CD8 ratio among individuals with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Methods: This is a longitudinal cohort study with data of all consecutive patients admitted to the COVID-19 unit at Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain for ≥48 h between March to May 2020. The CD4+ CD8+ T-cell subset differentiation was assessed by flow cytometry at admission as well as a complete blood test. Patients were classified according to CD4/CD8 ratio tertiles. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and the secondary outcome was acute respiratory distress (ARDS).

Results: A total of 338 patients were included in the cohort. A high CD4/CD8 ratio (third tertile) was associated with a higher in-hospital mortality [adjusted Cox model hazard ratio (HR) 4.68 (95%CI 1.56-14.04, = 0.006), reference: second tertile HR 1]. Similarly, a high CD4/CD8 ratio (third tertile) was associated with a higher incidence of ARDS [adjusted logistic regression model OR 1.97 (95%CI 1.11-3.55, = 0.022) reference: second tertile HR 1]. There was a trend of higher in-hospital mortality and incidence of ARDS in patients within the first tertile of CD4/CD8 ratio compared with the second one, but the difference was not significant. No associations were found with total lymphocyte count or inflammatory parameters, including D-dimer.

Conclusion: CD4/CD8 ratio is a prognostic factor for the severity of COVID-19, reflecting the negative impact on prognosis of those individuals whose immune response has abnormal CD8+ T-cell expansion during the early response to the infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.924267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9260079PMC
June 2022

The Inflammatory Factor SNP May Serve as a Promising Biomarker for Acitretin to Alleviate Secondary Failure of Response to TNF-a Monoclonal Antibodies in Psoriasis.

Front Pharmacol 2022 24;13:937490. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Dermatology, Huashan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease. Although biological agents have achieved good clinical efficacy in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis, the phenomenon of secondary non-response (SNR) has been gradually recognized. SNR refers to the gradual decline of efficacy after the patient achieves clinical remission with biological agents such as TNF-α biologics. Acitretin, as an immunomodulatory systemic drug for psoriasis, can improve the SNR to biological agents with good tolerance, but there are still individual differences in efficacy. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of many related inflammatory cytokines have been shown to be important factors of individual differences in drug response in psoriasis, but there have been few reports on the use of pharmacogenomics to alleviate the SNR to biological agents. This study recruited 43 patients with psoriasis and 24 normal controls to investigate whether SNPs of inflammatory cytokines could be used as biomarkers for acitretin to alleviate SNR to TNF-α biologics in psoriasis, including rs1800795 (IL-6), rs6887695 (IL-12b), rs3212227 (IL-12b), rs10484879 (IL-17a), rs4819554 (IL-17ra), rs763780 (IL-17F), rs11209032 (IL23R), rs11209026 (IL23R), and rs2201841 (IL23R). The study also analyzed the correlation between the abovementioned SNPs and the efficacy of acitretin-only patients so as to understand whether the improvement is attributable to the intervention of acitretin on SNR or a simple response of acitretin. We found that in patients with homozygous AA (χ2 = 6.577, = 0.02) at the SNP rs112009032 (IL-23R), acitretin could improve the SNR to TNFα monoclonal antibody. Patients with the genotype of TG (χ2 = 6.124, = 0.035) at rs3212227 (IL-12B) were more sensitive to using acitretin in the treatment of psoriasis. Rs3212227 (χ2 = 7.664, = 0.022) was also associated with the susceptibility to psoriasis. The study might provide a clinical decision reference for personalized treatment of secondary loss of response to psoriasis biologics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.937490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9263382PMC
June 2022
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