Publications by authors named "Juan Carlos Santiago-Hernández"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Lupresan, a new drug that prevents or reverts the formation of nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements that trigger a murine lupus resembling human lupus.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 01 21;509(1):275-280. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México, 11340, Mexico. Electronic address:

Non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements (NPA) are lipid associations different from the bilayer, formed by the interactions of conic anionic lipids and divalent cations that produce an inverted micelle which is inserted between the lipid layers, so the polar heads of the outer lipids spread and expose new antigens. Since these structures are transient, they are not immunogenic, but if they are stabilized by drugs, such as chlorpromazine, they become immunogenic and induce anti-NPA antibodies that trigger a lupus-like disease in mice. Chloroquine is a drug used for the treatment of lupus; chloroquine has a quinoline ring and two positive charges that interact with conic anionic lipids and prevent or revert the formation of NPA. However, the polyamine spermidine is more effective, since it has three positive charges and interacts with more lipids, but polyamines cannot be used as drugs, because they are highly toxic. Here we report the design and synthesis of Lupresan, an analogous of chloroquine with its quinoline ring but with three positive charges. Lupresan is more effective in preventing or reverting the formation of NPA than chloroquine or spermidine, and as a consequence, it decreased auto-antibody titers and healed the malar rash in mice with lupus to a greater extent than chloroquine. A drug as Lupresan could be used for the treatment of human lupus.
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January 2019

Hypocholesterolemic and choleretic effects of three dimethoxycinnamic acids in relation to 2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid in rats fed with a high-cholesterol/cholate diet.

Pharmacol Rep 2015 Jun 29;67(3):553-9. Epub 2014 Dec 29.

Biochemistry Department, National School of Biological Sciences, National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Background: 2,4,5-Trimethoxycinnamic acid (2,4,5-TMC) is the major and non-toxic metabolite of α-asarone, which retains hypocholesterolemic and choleretic activities. We compared the activities of 2,4,5-TMC with those of 2,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid (2,4-DMC), 3,4-DMC and 3,5-DMC, to understand the role of the methoxyls on carbons 2, 4 and 5 on the pharmacologic properties of these compounds.

Methods: The methoxycinnamic acids were administered to high-cholesterol/cholate-fed rats. We measured bile flow, and quantified bile acids, phospholipids and cholesterol in bile, and cholesterol and cholesterol-lipoproteins in serum. The inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by the methoxycinnamic acids was evaluated in vitro.

Results: The four methoxycinnamic acids decreased serum cholesterol, without affecting the concentration of HDL-cholesterol. 2,4,5-TMC produced the highest decrease in LDL-cholesterol, 73.5%, which exceeds the range of statins (20-40%), and produced the highest inhibition of the activity of HMG-CoA reductase. 3,4-DMC produced the highest increase in bile flow, bile acids and phospholipids concentrations, and reduction in bile cholesterol, which led to a decrease in the biliary cholesterol saturation index.

Conclusions: 2,4,5-TMC (which has three methoxyls) had the highest hypocholesterolemic activity, while 3,4-DMC, which lacks the methoxyl in carbon 2 but conserves the two other methoxyls in an adjacent position, had the highest choleretic activity and a probable cholelitholytic activity. In methoxycinnamic acids with two methoxyls in non-adjacent positions (2,4-DMC and 3,5-DMC), the hypocholesterolemic and choleretic activities were not as evident. 2,4,5-TMC and 3,4-DMC, which did not cause liver damage during the treatment period, should be further explored as a hypocholesterolemic and choleretic compounds in humans.
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June 2015

Bacterial classification using genomic fingerprints obtained by virtual hybridization.

J Microbiol Methods 2011 Dec 1;87(3):286-94. Epub 2011 Sep 1.

Department of Biochemistry, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México City, Mexico.

In silico genomic fingerprints were produced by virtual hybridization of 191 fully sequenced bacterial genomes using a set of 15,264 13-mer probes specially designed to produce universal whole genome fingerprints. A novel approach for constructing phylogenetic trees, based on comparative analysis of genomic fingerprints, was developed. The resultant bacterial phylogenetic tree had strong similarities to those produced from the alignment of conserved sequences. Notably, the trees derived from the alignment of other conserved COG genes divided the Bacillus and Corynebacterium genera into the same subgroups produced by the novel bacterial tree. A number of discrepancies between both techniques were observed for the grouping of some Lactobacillus species. However, a detailed analysis of the alignment of these genomes using other bioinformatics tools revealed that the grouping of these organisms in the novel tree was more satisfactory than the groupings from previous classifications, which used only a few conserved genes. All these data suggest that the bacterial taxonomy produced by genomic fingerprints is satisfactory, but sometimes different from classical taxonomies. Discrepancies probably arise because the fingerprinting technique analyzes genomic sequences and reveals more information than previously used approaches.
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December 2011