Publications by authors named "Juan Campos"

80 Publications

Customized depolarization spatial patterns with dynamic retardance functions.

Sci Rep 2021 May 3;11(1):9415. Epub 2021 May 3.

Departamento de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain.

In this work we demonstrate customized depolarization spatial patterns by imaging a dynamical time-dependent pixelated retarder. A proof-of-concept of the proposed method is presented, where a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator is used as a spatial retarder that emulates a controlled spatially variant depolarizing sample by addressing a time-dependent phase pattern. We apply an imaging Mueller polarimetric system based on a polarization camera to verify the effective depolarization effect. Experimental validation is provided by temporal integration on the detection system. The effective depolarizance results are fully described within a simple graphical approach which agrees with standard Mueller matrix decomposition methods. The potential of the method is discussed by means of three practical cases, which include non-reported depolarization spatial patterns, including exotic structures as a spirally shaped depolarization pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88515-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093234PMC
May 2021

Polarimetric imaging microscopy for advanced inspection of vegetal tissues.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 16;11(1):3913. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Grup D'Òptica, Physics Department, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain.

Optical microscopy techniques for plant inspection benefit from the fact that at least one of the multiple properties of light (intensity, phase, wavelength, polarization) may be modified by vegetal tissues. Paradoxically, polarimetric microscopy although being a mature technique in biophotonics, is not so commonly used in botany. Importantly, only specific polarimetric observables, as birefringence or dichroism, have some presence in botany studies, and other relevant metrics, as those based on depolarization, are underused. We present a versatile method, based on a representative selection of polarimetric observables, to obtain and to analyse images of plants which bring significant information about their structure and/or the spatial organization of their constituents (cells, organelles, among other structures). We provide a thorough analysis of polarimetric microscopy images of sections of plant leaves which are compared with those obtained by other commonly used microscopy techniques in plant biology. Our results show the interest of polarimetric microscopy for plant inspection, as it is non-destructive technique, highly competitive in economical and time consumption, and providing advantages compared to standard non-polarizing techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83421-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887219PMC
February 2021

Exploring wealth-related inequalities in maternal and child health coverage in Latin America and the Caribbean.

BMC Public Health 2021 01 10;21(1):115. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Maternal and child health have shown important advances in the world in recent years. However, national averages indicators hide large inequalities in access and quality of care in population subgroups. We explore wealth-related inequalities affecting health coverage and interventions in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Methods: We analyzed representative national surveys from 15 countries conducted between 2001 and 2016. We estimated maternal-child health coverage gaps using the Composite Coverage Index - a weighted average of interventions that include family planning, maternal and newborn care, immunizations, and treatment of sick children. We measured absolute and relative inequality to assess gaps by wealth quintile. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to test the association between the coverage gap and population attributable risk.

Results: The Composite Coverage Index showed patterns of inequality favoring the wealthiest subgroups. In eight countries the national coverage was higher than the global median (78.4%; 95% CI: 73.1-83.6) and increased significantly as inequality decreased (Pearson r = 0.9; p < 0.01).

Conclusions: There are substantial inequalities between socioeconomic groups. Reducing inequalities will improve coverage indicators for women and children. Additional health policies, programs, and practices are required to promote equity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-10127-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798299PMC
January 2021

Characterization of the biochemical basis for copper homeostasis and tolerance in Biscutella auriculata L.

Physiol Plant 2020 Dec 6. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, UCLM, Ciudad Real, Spain.

Biscutella auriculata L. is a plant that belongs to the Brassicaceae family and it has been found growing in a metal-contaminated area of the San Quíntín mine (Ciudad Real, Spain). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the mechanisms that allow this plant to tolerate high concentrations of copper. Seedlings were grown in a semi-hydroponic system for 15 days under 125 μM of Cu (NO ) . Exposure to copper resulted in growth inhibition and reduction in the photosynthetic parameters. Copper was mainly accumulated in vascular tissue and vacuoles of the roots and only a minor proportion was transferred to the shoot. Biothiol analysis showed a greater enhancement of reduced glutathione in leaves and increases of phytochelatins (PC2 and PC3) in both leaves and roots. Copper treatment induced oxidative stress, which triggered a response of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms. The results show that B. auriculata is able to tolerate high metal levels through the activation of specific mechanisms to neutralize the oxidative stress produced and also by metal sequestration through phytochelatins. The preferential accumulation of copper in roots provides clues for further studies on the use of this plant for phytostabilization and environmental recovery purposes in Cu-contaminated areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13301DOI Listing
December 2020

Measuring event concentration in empirical networks with different types of degree distributions.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(12):e0241790. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Cali, Colombia.

Measuring event concentration often involves identifying clusters of events at various scales of resolution and across different regions. In the context of a city, for example, clusters may be characterized by the proximity of events in the metric space. However, events may also occur over urban structures such as public transportation and infrastructure systems, which are naturally represented as networks. Our work provides a theoretical framework to determine whether events distributed over a set of interconnected nodes are concentrated on a particular subset. Our main analysis shows how the proposed or any other measure of event concentration on a network must explicitly take into account its degree distribution. We apply the framework to measure event concentration (i) on a street network (i.e., approximated as a regular network where events represent criminal activities); and (ii) on a social network (i.e., a power law network where events represent users who are dissatisfied after purchasing the same product).
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241790PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710082PMC
January 2021

Microbial diversity and activity assessment in a 100-year-old lead mine.

J Hazard Mater 2021 05 18;410:124618. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Instituto de Geología Aplicada, IGeA, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Plaza de Manuel Meca, 1, 13400 Almadén, Ciudad Real, Spain; Escuela de Ingeniería Minera e Industrial de Almadén, Plaza de Manuel Meca, 1, 13400 Almadén, Ciudad Real, Spain.

Mining activities frequently leave a legacy of residues that remain in the area for long periods causing the pollution of surroundings. We studied on a 100 year-old mine, the behavior of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and their ecotoxicological impact on activity and diversity of microorganisms. The PTEs contamination assessment allowed the classification of the materials as highly (reference- and contaminated-samples) and very highly polluted (illegal spill of olive mill wastes (OMW), tailings, and dumps). OMW presented the lowest enzymatic activities while tailings and dumps had low dehydrogenase and arylsulfatase activities. All the α-diversity indices studied were negatively impacted in dumps. Tailings had lower Chao1 and PD whole tree values as compared to those of reference-samples. β-diversity analysis showed similar bacterial community composition for reference- and contaminated-samples, significantly differing from that of tailings and dumps. The relative abundance of Gemmatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia was lower in OMW, tailings, and dumps as compared to reference-samples. Fifty-seven operational taxonomic units were selected as responsible for the changes observed between samples. This study highlights that assessing the relationship between physicochemical properties and microbial diversity and activity gives clues about ongoing regulating processes that can be helpful for stakeholders to define an appropriate management strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124618DOI Listing
May 2021

Displacement-free stereoscopic phase measuring deflectometry based on phase difference minimization.

Opt Express 2020 Oct;28(21):31658-31674

In this paper, we propose a phase difference minimization algorithm to measure the specular surface shape in a displacement-free stereoscopic phase measuring deflectometry (PMD) system. The presented system is capable of solving the height-normal ambiguity appearing in a PMD system without moving any system component. Both the surface normal and the absolute height are simultaneously obtained by implementing phase difference minimization between the phase distributions in the LCD screen and the camera image plane. In particular, phase difference minimization is performed by using a second order polynomial fitting iteration method. Bi-cubic sub-pixel interpolation combined with 2D Fourier integration is used to reconstruct the surface. Finally, the performance of the proposed stereoscopic PMD system is verified by measuring the surface shapes of different mirrors and performing repeatability tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.403013DOI Listing
October 2020

Chlamydia trachomatis glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase: Enzyme kinetics, high-resolution crystal structure, and plasminogen binding.

Protein Sci 2020 12 30;29(12):2446-2458. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an evolutionarily conserved essential enzyme in the glycolytic pathway. GAPDH is also involved in a wide spectrum of non-catalytic cellular 'moonlighting' functions. Bacterial surface-associated GAPDHs engage in many host interactions that aid in colonization, pathogenesis, and virulence. We have structurally and functionally characterized the recombinant GAPDH of the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading cause of sexually transmitted bacterial and ocular infections. Contrary to earlier speculations, recent data confirm the presence of glucose-catabolizing enzymes including GAPDH in both stages of the biphasic life cycle of the bacterium. The high-resolution crystal structure described here provides a close-up view of the enzyme's active site and surface topology and reveals two chemically modified cysteine residues. Moreover, we show for the first time that purified C. trachomatis GAPDH binds to human plasminogen and plasmin. Based on the versatility of GAPDH's functions, data presented here emphasize the need for investigating the Chlamydiae GAPDH's involvement in biological functions beyond energy metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pro.3975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7679969PMC
December 2020

Occurrence and environmental constraints of gray monazite in red soils from the Campo de Montiel area (SW Ciudad Real province, south central Spain).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 18;28(4):4573-4584. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

ETS Ingenieros Agrónomos de Ciudad Real, Instituto de Geología Aplicada, UCLM, Ronda de Calatrava s/n, 13003, Ciudad Real, Spain.

Monazite ((Ce, La, Nd, Th) PO) is a rare and strategic mineral that occurs naturally as an accessory and minor mineral in diverse igneous and metamorphic rocks. This mineral does not frequently form mineable ore deposits and it has different typologies, including those formed by endogenous processes (generally "yellow monazite" mineralizations) and those formed by exogenous processes ("gray monazite" mineralizations). The mineral is an important ore of Rare Earth Elements (REEs), which have been identified by the European Union as critical raw materials. Monazite can be considered a weathering-resistant mineral, and the mobility of the REE and associated elements is low. The study reported here concerns a mineralogical and geochemical assessment of the occurrence and risks associated with the presence of concentrations of monazite in a typical, well-developed, and representative red Mediterranean soil, in order to establish the associated risk with their future mining. The results confirmed that monazite ore is particularly poor in radioactive elements, and it is concentrated in the most surficial soil horizons. The chemical mobility of REEs present in the soil, as assessed by selective extraction with ammonium acetate in acidic media, follows the order Y > Dy > U > Tb > Gd > Eu > Sm > La > Th > Ce. The mobility of REEs contained in monazite proved to be higher than that of the REE compounds in the upper horizons of the soil profile suggesting the immobilization in other REE-containing minerals, while light REEs show lower mobility rates than heavy REEs, due to an immobilization of LREE by sorption with iron oxy-hydroxides. Further studies are required in order to obtain better speciation data for REEs in soils aimed to identify soluble and insoluble compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10827-8DOI Listing
January 2021

Correlation of RECIST, Computed Tomography Morphological Response, and Pathological Regression in Hepatic Metastasis Secondary to Colorectal Cancer: The AVAMET Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Aug 12;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Medical Oncology Department, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Instituto de investigaciones Sanitarias de Navarra (IdISNA), 31008 Pamplona, Spain.

: The prospective phase IV AVAMET study was undertaken to correlate response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST)-defined response rates with computed tomography-based morphological criteria (CTMC) and pathological response after liver resection of colorectal cancer metastases. : Eligible patients were aged ≥18 years, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0/1 and histologically-confirmed colon or rectal adenocarcinoma with measurable liver metastases. Preoperative treatment was bevacizumab (7.5 mg on day 1) + XELOX (oxaliplatin 130 mg/m, capecitabine 1000 mg/m bid on days 1-14 q3w). After three cycles, response was evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Patients who were progression-free and metastasectomy candidates received one cycle of XELOX before undergoing surgery 3-5 weeks later, followed by four cycles of bevacizumab + XELOX. : A total of 83 patients entered the study; 68 were eligible for RECIST, 67 for CTMC, and 51 for pathological response evaluation. Of these patients, 49% had a complete or partial RECIST response, 91% had an optimal or incomplete CTMC response, and 81% had a complete or major pathological response. CTMC response predicted 37 of 41 pathological responses versus 23 of 41 responses predicted using RECIST ( = 0.008). Kappa coefficients indicated a lack of correlation between the results of RECIST and morphological responses and between morphological and pathological response rates. Conclusion: CTMC may represent a better marker of pathological response to bevacizumab + XELOX than RECIST in patients with potentially-resectable CRC liver metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465835PMC
August 2020

[Renal transplantation during COVID-19 period in Spain.]

Arch Esp Urol 2020 Jun;73(5):447-454

Hospital Reina Sofía. Córdoba. España.

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic poses significant challenges in the area of kidney donation and transplantation. The objective of this article is to establish general recommendations for surgical teams to manage the kidney transplant program duringthe COVID-19 era. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This document is based on the scientific evidence available on the infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 and the experience of authors during the COVID-19 pandemic. A web and Pubmed search was performed using the keywords "SARS-CoV-2"," COVID-19", "COVID Urology", "COVID-19 surgery", and "kidney transplantation." A modified nominal group technique was used. RESULTS: When health system saturation occurs, kidney transplants should be deferred, except in patients with low transplant possibilities and an optimal kidney available, combined transplants or life-threatening situations. Screening for the SARS-CoV-2 virus should be done in all those donors and recipients with clinical symptoms consistent with COVID-19, who have visited or live inhigh-risk areas, or who have been in close contact with confirmed cases of COVID-19. Donation and transplantation will not proceed in confirmed cases of COVID-19. Surgeries should be based on general recommendations in the COVID-19 era and will be efficient, short, and focused on those with the shortest hospital stay. In emergencies, protective measures will be taken with persona lprotection equipment. Surgical staff will be only the strictly necessary, and permanence in the OR should be minimized. Transplant urology consultations will be conducted by teleconsultation when possible. CONCLUSION: The safety of potential donors and recipients must be guaranteed, adopting individual protection measures and screening for SARS-CoV-2. Kidney transplant surgery must be efficient in terms of health, human resources, and clinical benefit. All non-urgent transplant activities should be delayed until the improvement of the local condition of each center.
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June 2020

Depolarization metric spaces for biological tissues classification.

J Biophotonics 2020 08 25;13(8):e202000083. Epub 2020 May 25.

Grup d'Òptica, Physics Department, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.

Classification of tissues is an important problem in biomedicine. An efficient tissue classification protocol allows, for instance, the guided-recognition of structures through treated images or discriminating between healthy and unhealthy regions (e.g., early detection of cancer). In this framework, we study the potential of some polarimetric metrics, the so-called depolarization spaces, for the classification of biological tissues. The analysis is performed using 120 biological ex vivo samples of three different tissues types. Based on these data collection, we provide for the first time a comparison between these depolarization spaces, as well as with most commonly used depolarization metrics, in terms of biological samples discrimination. The results illustrate the way to determine the set of depolarization metrics which optimizes tissue classification efficiencies. In that sense, the results show the interest of the method which is general, and which can be applied to study multiple types of biological samples, including of course human tissues. The latter can be useful for instance, to improve and to boost applications related to optical biopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.202000083DOI Listing
August 2020

Influence of temporal averaging in the performance of a rotating retarder imaging Stokes polarimeter.

Opt Express 2020 Apr;28(8):10981-11000

We study the optimum operating conditions for a rotating retarder fixed polarizer (RRFP) when the measurements are not quasi-instantaneous but time-averaged. We obtain the optimum retardance and retarder orientations as a function of the integrated angle interval. We also study how the increase in the number of time-averaged measurements leads to a better equally weighted variance (EWV) value, and thus, to a better performance of the polarimeter in terms of noise amplification for the case of additive noise. Two different analyzers configurations are studied in this work: uniformly spaced retarder angles and when measurements are taken at optimum angles (non-uniformly spaced angles). We also consider the case of polychromatic illumination. We discuss the best measurement conditions in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio depending on whether there is a fixed or a limited amount of photons per measurement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.385623DOI Listing
April 2020

Biogeochemical assessment of the impact of Zn mining activity in the area of the Jebal Trozza mine, Central Tunisia.

Environ Geochem Health 2020 Nov 12;42(11):3529-3542. Epub 2020 May 12.

Instituto de Geología Aplicada, EIMI Almadén, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13400, Almadén, Ciudad Real, Spain.

Soil pollution associated with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from mining residues is a significant problem worldwide. The decommissioned Jebal Trozza mine, located in central Tunisia, may pose a serious problem because of the possible high concentrations of PTEs present in its wastes. This mine is a potential source of contamination for agriculture in this area due to both direct causes (pollution of agricultural soils) and indirect causes (pollution of sediments that accumulate in a dam used for irrigation). The aim of the study reported here was to assess the effects of local mining activity in two respects: (1) in terms of soil quality, as determined by soil edaphological parameters and PTEs contents in the mining wastes and local soils; and (2) in terms of biological quality, as evaluated by quantification of enzymatic activity as an indicator of bacterial activity in soils and wastes. The mine tailings contained high levels of Pb (1.83-5.95%), Zn (7.59-12.48%) and Cd (85.95-123.25 mg kg). The adjacent soils were also highly contaminated with these elements, with average concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd that exceeded the European standard values for agricultural soils (3, 300 and 300 mg kg for Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively). Enzymatic dehydrogenase showed zero activity in waste piles and very low activity in PTE-contaminated soils, but this activity returned to normal values as the pollution decreased, thus demonstrating the effect that the contamination load had on the health of the studied soils. A Statistical Factor Analysis clearly distinguished three groups of samples, and these are related to the influence that mining on the soils and sediments had on the PTE concentrations and their effects on the biological quality of the soil. An environmental assessment based on the enrichment factor criteria indicated risk levels that varied from strongly to severely polluted. The risk appears to be greater close to the mine, where the highest PTE levels were determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-020-00595-2DOI Listing
November 2020

TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 01 31;26(1):119-188. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14904DOI Listing
January 2020

Silver and copper as pollution tracers in Neogene to Holocene estuarine sediments from southwestern Spain.

Mar Pollut Bull 2020 Jan 16;150:110704. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva, Spain.

Estuaries are very sensitive ecosystems to human activities and the natural evolution of their drainage basins located upstream. Pollution derived from human activities, such as historical mining or recent industrial wastes, can significantly affect their environmental quality. This paper analyzes the silver and copper contents of four cores extracted in two estuaries of SW Spain. Its chronology and vertical evolution allow to differentiate the effects of several pollution episodes (natural, Roman, 19th-20th centuries) on its different sedimentary environments in the last 6 million years. Possible future applications are included in the fields of environmental management or even education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110704DOI Listing
January 2020

Antigerminative comparison between naturally occurring naphthoquinones and commercial pesticides. Soil dehydrogenase activity used as bioindicator to test soil toxicity.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Dec 30;694:133672. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Dpto. Producción Vegetal y Tecnología Agraria, ETSIA-UCLM, Ciudad Real, Spain.

As important secondary plant metabolites, naphthoquinones exhibit a wide range of biological activities, and one of their roles in the competition among plants is a well-known process called allelopathy. Their potential as a sustainable alternatives to herbicides has been investigated. In this study, we aim to take advantage of these naturally occurring substances to control the germination of spontaneous flora. In this work, the sensitivity of the germination of different plant species (horticultural, grasses and spontaneous flora) was tested. The results indicate that most of the plants are sensitive to juglone. The comparison between naphthoquinones and commercial pesticides did not provide enough evidence to use naphthoquinones to control spontaneous flora. Assessing the toxicity of pesticides is crucial because the sustainability of the ecosystem could be endangered by their use. In this study, the toxicity of certain pesticides (metam Na, oxyfluorfen, glyphosate, metribuzin and diuron) was evaluated based on dehydrogenase activity (DHA). DHA has become a good bioindicator for assessing the toxicity of xenobiotics. A toxicity index was proposed to compare the different degrees of toxicity among the tested substances. Finally, a toxicity threshold was constructed using the slopes of the fitted lines of the data, assuming that the maximum toxicity (10) represented the slope of the biocide HgCl and that the minimum toxicity (1) was attributed to the DHA obtained from soil without pesticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133672DOI Listing
December 2019

Burden of Disease Attributable to Obesity and Overweight in Colombia.

Value Health Reg Issues 2019 Dec 28;20:66-72. Epub 2019 Apr 28.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia. Electronic address:

Objectives: To estimate the burden of disease attributable to obesity and overweight conditions using disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in Colombia.

Methods: The burden of disease was estimated following an adapted methodology published by the World Health Organization. A selection of diseases was performed in which overweight and obesity are risk factors. DALYs were calculated by obtaining the proportion of cases and deaths of every disease that can be attributable to obesity and overweight conditions. The economic impact of obesity was calculated by multiplying the cost of care per patient for each comorbidity by the number of cases attributable exclusively to obesity.

Results: A total of 997 371 DALYs were estimated, 45% of which corresponded to men; 81% of DALYs corresponded to years lived with disability. Conditions with greater attributable DALYs are, in order, hypertension (31.6% of the total DALYs), type 2 diabetes mellitus (28.0%), cardiac ischemic disease (14.6%), and lower back pain (11.2%). An estimation of 20.5 DALYs per 1000 inhabitants was made. The economic impact of care for comorbidities associated with obesity could amount to $2158 million.

Conclusions: Obesity and overweight conditions are related to higher mortality and disability than previously estimated; effective interventions aimed at prevention and treatment will have a high impact on quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vhri.2019.02.001DOI Listing
December 2019

Depolarizing metrics for plant samples imaging.

PLoS One 2019 14;14(3):e0213909. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Grup d'Òptica, Physics Department, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.

Optical methods, as fluorescence microscopy or hyperspectral imaging, are commonly used for plants visualization and characterization. Another powerful collection of optical techniques is the so-called polarimetry, widely used to enhance image contrast in multiple applications. In the botanical applications framework, in spite of some works have already highlighted the depolarizing print that plant structures left on input polarized beams, the potential of polarimetric methods has not been properly exploited. In fact, among the few works dealing with polarization and plants, most of them study light scattered by plants using the Degree of Polarization (DoP) indicator. Other more powerful depolarization metrics are nowadays neglected. In this context, we highlight the potential of different depolarization metrics obtained using the Mueller matrix (MM) measurement: the Depolarization Index and the Indices of Polarimetric Purity. We perform a qualitative and quantitative comparison between DoP- and MM-based images by studying a particular plant, the Hedera maroccana. We show how Mueller-based metrics are generally more suitable in terms of contrast than DoP-based measurements. The potential of polarimetric measurements in the study of plants is highlighted in this work, suggesting they can be applied to the characterization of plants, plant taxonomy, water stress in plants, and other botanical studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0213909PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6417720PMC
December 2019

Deflectometry encoding the measured angle in a time-dependent intensity signal.

Rev Sci Instrum 2019 Feb;90(2):021707

Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

We propose a new concept of a deflectometer, aimed to provide high accuracy measurements with high sampling rate and low noise, as required by state-of-the-art slope-measuring profilometers, like Long Trace Profilometers or Nanometer Optics Measuring instruments. For this purpose, we introduce certain modifications to the usual working principle of autocollimators so that the measured angle is not given by the displacement of the pattern captured by a CCD, but by the harmonic contents of the time-modulated intensity signal acquired by a photodiode. By doing this, the signal can be sampled not by just a few thousand pixels but by millions of samples/s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5057768DOI Listing
February 2019

Species composition and plant traits of south Atlantic European coastal dunes and other comparative data.

Data Brief 2019 Feb 7;22:207-213. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain.

The data reported in this article relates to the research article entitled "Changes in plant diversity patterns along dune zonation in south Atlantic European coasts" (Torca et al., 2019) [1]. Data about traits of species from coastal dunes, a synoptic table and PERMANOVA comparisons are given. The information detailed in the methodology section can be used as a guide to perform analyses on taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.12.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302130PMC
February 2019

Completeness condition for unambiguous profile reconstruction by sub-aperture stitching.

Opt Express 2018 Oct;26(21):27212-27220

We describe the conditions required for a set of displaced sub-aperture measurements to contain sufficient information to reconstruct the stitched mirror profile removing all additive systematic errors of the measuring instrument, independent of the reference surface and of the guidance error of the linear stage used for the translation. We show that even-spaced stitching must be avoided and that the pitch error of the linear stage or the curvature of the reference must be measured, to avoid periodic errors and curvature errors in the reconstructed profile. We show that once these uncertainties are solved, the 1D profile can be reconstructed free of any additive systematic error. The theory is supported by computer simulations and by experimental results using two different instruments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.027212DOI Listing
October 2018

Novel biopesticide based on Erinnyis ello betabaculovirus: characterization and preliminary field evaluation to control Erinnyis ello in rubber plantations.

Pest Manag Sci 2019 May 21;75(5):1391-1399. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Centro de Investigación Tibaitatá, Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria - Agrosavia, Mosquera, Colombia.

Background: The hornworn Erinnyis ello is the major pest of natural rubber crops in Colombia, mainly controlled using toxic chemical insecticides. The use of E. ello Betabaculovirus is an environmentally sustainable alternative for its control. The aim of the present work was to characterize a prototype biopesticide formulation and evaluate its efficacy under different conditions.

Results: Quality control evaluations of formulated biopesticide revealed that all the parameters evaluated were under the permissible level. The lethal concentrations LC and LC of the biopesticide were 4.3 × 10 and 5.5 × 10 occlusion bodies (OBs) mL , respectively. Biopesticide efficacies against second and fourth instar larvae under greenhouse conditions were higher than 80%. Evaluation of two application rates in a clonal garden resulted in 84% and 88% efficacy, comparable to that obtained with the chemical. The biopesticide in a commercial plantation showed efficacies between 74% and 82%. Biopesticide post-application persistence was estimated at least in 1 week under field natural conditions. Results allowed selection of the lowest evaluated dose (1 × 10  OBs ha ) as the basis for further field evaluations.

Conclusion: Formulated ErelGV showed high efficacy to control the hornworm in rubber crops and high potential to be included in integrated pest management programs, thus it could be an interesting alternative to replace agrochemicals. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5259DOI Listing
May 2019

Generation of reconfigurable optical traps for microparticles spatial manipulation through dynamic split lens inspired light structures.

Sci Rep 2018 Jul 26;8(1):11263. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Physics Department, Optics Group, Bellaterra, 08193, Spain.

We present an experimental method, based on the use of dynamic split-lens configurations, useful for the trapping and spatial control of microparticles through the photophoretic force. In particular, the concept of split-lens configurations is exploited to experimentally create customized and reconfigurable three-dimensional light structures, in which carbon coated glass microspheres, with sizes in a range of 63-75 μm, can be captured. The generation of light spatial structures is performed by properly addressing phase distributions corresponding to different split-lens configurations onto a spatial light modulator (SLM). The use of an SLM allows a dynamic variation of the light structures geometry just by modifying few control parameters of easy physical interpretation. We provide some examples in video format of particle trapping processes. What is more, we also perform further spatial manipulation, by controlling the spatial position of the particles in the axial direction, demonstrating the generation of reconfigurable three-dimensional photophoretic traps for microscopic manipulation of absorbing particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29540-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6062552PMC
July 2018

[Impact of the use of simulators on the mental workload and confidence in a digital rectal examination and bladder catheterization workshop.]

Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jul;71(6):537-542

Departamento de Urología. Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía. Córdoba. España.

Objectives: Primary: to assess the use of simulators in prostate digital rectal examination and bladder catheterization on mental workload and the level of confidence in medical students. Secondary: to analyze student satisfaction and skills acquired by students with simulators.

Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized study on medical students. Participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (G1) (only the explanation) and group 2 (G2) (explanation + simulator workshop). For workload assessment, the validated NASA-TLX questionnaire was completed. The acceptability of the activity, the degree of confidence and the skills acquired were also evaluated.

Results: A total of 28 students participated in the practice of prostate examination. All participants reported a higher level of confidence after the theoretical explanation. 34 students participated in the bladder catheterization workshop and all of them increased their confidence after the activity. The G2 showed better scores on the acquired skills exam than the G1. Most students considered positive the incorporation of these models in their learning. According to the NASA-TLX results, less frustration is experienced with the use of simulators in both activities.

Conclusions: The implementation of simulators in the training of students may improve their level of confidence, reducing frustration when performing these explorations in the future and improving care quality.
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July 2018

History and environment shape species pools and community diversity in European beech forests.

Nat Ecol Evol 2018 03 29;2(3):483-490. Epub 2018 Jan 29.

WSL Swiss Federal Research Institute, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.

A central hypothesis of ecology states that regional diversity influences local diversity through species-pool effects. Species pools are supposedly shaped by large-scale factors and then filtered into ecological communities, but understanding these processes requires the analysis of large datasets across several regions. Here, we use a framework of community assembly at a continental scale to test the relative influence of historical and environmental drivers, in combination with regional or local species pools, on community species richness and community completeness. Using 42,173 vegetation plots sampled across European beech forests, we found that large-scale factors largely accounted for species pool sizes. At the regional scale, main predictors reflected historical contingencies related to post-glacial dispersal routes, whereas at the local scale, the influence of environmental filters was predominant. Proximity to Quaternary refugia and high precipitation were the main factors supporting community species richness, especially among beech forest specialist plants. Models for community completeness indicate the influence of large-scale factors, further suggesting community saturation as a result of dispersal limitation or biotic interactions. Our results empirically demonstrate how historical factors complement environmental gradients to provide a better understanding of biodiversity patterns across multiple regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0462-6DOI Listing
March 2018

Dual polarization split lenses.

Opt Express 2017 Oct;25(20):23773-23783

We report the realization of polarization sensitive split lens configurations. While split lenses can be used to easily generate different types of controlled structured light patterns, their realization has been limited so far to scalar beams. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate their generalization to vectorial split lenses, leading to light patterns with customized intensity and state of polarization. We demonstrate how these polarization split lenses can be experimentally implemented by means of an optical system using two liquid crystal spatial light modulators, each one phase modulating one orthogonal polarization component. As a result, we demonstrate the experimental generation of vectorial beams with different shapes generated with these dual polarization split lenses. Excellent experimental results are provided in each case. The proposed technique is a simple method to generate structured light beams with polarization diversity, with potential applications in polarimetry, customized illuminators or quantum optics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.023773DOI Listing
October 2017

Synthesis and characterization of depolarizing samples based on the indices of polarimetric purity.

Opt Lett 2017 Oct;42(20):4155-4158

In this work, we discuss the interest of using the indices of polarimetric purity (IPPs) as a criterion for the characterization and classification of depolarizing samples. We prove how differences in the depolarizing capability of samples, not seen by the commonly used depolarization index P, are identified by the IPPs. The above-stated result is analyzed from a theoretical point of view and experimentally verified through a set of polarimetric measurements. We show how the approach presented here can be useful in easily synthetizing depolarizing samples with controlled depolarizing features, just by properly combining low-cost fully polarizing elements (such as linear retarders or polarizers).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.42.004155DOI Listing
October 2017

Polarimetric imaging of biological tissues based on the indices of polarimetric purity.

J Biophotonics 2018 04 12;11(4):e201700189. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Grup d'Òptica, Physics Department, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.

We highlight the interest of using the indices of polarimetric purity (IPPs) to the inspection of biological tissues. The IPPs were recently proposed in the literature and they result in a further synthetization of the depolarizing properties of samples. Compared with standard polarimetric images of biological samples, IPP-based images lead to larger image contrast of some biological structures and to a further physical interpretation of the depolarizing mechanisms inherent to the samples. In addition, unlike other methods, their calculation do not require advanced algebraic operations (as is the case of polar decompositions), and they result in 3 indicators of easy implementation. We also propose a pseudo-colored encoding of the IPP information that leads to an improved visualization of samples. This last technique opens the possibility of tailored adjustment of tissues contrast by using customized pseudo-colored images. The potential of the IPP approach is experimentally highlighted along the manuscript by studying 3 different ex-vivo samples. A significant image contrast enhancement is obtained by using the IPP-based methods, compared to standard polarimetric images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.201700189DOI Listing
April 2018