Publications by authors named "Joyce Sweeney Gibbons"

2 Publications

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Characterization of SARS-CoV-2 N protein reveals multiple functional consequences of the C-terminal domain.

bioRxiv 2020 Nov 30. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Nucleocapsid protein (N) is the most abundant viral protein encoded by SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. N plays key roles at different steps in the replication cycle and is used as a serological marker of infection. Here we characterize the biochemical properties of SARS-CoV-2 N. We define the N domains important for oligomerization and RNA binding that are associated with spherical droplet formation and suggest that N accessibility and assembly may be regulated by phosphorylation. We also map the RNA binding interface using hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. Finally, we find that the N protein C-terminal domain is the most immunogenic by sensitivity, based upon antibody binding to COVID-19 patient samples from the US and Hong Kong. Together, these findings uncover domain-specific insights into the significance of SARS-CoV-2 N and highlight the diagnostic value of using N domains as highly specific and sensitive markers of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.30.404905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709165PMC
November 2020

Impact of Měnglà Virus Proteins on Human and Bat Innate Immune Pathways.

J Virol 2020 06 16;94(13). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Měnglà virus (MLAV), identified in bats, is a phylogenetically distinct member of the family Because the filoviruses Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) modulate host innate immunity, MLAV VP35, VP40, and VP24 proteins were compared with their EBOV and MARV homologs for innate immune pathway modulation. In human and cells, MLAV VP35 behaved like EBOV and MARV VP35s, inhibiting virus-induced activation of the interferon beta (IFN-β) promoter and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation. MLAV VP35 also interacted with PACT, a host protein engaged by EBOV VP35 to inhibit RIG-I signaling. MLAV VP35 also inhibits PKR activation. MLAV VP40 was demonstrated to inhibit type I IFN-induced gene expression in human and bat cells. It blocked STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation induced either by type I IFN or overexpressed Jak1, paralleling MARV VP40. MLAV VP40 also inhibited virus-induced IFN-β promoter activation, a property shared by MARV VP40 and EBOV VP24. A Jak kinase inhibitor did not recapitulate this inhibition in the absence of viral proteins. Therefore, inhibition of Jak-STAT signaling is insufficient to explain inhibition of IFN-β promoter activation. MLAV VP24 did not inhibit IFN-induced gene expression or bind karyopherin α proteins, properties of EBOV VP24. MLAV VP24 differed from MARV VP24 in that it failed to interact with Keap1 or activate an antioxidant response element reporter gene due to the absence of a Keap1-binding motif. These functional observations support a closer relationship of MLAV to MARV than to EBOV but also are consistent with MLAV belonging to a distinct genus. EBOV and MARV, members of the family , are highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses that cause severe disease in humans. Both viruses use several mechanisms to modulate the host innate immune response, and these likely contribute to the severity of disease. Here, we demonstrate that MLAV, a filovirus newly discovered in a bat, suppresses antiviral type I interferon responses in both human and bat cells. Inhibitory activities are possessed by MLAV VP35 and VP40, which parallels how MARV blocks IFN responses. However, whereas MARV activates cellular antioxidant responses through an interaction between its VP24 protein and host protein Keap1, MLAV VP24 lacks a Keap1-binding motif and fails to activate this cytoprotective response. These data indicate that MLAV possesses immune-suppressing functions that could facilitate human infection. They also support the placement of MLAV in a different genus than either EBOV or MARV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00191-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307173PMC
June 2020