Publications by authors named "Joyce L Browne"

46 Publications

Classifying maternal deaths in Suriname using WHO ICD-MM: different interpretation by Physicians, National and International Maternal Death Review Committees.

Reprod Health 2021 Feb 19;18(1):46. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Division Women and Baby, Department of Obstetrics, Wilhelmina's Children Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The World Health Organization (WHO) provides a framework (ICD-MM) to classify pregnancy-related deaths systematically, which enables global comparison among countries. We compared the classification of pregnancy-related deaths in Suriname by the attending physician and by the national maternal death review (MDR) committee and among the MDR committees of Suriname, Jamaica and the Netherlands. There were 89 possible pregnancy-related deaths in Suriname between 2010 and 2014. Nearly half (47%) were classified differently by the Surinamese MDR committee as compared to the classification of the attending physicians. All three MDR committees agreed that 18% (n = 16/89) of the cases were no maternal deaths. Out of the remaining 73 cases, there was disagreement regarding whether 15% (n = 11) were maternal deaths. The Surinamese and Jamaican MDR committees achieved greater consensus in classification than the Surinamese and the Netherlands MDR committees. The Netherlands MDR committee classified more deaths as unspecified than Surinamese and the Jamaican MDR committees. Underlying causes that achieved a high level of agreement among the three committees were abortive outcomes and obstetric hemorrhage, while little agreement was reported for unspecified and other direct causes. The issues encountered during maternal death classification using the ICD-MM guidelines included classification of suicide during early pregnancy; when to assume pregnancy without objective evidence; how to count maternal deaths occurring outside the country of residence; the relevance of direct or indirect cause attribution; and how to select the underlying cause when direct and indirect conditions or multiple comorbidities co-occur. Addressing these classification barriers in future revisions of the ICD-MM guidelines could enhance the feasibility of maternal death classification and facilitate global comparison.

Background: Insight into the underlying causes of pregnancy-related deaths is essential to develop policies to avert preventable deaths. The WHO International Classification of Diseases-Maternal Mortality (ICD-MM) guidelines provide a framework to standardize maternal death classifications and enable comparison in and among countries over time. However, despite the implementation of these guidelines, differences in classification remain. We evaluated consensus on maternal death classification using the ICD-MM guidelines.

Methods: The classification of pregnancy-related deaths in Suriname during 2010-2014 was compared in the country (between the attending physician and the national maternal death review (MDR) committee), and among the MDR committees from Suriname, Jamaica and the Netherlands. All reviewers applied the ICD-MM guidelines. The inter-rater reliability (Fleiss kappa [κ]) was used to measure agreement.

Results: Out of the 89 cases certified by attending physicians, 47% (n = 42) were classified differently by the Surinamese MDR committee. The three MDR committees agreed that 18% (n = 16/89) of these cases were no maternal deaths, and, therefore, excluded from further analyses. However, opinions differed whether 15% (n = 11) of the remaining 73 cases were maternal deaths. The MDR committees achieved moderate agreement classifying the deaths into type (direct, indirect and unspecified) (κ = 0.53) and underlying cause group (κ = 0.52). The Netherlands MDR committee classified more maternal deaths as unspecified (19%), than the Jamaican (7%) and Surinamese (4%) committees did. The mutual agreement between the Surinamese and Jamaican MDR committees (κ = 0.69 vs κ = 0.63) was better than between the Surinamese and the Netherlands MDR committees (κ = 0.48 vs κ = 0.49) for classification into type and underlying cause group, respectively. Agreement on the underlying cause category was excellent for abortive outcomes (κ = 0.85) and obstetric hemorrhage (κ = 0.74) and fair for unspecified (κ = 0.29) and other direct causes (κ = 0.32).

Conclusions: Maternal death classification differs in Suriname and among MDR committees from different countries, despite using the ICD-MM guidelines on similar cases. Specific challenges in applying these guidelines included attribution of underlying cause when comorbidities occurred, the inclusion of deaths from suicides, and maternal deaths that occurred outside the country of residence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-020-01051-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893967PMC
February 2021

Evidence-based interventions to reduce mortality among preterm and low-birthweight neonates in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Feb;6(2)

Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Preterm birth is the leading cause of under-five-mortality worldwide, with the highest burden in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study was to synthesise evidence-based interventions for preterm and low birthweight (LBW) neonates in LMICs, their associated neonatal mortality rate (NMR), and barriers and facilitators to their implementation. This study updates all existing evidence on this topic and reviews evidence on interventions that have not been previously considered in current WHO recommendations.

Methods: Six electronic databases were searched until 3 March 2020 for randomised controlled trials reporting NMR of preterm and/or LBW newborns following any intervention in LMICs. Risk ratios for mortality outcomes were pooled where appropriate using a random effects model (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019139267).

Results: 1236 studies were identified, of which 49 were narratively synthesised and 9 contributed to the meta-analysis. The studies included 39 interventions in 21 countries with 46 993 participants. High-quality evidence suggested significant reduction of NMR following antenatal corticosteroids (Pakistan risk ratio (RR) 0.89; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.99|Guatemala 0.74; 0.68 to 0.81), single cord (0.65; 0.50 to 0.86) and skin cleansing with chlorhexidine (0.72; 0.55 to 0.95), early BCG vaccine (0.64; 0.48 to 0.86; I 0%), community kangaroo mother care (OR 0.73; 0.55 to 0.97; I 0%) and home-based newborn care (preterm 0.25; 0.14 to 0.48|LBW 0.42; 0.27 to 0.65). No effects on perinatal (essential newborn care 1.02; 0.91 to 1.14|neonatal resuscitation 0.95; 0.84 to 1.07) or 7-day NMR (essential newborn care 1.03; 0.83 to 1.27|neonatal resuscitation 0.92; 0.77 to 1.09) were observed after training birth attendants.

Conclusion: The findings of this study encourage the implementation of additional, evidence-based interventions in the current (WHO) guidelines and to be selective in usage of antenatal corticosteroids, to reduce mortality among preterm and LBW neonates in LMICs. Given the global commitment to end all preventable neonatal deaths by 2030, continuous evaluation and improvement of the current guidelines should be a priority on the agenda.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-003618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896575PMC
February 2021

The application of WHO ICD-PM: Feasibility for the classification of timing and causes of perinatal deaths in a busy birth centre in a low-income country.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(1):e0245196. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Division Woman and Baby, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: To assess the feasibility of the application of International Classification of Diseases-10-to perinatal mortality (ICD-PM) in a busy low-income referral hospital and determine the timing and causes of perinatal deaths, and associated maternal conditions.

Design: Prospective application of ICD-PM.

Setting: Referral hospital of Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania.

Population: Stillbirths and neonatal deaths with a birth weight above 1000 grams born between October 16th 2017 to May 31st 2018.

Methods: Clinical information and an adapted WHO ICD-PM interactive excel-based system were used to capture and classify the deaths according to timing, causes and associated maternal complications. Descriptive analysis was performed.

Main Outcome Measures: Timing and causes of perinatal mortality and their associated maternal conditions.

Results: There were 661 perinatal deaths of which 248 (37.5%) were neonatal deaths and 413 (62.5%) stillbirths. Of the stillbirths, 128 (31%) occurred antepartum, 129 (31%) intrapartum and for 156 (38%) the timing was unknown. Half (n = 64/128) of the antepartum stillbirths were unexplained. Two-thirds (67%, n = 87/129) of intrapartum stillbirths followed acute intrapartum events, and 30% (39/129) were unexplained. Of the neonatal deaths, 40% died after complications of intrapartum events.

Conclusion: Problems of documentation, lack of perinatal death audits, capacity for investigations, and guidelines for the unambiguous objective assignment of timing and primary causes of death are major threats for accurate determination of timing and specific primary causes of perinatal deaths.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245196PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808596PMC
January 2021

Postpartum hemorrhage in Suriname: A national descriptive study of hospital births and an audit of case management.

PLoS One 2020 18;15(12):e0244087. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Board of Doctoral Graduations and Honorary Doctorate Awards, Anton de Kom University, Paramaribo, Suriname, South Africa.

Background: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of direct maternal mortality globally and in Suriname. We aimed to study the prevalence, risk indicators, causes, and management of PPH to identify opportunities for PPH reduction.

Methods: A nationwide retrospective descriptive study of all hospital deliveries in Suriname in 2017 was performed. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify risk indicators for PPH (≥ 500ml blood loss). Management of severe PPH (blood loss ≥1,000ml or ≥500ml with hypotension or at least three transfusions) was evaluated via a criteria-based audit using the national guideline.

Results: In 2017, the prevalence of PPH and severe PPH in Suriname was 9.2% (n = 808/8,747) and 2.5% (n = 220/8,747), respectively. PPH varied from 5.8% to 15.8% across the hospitals. Risk indicators associated with severe PPH included being of African descent (Maroon aOR 2.1[95%CI 1.3-3.3], Creole aOR 1.8[95%CI 1.1-3.0]), multiple pregnancy (aOR 3.4[95%CI 1.7-7.1]), delivery in Hospital D (aOR 2.4[95%CI 1.7-3.4]), cesarean section (aOR 3.9[95%CI 2.9-5.3]), stillbirth (aOR 6.4 [95%CI 3.4-12.2]), preterm birth (aOR 2.1[95%CI 1.3-3.2]), and macrosomia (aOR 2.8 [95%CI 1.5-5.0]). Uterine atony (56.7%, n = 102/180[missing 40]) and retained placenta (19.4%, n = 35/180[missing 40]), were the main causes of severe PPH. A criteria-based audit revealed that women with severe PPH received prophylactic oxytocin in 61.3% (n = 95/155[missing 65]), oxytocin treatment in 68.8% (n = 106/154[missing 66]), and tranexamic acid in 4.9% (n = 5/103[missing 117]).

Conclusions: PPH prevalence and risk indicators in Suriname were similar to international and regional reports. Inconsistent blood loss measurement, varied maternal and perinatal characteristics, and variable guideline adherence contributed to interhospital prevalence variation. PPH reduction in Suriname can be achieved through prevention by practicing active management of the third stage of labor in every birth and considering risk factors, early recognition by objective and consistent blood loss measurement, and prompt treatment by adequate administration of oxytocin and tranexamic acid according to national guidelines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0244087PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748130PMC
March 2021

Validation and development of models using clinical, biochemical and ultrasound markers for predicting pre-eclampsia: an individual participant data meta-analysis.

Health Technol Assess 2020 12;24(72):1-252

Background: Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Early identification of women at risk is needed to plan management.

Objectives: To assess the performance of existing pre-eclampsia prediction models and to develop and validate models for pre-eclampsia using individual participant data meta-analysis. We also estimated the prognostic value of individual markers.

Design: This was an individual participant data meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Setting: Source data from secondary and tertiary care.

Predictors: We identified predictors from systematic reviews, and prioritised for importance in an international survey.

Primary Outcomes: Early-onset (delivery at < 34 weeks' gestation), late-onset (delivery at ≥ 34 weeks' gestation) and any-onset pre-eclampsia.

Analysis: We externally validated existing prediction models in UK cohorts and reported their performance in terms of discrimination and calibration. We developed and validated 12 new models based on clinical characteristics, clinical characteristics and biochemical markers, and clinical characteristics and ultrasound markers in the first and second trimesters. We summarised the data set-specific performance of each model using a random-effects meta-analysis. Discrimination was considered promising for -statistics of ≥ 0.7, and calibration was considered good if the slope was near 1 and calibration-in-the-large was near 0. Heterogeneity was quantified using and τ. A decision curve analysis was undertaken to determine the clinical utility (net benefit) of the models. We reported the unadjusted prognostic value of individual predictors for pre-eclampsia as odds ratios with 95% confidence and prediction intervals.

Results: The International Prediction of Pregnancy Complications network comprised 78 studies (3,570,993 singleton pregnancies) identified from systematic reviews of tests to predict pre-eclampsia. Twenty-four of the 131 published prediction models could be validated in 11 UK cohorts. Summary -statistics were between 0.6 and 0.7 for most models, and calibration was generally poor owing to large between-study heterogeneity, suggesting model overfitting. The clinical utility of the models varied between showing net harm to showing minimal or no net benefit. The average discrimination for IPPIC models ranged between 0.68 and 0.83. This was highest for the second-trimester clinical characteristics and biochemical markers model to predict early-onset pre-eclampsia, and lowest for the first-trimester clinical characteristics models to predict any pre-eclampsia. Calibration performance was heterogeneous across studies. Net benefit was observed for International Prediction of Pregnancy Complications first and second-trimester clinical characteristics and clinical characteristics and biochemical markers models predicting any pre-eclampsia, when validated in singleton nulliparous women managed in the UK NHS. History of hypertension, parity, smoking, mode of conception, placental growth factor and uterine artery pulsatility index had the strongest unadjusted associations with pre-eclampsia.

Limitations: Variations in study population characteristics, type of predictors reported, too few events in some validation cohorts and the type of measurements contributed to heterogeneity in performance of the International Prediction of Pregnancy Complications models. Some published models were not validated because model predictors were unavailable in the individual participant data.

Conclusion: For models that could be validated, predictive performance was generally poor across data sets. Although the International Prediction of Pregnancy Complications models show good predictive performance on average, and in the singleton nulliparous population, heterogeneity in calibration performance is likely across settings.

Future Work: Recalibration of model parameters within populations may improve calibration performance. Additional strong predictors need to be identified to improve model performance and consistency. Validation, including examination of calibration heterogeneity, is required for the models we could not validate.

Study Registration: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42015029349.

Funding: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in ; Vol. 24, No. 72. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3310/hta24720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780127PMC
December 2020

Applicability of the WHO maternal near-miss tool: A nationwide surveillance study in Suriname.

J Glob Health 2020 Dec;10(2):020429

Department of Obstetrics, Division Women and Baby, Birth Centre Wilhelmina's Children Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Maternal near-miss (MNM) is an important maternal health quality-of-care indicator. To facilitate comparison between countries, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the "MNM-tool". However, several low- and middle-income countries have proposed adaptations to prevent underreporting, ie, Namibian and Sub-Sahara African (SSA)-criteria. This study aims to assess MNM and associated factors in middle-income country Suriname by applying the three different MNM tools.

Methods: A nationwide prospective population-based cohort study was conducted using the Suriname Obstetric Surveillance System (SurOSS). We included women with MNM-criteria defined by WHO-, Namibian- and SSA-tools during one year (March 2017-February 2018) and used hospital births (86% of total) as a reference group.

Results: There were 9114 hospital live births in Suriname in the one-year study period. SurOSS identified 71 women with WHO-MNM (8/1000 live births, mortality-index 12%), 118 with Namibian-MNM (13/1000 live births, mortality-index 8%), and 242 with SSA-MNM (27/1000 live births, mortality-index 4%). Namibian- and SSA-tools identified all women with WHO-criteria. Blood transfusion thresholds and eclampsia explained the majority of differences in MNM prevalence. Eclampsia was not considered a WHO-MNM in 80% (n = 35/44) of cases. Nevertheless, mortality-index for MNM with hypertensive disorders was 17% and the most frequent underlying cause of maternal deaths (n = 4/10, 40%) and MNM (n = 24/71, 34%). Women of advanced age and maroon ethnicity had twice the odds of WHO-MNM (respectively adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-4.8 and aOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.6). The stillbirths rate among women with WHO-MNM was 193/1000births, with six times higher odds than women without MNM (aOR = 6.8, 95%CI = 3.0-15.8). While the prevalence and mortality-index differ between the three MNM tools, the underlying causes of and factors associated with MNM were comparable.

Conclusions: The MNM ratio in Suriname is comparable to other countries in the region. The WHO-tool underestimates the prevalence of MNM (high mortality-index), while the adapted tools may overestimate MNM and compromise global comparability. Contextualized MNM-criteria per obstetric transition stage may improve comparability and reduce underreporting. While MNM studies facilitate international comparison, audit will remain necessary to identify shortfalls in quality-of-care and improve maternal outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7189/jogh.10.020429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649043PMC
December 2020

External validation of prognostic models predicting pre-eclampsia: individual participant data meta-analysis.

BMC Med 2020 11 2;18(1):302. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Early identification of women at risk during pregnancy is required to plan management. Although there are many published prediction models for pre-eclampsia, few have been validated in external data. Our objective was to externally validate published prediction models for pre-eclampsia using individual participant data (IPD) from UK studies, to evaluate whether any of the models can accurately predict the condition when used within the UK healthcare setting.

Methods: IPD from 11 UK cohort studies (217,415 pregnant women) within the International Prediction of Pregnancy Complications (IPPIC) pre-eclampsia network contributed to external validation of published prediction models, identified by systematic review. Cohorts that measured all predictor variables in at least one of the identified models and reported pre-eclampsia as an outcome were included for validation. We reported the model predictive performance as discrimination (C-statistic), calibration (calibration plots, calibration slope, calibration-in-the-large), and net benefit. Performance measures were estimated separately in each available study and then, where possible, combined across studies in a random-effects meta-analysis.

Results: Of 131 published models, 67 provided the full model equation and 24 could be validated in 11 UK cohorts. Most of the models showed modest discrimination with summary C-statistics between 0.6 and 0.7. The calibration of the predicted compared to observed risk was generally poor for most models with observed calibration slopes less than 1, indicating that predictions were generally too extreme, although confidence intervals were wide. There was large between-study heterogeneity in each model's calibration-in-the-large, suggesting poor calibration of the predicted overall risk across populations. In a subset of models, the net benefit of using the models to inform clinical decisions appeared small and limited to probability thresholds between 5 and 7%.

Conclusions: The evaluated models had modest predictive performance, with key limitations such as poor calibration (likely due to overfitting in the original development datasets), substantial heterogeneity, and small net benefit across settings. The evidence to support the use of these prediction models for pre-eclampsia in clinical decision-making is limited. Any models that we could not validate should be examined in terms of their predictive performance, net benefit, and heterogeneity across multiple UK settings before consideration for use in practice.

Trial Registration: PROSPERO ID: CRD42015029349 .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01766-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7604970PMC
November 2020

Why magnesium sulfate 'coverage' only is not enough to reduce eclampsia: Lessons learned in a middle-income country.

Pregnancy Hypertens 2020 Oct 21;22:136-143. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Obstetrics, Birth Centre Wilhelmina's Children Hospital, Division Woman and Baby, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands; Julius Global Health, Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: Determine the eclampsia prevalence and factors associated with eclampsia and recurrent seizures in Suriname and evaluate quality-of-care indicator 'magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) coverage'.

Study Design: A two-year prospective nationwide cohort study was conducted in Suriname and included women with eclampsia at home or in a healthcare facility.

Main Outcome Measures: We calculated the prevalence by the number of live births obtained from vital registration. Risk factor denominator data concerned hospital births. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analysis were performed.

Results: Seventy-two women with eclampsia (37/10.000 live births) were identified, including two maternal deaths (case-fatality 2.8%). Nulliparity, African-descent and adolescence were associated with eclampsia. Adolescents with eclampsia had significantly lower BPs (150/100 mmHg) than adult women (168/105 mmHg). The first seizure occurred antepartum in 54% (n = 39/72), intrapartum in 19% (n = 14/72) and postpartum in 26% (n = 19/72). Recurrent seizures were observed in 60% (n = 43/72). MgSO4 was administered to 99% (n = 69/70) of women; however 26% received no loading dosage and, in 22% of cases MgSO4 duration was <24 h, i.e. guideline adherence existed in only 43%. MgSO4 was ceased during CS in all women (n = 40). Stable BP was achieved before CS in 46%. The median seizure-to-delivery interval was 27 h, and ranged from four to 36 h.

Conclusion: Solely 'MgSO4 coverage' is not a reliable quality-of-care indicator, as it conceals inadequate MgSO4 dosage and timing, discontinuation during CS, stabilization before delivery, and seizure-to-delivery interval. These other quality-of-care indicators need attention from the international community in order to reduce the prevalence of eclampsia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preghy.2020.09.006DOI Listing
October 2020

Mistreatment during childbirth.

Lancet 2020 09;396(10254):816-817

Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, 3508 GA Utrecht, Netherlands.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31556-7DOI Listing
September 2020

Investigation of stillbirth causes in Suriname: application of the WHO ICD-PM tool to national-level hospital data.

Glob Health Action 2020 12;13(1):1794105

Department of Obstetrics, Division Women and Baby, Birth Centre Wilhelmina's Children Hospital, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht University , Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Suriname has one of the highest stillbirth rates in Latin America and the Caribbean. To facilitate data comparison of perinatal deaths, the World Health Organization developed the International Classification of Diseases-10 Perinatal Mortality (ICD-PM).

Objective: We aimed to (1) assess characteristics and risk indicators of women with a stillbirth, (2) determine the timing and causes of stillbirths according to the ICD-PM with critical evaluation of its application and (3) propose recommendations for the reduction of stillbirths in Suriname.

Methods: A hospital-based, nation-wide, cross-sectional study was conducted in all hospitals within Suriname during one-year (2017). The medical files of stillbirths (gestation ≥28 weeks/birth weight ≥1000 grams) were reviewed and classified using ICD-PM. We used descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses.

Results: The stillbirth rate in Suriname was 14.4/1000 births (n=131 stillbirths, n=9089 total births). Medical files were available for 86% (n=113/131) of stillbirths. Women of African descent had the highest stillbirth rate and two times the odds of stillbirth (OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.4-3.1) compared to women of other ethnicities. One third (33%, n=37/113) of stillbirths occurred after hospital admission. The timing was antepartum in 85% (n=96/113), intrapartum in 11% (n=12/113) and unknown in 4% (n=5/113). Antepartum stillbirths were caused by in 46% (n=44/96). In 41% (n=39/96) the cause was unspecified. were present in 50% (n=57/113), mostly hypertensive disorders.

Conclusion: Stillbirth reduction strategies in Suriname call for targeting ethnic disparities, improving antenatal services, implementing perinatal death audits and improving diagnostic post-mortem investigations. ICD-PM limited the formulation of recommendations due to many stillbirths of 'unspecified' causes. Based on our study findings, we also recommend addressing some challenges with applying the ICD-PM.

Abbreviations: CTG: Cardiotocography; ENAP: Every Newborn Action Plan (ENAP); ICD-PM: The WHO application of ICD-10 to deaths during the perinatal period - perinatal mortality; SBR: Stillbirth rate; SGA: Small for gestational age; WHO: World Health Organization; LMIC: Low- and middle-income countries; FHR: foetal heart rate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2020.1794105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480654PMC
December 2020

Childbirth outcomes and ethnic disparities in Suriname: a nationwide registry-based study in a middle-income country.

Reprod Health 2020 May 7;17(1):62. Epub 2020 May 7.

Julius Global Health, The Julius Centre for Health Sciences, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Our study aims to evaluate the current perinatal registry, analyze national childbirth outcomes and study ethnic disparities in middle-income country Suriname, South America.

Methods: A nationwide birth registry study was conducted in Suriname. Data were collected for 2016 and 2017 from the childbirth books of all five hospital maternity wards, covering 86% of all births in the country. Multinomial regression analyses were used to assess ethnic disparities in outcomes of maternal deaths, stillbirths, teenage pregnancy, cesarean delivery, low birth weight and preterm birth with Hindustani women as reference group.

Results: 18.290 women gave birth to 18.118 (98%) live born children in the five hospitals. Hospital-based maternal mortality ratio was 112 per 100.000 live births. Hospital-based late stillbirth rate was 16 per 1000 births. Stillbirth rate was highest among Maroon (African-descendent) women (25 per 1000 births, aOR 2.0 (95%CI 1.3-2.8) and lowest among Javanese women (6 stillbirths per 1000 births, aOR 0.5, 95%CI 0.2-1.2). Preterm birth and low birthweight occurred in 14 and 15% of all births. Teenage pregnancy accounted for 14% of all births and was higher in Maroon women (18%) compared to Hindustani women (10%, aOR 2.1, 95%CI 1.8-2.4). The national cesarean section rate was 24% and was lower in Maroon (17%) than in Hindustani (32%) women (aOR 0.5 (95%CI 0.5-0.6)). Cesarean section rates varied between the hospitals from 17 to 36%.

Conclusion: This is the first nationwide comprehensive overview of maternal and perinatal health in a middle income country. Disaggregated perinatal health data in Suriname shows substantial inequities in outcomes by ethnicity which need to be targetted by health professionals, researchers and policy makers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-020-0902-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206667PMC
May 2020

Quality of intrapartum care: direct observations in a low-resource tertiary hospital.

Reprod Health 2020 Mar 14;17(1):36. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Division Woman and Baby, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Background: The majority of the world's perinatal deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. A substantial proportion occurs intrapartum and is avoidable with better care. At a low-resource tertiary hospital, this study assessed the quality of intrapartum care and adherence to locally-tailored clinical guidelines.

Methods: A non-participatory, structured, direct observation study was held at Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, Zanzibar, Tanzania, between October and November 2016. Women in active labour were followed and structure, processes of labour care and outcomes of care systematically recorded. Descriptive analyses were performed on the labour observations and compared to local guidelines and supplemented by qualitative findings. A Poisson regression analysis assessed factors affecting foetal heart rate monitoring (FHRM) guidelines adherence.

Results: 161 labouring women were observed. The nurse/midwife-to-labouring-women ratio of 1:4, resulted in doctors providing a significant part of intrapartum monitoring. Care during labour and two-thirds of deliveries was provided in a one-room labour ward with shared beds. Screening for privacy and communication of examination findings were done in 50 and 34%, respectively. For the majority, there was delayed recognition of labour progress and insufficient support in second stage of labour. While FHRM was generally performed suboptimally with a median interval of 105 (interquartile range 57-160) minutes, occurrence of an intrapartum risk event (non-reassuring FHR, oxytocin use or poor progress) increased assessment frequency significantly (rate ratio 1.32 (CI 1.09-1.58)).

Conclusions: Neither international nor locally-adapted standards of intrapartum routine care were optimally achieved. This was most likely due to a grossly inadequate capacity of birth attendants; without whom innovative interventions at birth are unlikely to succeed. This calls for international and local stakeholders to address the root causes of unsafe intrafacility care in low-resource settings, including the number of skilled birth attendants required for safe and respectful births.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-020-0849-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071714PMC
March 2020

Household fuel use and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a Ghanaian cohort study.

Reprod Health 2020 Feb 22;17(1):29. Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Institute for Risk Assessment Science (IRAS), Division of Environmental Epidemiology (EEPI), Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Accruing epidemiological evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to emissions from cooking fuel is associated with increased risks of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes including hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, low birth weight, stillbirth and infant mortality. We aimed to investigate the relationship between cooking fuel use and various pregnancy related outcomes in a cohort of urban women from the Accra region of Ghana.

Methods: Self-reported cooking fuel use was divided into "polluting" (wood, charcoal, crop residue and kerosene) and "clean" fuels (liquid petroleum gas and electricity) to examine 12 obstetric outcomes in a prospective cohort of pregnant women (N = 1010) recruited at < 17 weeks of gestation from Accra, Ghana. Logistic and multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for BMI, maternal age, maternal education and socio-economic status asset index was conducted.

Results: 34% (n = 279) of 819 women with outcome data available for analysis used polluting fuel as their main cooking fuel. Using polluting cooking fuels was associated with perinatal mortality (aOR: 7.6, 95%CI: 1.67-36.0) and an adverse Apgar score (< 7) at 5 min (aOR:3.83, 95%CI: (1.44-10.11). The other outcomes (miscarriage, post-partum hemorrhage, pre-term birth, low birthweight, caesarian section, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, small for gestational age, and Apgar score at 1 min) had non-statistically significant findings.

Conclusions: We report an increased likelihood of perinatal mortality, and adverse 5-min Apgar scores in association with polluting fuel use. Further research including details on extent of household fuel use exposure is recommended to better quantify the consequences of household fuel use.

Study Registration: Ghana Service Ethical Review Committee (GHS-ERC #: 07-9-11).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-020-0878-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036189PMC
February 2020

Prognostic models for adverse pregnancy outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 30;4(5):e001759. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Ninety-nine per cent of all maternal and neonatal deaths occur in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Prognostic models can provide standardised risk assessment to guide clinical management and can be vital to reduce and prevent maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. This review provides a comprehensive summary of prognostic models for adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes developed and/or validated in LMIC.

Methods: A systematic search in four databases (PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, Global Health Library and The Cochrane Library) was conducted from inception (1970) up to 2 May 2018. Risk of bias was assessed with the PROBAST tool and narratively summarised.

Results: 1741 articles were screened and 21 prognostic models identified. Seventeen models focused on maternal outcomes and four on perinatal outcomes, of which hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (n=9) and perinatal death including stillbirth (n=4) was most reported. Only one model was externally validated. Thirty different predictors were used to develop the models. Risk of bias varied across studies, with the item 'quality of analysis' performing the least.

Conclusion: Prognostic models can be easy to use, informative and low cost with great potential to improve maternal and neonatal health in LMIC settings. However, the number of prognostic models developed or validated in LMIC settings is low and mirrors the 10/90 gap in which only 10% of resources are dedicated to 90% of the global disease burden. External validation of existing models developed in both LMIC and high-income countries instead of developing new models should be encouraged.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42017058044.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6830054PMC
October 2019

Birth asphyxia following delayed recognition and response to abnormal labour progress and fetal distress in a 31-year-old multiparous Malawian woman.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Sep 11;12(9). Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Vrouw & Baby, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Reducing neonatal mortality is one of the targets of Sustainable Development Goal 3 on good health and well-being. The highest rates of neonatal death occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Birth asphyxia is one of the major preventable causes. Early detection and timely management of abnormal labour progress and fetal compromise are critical to reduce the global burden of birth asphyxia. Labour progress, maternal and fetal well-being are assessed using the WHO partograph and intermittent fetal heart rate monitoring. However, in low-resource settings adherence to labour guidelines and timely response to arising labour complications is generally poor. Reasons for this are multifactorial and include lack of resources and skilled health care staff. This case study in a Malawian hospital illustrates how delayed recognition of abnormal labour and prolonged decision-to-delivery interval contributed to birth asphyxia, as an example of many delivery rooms in low-income country settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-227973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738677PMC
September 2019

Bottom-up development of national obstetric guidelines in middle-income country Suriname.

BMC Health Serv Res 2019 Sep 9;19(1):651. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Department of Obstetrics, Division Women and Baby, Birth Centre Wilhelmina's Children Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Obstetric guidelines are useful to improve the quality of care. Availability of international guidelines has rapidly increased, however the contextualization to enhance feasibility of implementation in health facilities in low and middle-income settings has only been described in literature in a few instances. This study describes the approach and lessons learned from the 'bottom-up' development process of context-tailored national obstetric guidelines in middle-income country Suriname.

Methods: Local obstetric health care providers initiated the guideline development process in Suriname in August 2016 for two common obstetric conditions: hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and post partum haemorrhage (PPH).

Results: The process consisted of six steps: (1) determination of how and why women died, (2) interviews and observations of local clinical practice, (3) review of international guidelines, (4) development of a primary set of guidelines, (5) initiation of a national discussion on the guidelines content and (6) establishment of the final guidelines based on consensus. Maternal enquiry of HDP- and PPH-related maternal deaths revealed substandard care in 90 and 95% of cases, respectively. An assessment of the management through interviews and labour observations identified gaps in quality of the provided care and large discrepancies in the management of HDP and PPH between the hospitals. International recommendations were considered unfeasible and were inconsistent when compared to each other. Local health care providers and stakeholders convened to create national context-tailored guidelines based on adapted international recommendations. The guidelines were developed within four months and locally implemented.

Conclusion: Development of national context-tailored guidelines is achievable in a middle-income country when using a 'bottom-up' approach that involves all obstetric health care providers and stakeholders in the earliest phase. We hope the descriptive process of guideline development is helpful for other countries in need of nationwide guidelines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4377-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734520PMC
September 2019

Medical schools should ensure and improve global health education.

Lancet 2019 08;394(10200):731

Julius Global Health, Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht University, 3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands; Netherlands Society for Tropical Medicine and International Health, Wijhe, Netherlands. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31254-1DOI Listing
August 2019

Equity in maternal health outcomes in a middle-income urban setting: a cohort study.

Reprod Health 2019 Jun 18;16(1):84. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with more adverse perinatal health outcomes, risk factors and lower access to and use of maternal health care services. However, evidence for the association between SES and maternal health outcomes is limited, particularly for middle-income countries like sub-Saharan Ghana. We assessed the association between parental SES and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes of Ghanaian women during pregnancy, delivery and the postpartum period.

Methods: A prospective cohort study of 1010 women of two public hospitals in Accra, Ghana (2012-2014). SES was proxied by maternal and paternal education, wealth and employment status. The association of SES with maternal and perinatal outcomes was analyzed with multivariable logistic and linear regression.

Results: The analysis included 790 women with information on pregnancy outcomes. Average age was 28.2 years (standard deviation, SD 5.0). Over a third (n = 292, 37.0%) had low SES, 176 (22.3%) were classified to have high SES using the assets index. Nearly half (n = 374, 47.3%) of women had lower secondary school or vocational training as highest education level. Compared to women with middle assets SES, women with low assets SES were at higher risk for miscarriage (odds ratio, OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.45) and instrumental delivery (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.94), but this association was not observed for the other SES proxies. For any of the maternal or perinatal outcomes and SES proxies, no other statistically significant differences were found.

Conclusion: Women attending public maternal health care services in urban Ghana had overall equitable maternal and perinatal health outcomes, with the exception of a higher risk of miscarriage and instrumental delivery associated with low assets SES. This suggests known associations between SES, risk factors and outcomes could be mitigated with universal and accessible maternal health services.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-019-0736-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6580627PMC
June 2019

Maternal and perinatal outcomes of asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Europe: a systematic review.

Eur J Public Health 2019 08;29(4):714-723

Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Asylum seekers (AS) and undocumented migrants (UM) are at risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes due to adverse health determinants and compromised maternal healthcare access and service quality. Considering recent migratory patterns and the absence of a robust overview, a systematic review was conducted on maternal and perinatal outcomes in AS and UM in Europe.

Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE (until 1 May 2017), complemented by a grey literature search (until 1 June 2017). Primary research articles reporting on any maternal or perinatal outcome, published between 2007 and 2017 in English/Dutch were eligible for inclusion. Review protocols were registered on Prospero: CRD42017062375 and CRD42017062477. Due to heterogeneity in study populations and outcomes, results were synthesized narratively.

Results: Of 4652 peer-reviewed articles and 145 grey literature sources screened, 11 were included from 4 European countries. Several studies reported adverse outcomes including higher maternal mortality (AS), severe acute maternal morbidity (AS), preterm birth (UM) and low birthweight (UM). Risk of bias was generally acceptable, although the limited number and quality of some studies preclude definite conclusions.

Conclusion: Limited evidence is available on pregnancy outcomes in AS and UM in Europe. The adverse outcomes reported imply that removing barriers to high-quality maternal care should be a priority. More research focussing on migrant subpopulations, considering potential risk factors such as ethnicity and legal status, is needed to guide policy and optimize care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckz042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734941PMC
August 2019

Delphi consensus statement on intrapartum fetal monitoring in low-resource settings.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2019 Jul 24;146(1):8-16. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Objective: To determine acceptable and achievable strategies of intrapartum fetal monitoring in busy low-resource settings.

Methods: Three rounds of online Delphi surveys were conducted between January 1 and October 31, 2017. International experts with experience in low-resource settings scored the importance of intrapartum fetal monitoring methods.

Results: 71 experts completed all three rounds (28 midwives, 43 obstetricians). Consensus was reached on (1) need for an admission test, (2) handheld Doppler for intrapartum fetal monitoring, (3) intermittent auscultation (IA) every 30 minutes for low-risk pregnancies during the first stage of labor and after every contraction for high-risk pregnancies in the second stage, (4) contraction monitoring hourly for low-risk pregnancies in the first stage, and (5) adjunctive tests. Consensus was not reached on frequency of IA or contraction monitoring for high-risk women in the first stage or low-risk women in the second stage of labor.

Conclusion: There is a gap between international recommendations and what is physically possible in many labor wards in low-resource settings. Research on how to effectively implement the consensus on fetal assessment at admission and use of handheld Doppler during labor and delivery is crucial to support staff in achieving the best possible care in low-resource settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.12724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7379246PMC
July 2019

The willingness to participate in biomedical research involving human beings in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

Trop Med Int Health 2019 03 8;24(3):264-279. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Medical Humanities, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To systematically review reasons for the willingness to participate in biomedical human subjects research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Methods: Five databases were systematically searched for articles published between 2000 and 2017 containing the domain of 'human subjects research' in 'LMICs' and determinant 'reasons for (non)participation'. Reasons mentioned were extracted, ranked and results narratively described.

Results: Ninety-four articles were included, 44 qualitative and 50 mixed-methods studies. Altruism, personal health benefits, access to health care, monetary benefit, knowledge, social support and trust were the most important reasons for participation. Primary reasons for non-participation were safety concerns, inconvenience, stigmatisation, lack of social support, confidentiality concerns, physical pain, efficacy concerns and distrust. Stigmatisation was a major concern in relation to HIV research. Reasons were similar across different regions, gender, non-patient or patient participants and real or hypothetical study designs.

Conclusions: Addressing factors that affect (non-)participation in the planning process and during the conduct of research may enhance voluntary consent to participation and reduce barriers for potential participants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6850431PMC
March 2019

Strategies for intrapartum foetal surveillance in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review.

PLoS One 2018 26;13(10):e0206295. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: The majority of the five million perinatal deaths worldwide take place in low-resource settings. In contrast to high-resource settings, almost 50% of stillbirths occur intrapartum. The aim of this study was to synthesise available evidence of strategies for foetal surveillance in low-resource settings and associated neonatal and maternal outcomes, including barriers to their implementation.

Methods And Findings: The review was registered with Prospero (CRD42016038679). Five databases were searched up to May 1st, 2016 for studies related to intrapartum foetal monitoring strategies and neonatal outcomes in low-resource settings. Two authors extracted data and assessed the risk of bias for each study. The outcomes were narratively synthesised. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis (SWOT) was conducted for each monitoring technique to analyse their implementation. There were 37 studies included: five intervention and 32 observational studies. Use of the partograph improved perinatal outcomes. Intermittent auscultation with Pinard was associated with lowest rates of caesarean sections (10-15%) but with comparable perinatal outcomes to hand-held Doppler and Cardiotocography (CTG). CTG was associated with the highest rates of caesarean sections (28-34%) without proven benefits for perinatal outcome. Several tests on admission (admission tests) and adjunctive tests including foetal stimulation tests improved the accuracy of foetal heart rate monitoring in predicting adverse perinatal outcomes.

Conclusions: From the available evidence, the partograph is associated with improved perinatal outcomes and is recommended for use with intermittent auscultation for intrapartum monitoring in low resource settings. CTG is associated with higher caesarean section rates without proven benefits for perinatal outcomes, and should not be recommended in low-resource settings. High-quality evidence considering implementation barriers and enablers is needed to determine the optimal foetal monitoring strategy in low-resource settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206295PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6203373PMC
April 2019

Does body mass index early in pregnancy influence the risk of maternal anaemia? An observational study in Indonesian and Ghanaian women.

BMC Public Health 2018 07 13;18(1):873. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Anaemia is common among pregnant women, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While body mass index (BMI) relates to many risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy, little is known about the direct relation with anaemia itself. This is particularly relevant in Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa where the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy and the associated adverse outcomes is among the highest worldwide. This study aimed to assess the association between early pregnancy BMI and anaemia at first antenatal care visit in Indonesian and Ghanaian women. In addition, the associations between early pregnancy anaemia and adverse birth outcomes was assessed.

Methods: Prospective cohort studies of women in early pregnancy were conducted in Jakarta, Indonesia (n = 433) and in Accra, Ghana (n = 946), between 2012 and 2014. Linear regression analysis was used to assess relations between early pregnancy BMI and pregnancy haemoglobin levels at booking. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between early pregnancy anaemia as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and a composite of adverse birth outcomes including stillbirth, low birth weight and preterm birth.

Results: Indonesian women had lower BMI than Ghanaian women (23.0 vs 25.4 kg/m, p < 0.001) and higher mean haemoglobin levels (12.4 vs 11.1 g/dL, p < 0.001), corresponding to anaemia prevalence of 10 and 44%, respectively. Higher early pregnancy BMI was associated with higher haemoglobin levels in Indonesian (0.054 g/dL/kg/m, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.08, p < 0.001) and Ghanaian women (0.044 g/dL/kg/m, 0.02 to 0.07, p < 0.001). Accordingly, risk for anaemia decreased with higher early pregnancy BMI for Indonesians (adjusted OR 0.88, 0.81 to 0.97, p = 0.01) and Ghanaians (adjusted OR 0.95, 0.92 to 0.98, p < 0.001). No association between anaemia and the composite of adverse birth outcomes was observed.

Conclusion: Higher BMI in early pregnancy is associated with higher haemoglobin levels at antenatal booking and with a reduced risk of anaemia in Indonesian and Ghanaian women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5704-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6045841PMC
July 2018

Improved prediction of gestational hypertension by inclusion of placental growth factor and pregnancy associated plasma protein-a in a sample of Ghanaian women.

Reprod Health 2018 Mar 27;15(1):56. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: We assessed whether adding the biomarkers Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A) and Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) to maternal clinical characteristics improved the prediction of a previously developed model for gestational hypertension in a cohort of Ghanaian pregnant women.

Methods: This study was nested in a prospective cohort of 1010 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two public hospitals in Accra, Ghana. Pregnant women who were normotensive, at a gestational age at recruitment of between 8 and 13 weeks and provided a blood sample for biomarker analysis were eligible for inclusion. From serum, biomarkers PAPP-A and PlGF concentrations were measured by the AutoDELFIA immunoassay method and multiple of the median (MoM) values corrected for gestational age (PAPP-A and PlGF) and maternal weight (PAPP-A) were calculated. To obtain prediction models, these biomarkers were included with clinical predictors maternal weight, height, diastolic blood pressure, a previous history of gestational hypertension, history of hypertension in parents and parity in a logistic regression to obtain prediction models. The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC) was used to assess the predictive ability of the models.

Results: Three hundred and seventy three women participated in this study. The area under the curve (AUC) of the model with only maternal clinical characteristics was 0.75 (0.64-0.86) and 0.89(0.73-1.00) for multiparous and primigravid women respectively. The AUCs after inclusion of both PAPP-A and PlGF were 0.82 (0.74-0.89) and 0.95 (0.87-1.00) for multiparous and primigravid women respectively.

Conclusion: Adding the biomarkers PAPP-A and PlGF to maternal characteristics to a prediction model for gestational hypertension in a cohort of Ghanaian pregnant women improved predictive ability. Further research using larger sample sizes in similar settings to validate these findings is recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-018-0492-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5870183PMC
March 2018

Good intentions do not replace ethical conduct in research.

Lancet 2018 03 15;391(10125):1020-1021. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Center for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Global Health and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32413-3DOI Listing
March 2018

Task shifting in active management of the third stage of labor: a systematic review.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018 02 6;18(1):47. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL) describes interventions with the common goal to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). In low- and middle-income countries, implementation of AMTSL is hampered by shortage of skilled birth attendants and a high percentage of home deliveries. Task shifting of specific AMTSL components to unskilled birth attendants or self-administration could be a strategy to increase access to potentially life-saving interventions. This study was designed to evaluate the effect, acceptance and safety of task shifting of specific aspects of AMTSL to unskilled birth attendants.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted in five databases in September 2015 to identify intervention studies of AMTSL implemented by unskilled birth attendants or pregnant women themselves. Quality of studies was evaluated with an adapted Cochrane Collaboration assessment tool.

Results: Of 2469 studies screened, 21 were included. All studies assessed implementation of uterotonics (misoprostol tablets or oxytocin injections), administered by community health workers (CHWs), auxiliary midwives, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or self-administration at antenatal (home) visits or delivery. Task shifting for none of the other AMTSL components was reported. Task shifting of provision of uterotonics reduced the risk of PPH (RR 0.16 to 1) compared to standard care (13 studies, n = 15.197). The correct dose and timing was reported for 83.4 to 99.8% (5 studies, n = 6083) and 63 to 100% (9 studies, n = 8378) women respectively. Uterotonics were recommended to others by 80 to 99.7% (7 studies, n = 6445); 80 to 99.4% (5 studies, n = 2677) would use the drug at next delivery. Willingness to pay for uterotonics varied from 54.6 to 100% (7 studies, n = 6090).

Conclusion: Task shifting of AMTSL has thus far been evaluated for administration of uterotonics (misoprostol tablets and oxytocin injected by CHWs and auxiliary midwives) and resulted in reduction of PPH, high rates of appropriate use and satisfaction among users. In order to increase AMTSL coverage in low-staffed health facilities, task shifting of uterine massage or postpartum tonus assessment to unskilled attendants or delivered women could be considered. Task shifting of controlled cord traction is currently not recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-018-1677-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5801808PMC
February 2018

Knowledge and awareness of and perception towards cardiovascular disease risk in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review.

PLoS One 2017 12;12(12):e0189264. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most common cause of non-communicable disease mortality in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Gaps in knowledge of CVD conditions and their risk factors are important barriers in effective prevention and treatment. Yet, evidence on the awareness and knowledge level of CVD and associated risk factors among populations of SSA is scarce. This review aimed to synthesize available evidence of the level of knowledge of and perceptions towards CVDs and risk factors in the SSA region.

Methods: Five databases were searched for publications up to December 2016. Narrative synthesis was conducted for knowledge level of CVDs, knowledge of risk factors and clinical signs, factors influencing knowledge of CVDs and source of health information on CVDs. The review was registered with Prospero (CRD42016049165).

Results: Of 2212 titles and abstracts screened, 45 full-text papers were retrieved and reviewed and 20 were included: eighteen quantitative and two qualitative studies. Levels of knowledge and awareness for CVD and risk factors were generally low, coupled with poor perception. Most studies reported less than half of their study participants having good knowledge of CVDs and/or risk factors. Proportion of participants who were unable to identify a single risk factor and clinical symptom for CVDs ranged from 1.8% in a study among hospital staff in Nigeria to a high of 73% in a population-based survey in Uganda and 7% among University staff in Nigeria to 75.1% in a general population in Uganda respectively. High educational attainment and place of residence had a significant influence on the levels of knowledge for CVDs among SSA populations.

Conclusion: Low knowledge of CVDs, risk factors and clinical symptoms is strongly associated with the low levels of educational attainment and rural residency in the region. These findings provide useful information for implementers of interventions targeted at the prevention and control of CVDs, and encourages them to incorporate health promotion and awareness campaigns in order to enhance knowledge and awareness of CVDs in the region.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0189264PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5726714PMC
January 2018

Prevalence of adhesions and associated postoperative complications after cesarean section in Ghana: a prospective cohort study.

Reprod Health 2017 Nov 2;14(1):143. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: The global increase in Cesarean section rate is associated with short- and long-term complications, including adhesions with potential serious maternal and fetal consequences. This study investigated the prevalence of adhesions and association between adhesions and postoperative complications in a tertiary referral hospital in Accra, Ghana.

Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 335 women scheduled for cesarean section at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana were included from June to December 2015. Presence or absence of adhesions was recorded and the severity of the adhesions was scored using a classification system. Associations between presence and severity of adhesions, postoperative complications, and maternal and infant outcomes at discharge and 6 weeks postpartum were assessed using multivariate logistic and linear regression analysis.

Results: Of the participating women, 128 (38%) had adhesions and 207 (62%) did not. Prevalence of adhesions increased with history of caesarean section; 2.8% with no CS but may have had an abdominal surgery, 51% with one previous CS, 62% with >1 CS). Adhesions significantly increased operation time (mean 39.2 (±15.1) minutes, absolute adjusted difference with presence of adhesions 9.6 min, 95%CI 6.4-12.8), infant delivery time (mean 5.4 (±4.8) minutes, adjusted difference 2.4 min, 95%CI 1.3-3.4), and blood loss for women with severe adhesions (mean blood loss 418.8 ml (±140.6), adjusted difference 57.6 ml (95%CI 12.1-103.0). No differences for other outcomes were observed.

Conclusion: With cesarean section rates rising globally, intra-abdominal adhesions occur more frequently. Risks of adhesions and associated complications should be considered in counseling patients for cesarean section.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-017-0388-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5667441PMC
November 2017

The association between HIV (treatment), pregnancy serum lipid concentrations and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review.

BMC Infect Dis 2017 07 11;17(1):489. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Observed adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the lipid profile could be of significance in pregnancy. This systematic review aims to summarize studies that investigated the association between HIV, ART and serum lipids during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted in five electronic databases to obtain articles that measured serum lipid concentrations or the incidence of dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected pregnant women. Included articles were assessed for quality according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The extracted data was analysed through descriptive analysis.

Results: Of the 1264 articles screened, 17 articles were included in this review; eleven reported the incidence of dyslipidaemia, and twelve on maternal serum lipid concentrations under the influence of HIV-infection and ART. No articles reported pregnancy outcomes in relation to serum lipids. Articles were of acceptable quality, but heterogenic in methods and study design. Lipid levels in HIV-infected women increased 1.5-3 fold over the trimesters of pregnancy, and remained within the physiological reference range. The percentage of women with dyslipidaemia was variable between the studies [0-88.9%] and highest in the groups on first generation protease inhibitors and for women on ART at conception.

Conclusion: This systematic review observed physiologic concentrations of serum lipids for HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy. Serum lipids were increased in users of first generation protease inhibitors and for those on treatment at conception. There was no information available about pregnancy outcomes. Future studies are needed which include HIV-uninfected control groups, control for potential confounders, and overcome limitations associated with included studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-017-2581-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5505132PMC
July 2017

Determinants of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive adults in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

BMJ Glob Health 2016 30;1(4):e000125. Epub 2016 Dec 30.

Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: The rapid scale up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has resulted in an increased focus on patient adherence. Non-adherence can lead to drug-resistant HIV caused by failure to achieve maximal viral suppression. Optimal treatment requires the identification of patients at high risk of suboptimal adherence and targeted interventions. The aim of this review was to identify and summarise determinants of adherence to ART among HIV-positive adults.

Design: Systematic review of adherence to ART in SSA from January 2002 to October 2014.

Methods: A systematic search was performed in 6 databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, Popline, Global Health Library) for qualitative and quantitative articles. Risk of bias was assessed. A meta-analysis was conducted for pooled estimates of effect size on adherence determinants.

Results: Of the 4052 articles screened, 146 were included for final analysis, reporting on determinants of 161 922 HIV patients with an average adherence score of 72.9%. Main determinants of non-adherence were use of alcohol, male gender, use of traditional/herbal medicine, dissatisfaction with healthcare facility and healthcare workers, depression, discrimination and stigmatisation, and poor social support. Promoters of adherence included counselling and education interventions, memory aids, and active disclosure among people living with HIV. Determinants of health status had conflicting influence on adherence.

Conclusions: The sociodemographic, psychosocial, health status, treatment-related and intervention-related determinants are interlinked and contribute to optimal adherence. Clinics providing ART in SSA should therefore design targeted interventions addressing these determinants to optimise health outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2016-000125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5321378PMC
December 2016