Publications by authors named "Joyce E Rundhaug"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Systematic evaluation of RNA-Seq preparation protocol performance.

BMC Genomics 2019 Jul 11;20(1):571. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Epigenetics and Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX, 78957, USA.

Background: RNA-Seq is currently the most widely used tool to analyze whole-transcriptome profiles. There are numerous commercial kits available to facilitate preparing RNA-Seq libraries; however, it is still not clear how some of these kits perform in terms of: 1) ribosomal RNA removal; 2) read coverage or recovery of exonic vs. intronic sequences; 3) identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs); and 4) detection of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). In RNA-Seq analysis, understanding the strengths and limitations of commonly used RNA-Seq library preparation protocols is important, as this technology remains costly and time-consuming.

Results: In this study, we present a comprehensive evaluation of four RNA-Seq kits. We used three standard input protocols: Illumina TruSeq Stranded Total RNA and mRNA kits, a modified NuGEN Ovation v2 kit, and the TaKaRa SMARTer Ultra Low RNA Kit v3. Our evaluation of these kits included quality control measures such as overall reproducibility, 5' and 3' end-bias, and the identification of DEGs, lncRNAs, and alternatively spliced transcripts. Overall, we found that the two Illumina kits were most similar in terms of recovering DEGs, and the Illumina, modified NuGEN, and TaKaRa kits allowed identification of a similar set of DEGs. However, we also discovered that the Illumina, NuGEN and TaKaRa kits each enriched for different sets of genes.

Conclusions: At the manufacturers' recommended input RNA levels, all the RNA-Seq library preparation protocols evaluated were suitable for distinguishing between experimental groups, and the TruSeq Stranded mRNA kit was universally applicable to studies focusing on protein-coding gene profiles. The TruSeq protocols tended to capture genes with higher expression and GC content, whereas the modified NuGEN protocol tended to capture longer genes. The SMARTer Ultra Low RNA Kit may be a good choice at the low RNA input level, although it was inferior to the TruSeq mRNA kit at standard input level in terms of rRNA removal, exonic mapping rates and recovered DEGs. Therefore, the choice of RNA-Seq library preparation kit can profoundly affect data outcomes. Consequently, it is a pivotal parameter to consider when designing an RNA-Seq experiment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-5953-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6625085PMC
July 2019

Slug Modulates UV Radiation-Induced Cutaneous Inflammation by Regulating Epidermal Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines.

J Invest Dermatol 2017 02 23;137(2):532-534. Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2016.09.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5831371PMC
February 2017

Role of the Slug Transcription Factor in Chemically-Induced Skin Cancer.

J Clin Med 2016 Feb 3;5(2). Epub 2016 Feb 3.

Department of Epigenetics and Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, P.O. Box 389, Smithville, TX 78957, USA.

The Slug transcription factor plays an important role in ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin carcinogenesis, particularly in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurring during tumor progression. In the present studies, we investigated the role of Slug in two-stage chemical skin carcinogenesis. Slug and the related transcription factor Snail were expressed at high levels in skin tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene application followed by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) treatment. TPA-induced transient elevation of Slug and Snail proteins in normal mouse epidermis and studies in Slug transgenic mice indicated that Slug modulates TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and cutaneous inflammation. Although Snail family factors have been linked to inflammation via interactions with the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway, a pathway that also plays an important role in skin carcinogenesis, transient TPA induction of Slug and Snail appeared unrelated to COX-2 expression. In cultured human keratinocytes, TPA induced Snail mRNA expression while suppressing Slug expression, and this differential regulation was due specifically to activation of the TPA receptor. These studies show that Slug and Snail exhibit similar patterns of expression during both UVR and chemical skin carcinogenesis, that Slug and Snail can be differentially regulated under some conditions and that in vitro findings may not recapitulate in vivo results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm5020021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4773777PMC
February 2016

Mitochondrial uncoupling links lipid catabolism to Akt inhibition and resistance to tumorigenesis.

Nat Commun 2015 Aug 27;6:8137. Epub 2015 Aug 27.

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA.

To support growth, tumour cells reprogramme their metabolism to simultaneously upregulate macromolecular biosynthesis while maintaining energy production. Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) oppose this phenotype by inducing futile mitochondrial respiration that is uncoupled from ATP synthesis, resulting in nutrient wasting. Here using a UCP3 transgene targeted to the basal epidermis, we show that forced mitochondrial uncoupling inhibits skin carcinogenesis by blocking Akt activation. Similarly, Akt activation is markedly inhibited in UCP3 overexpressing primary human keratinocytes. Mechanistic studies reveal that uncoupling increases fatty acid oxidation and membrane phospholipid catabolism, and impairs recruitment of Akt to the plasma membrane. Overexpression of Akt overcomes metabolic regulation by UCP3, rescuing carcinogenesis. These findings demonstrate that mitochondrial uncoupling is an effective strategy to limit proliferation and tumorigenesis through inhibition of Akt, and illuminate a novel mechanism of crosstalk between mitochondrial metabolism and growth signalling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms9137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4552083PMC
August 2015

The tumor promoting activity of the EP4 receptor for prostaglandin E2 in murine skin.

Mol Oncol 2014 Dec 3;8(8):1626-39. Epub 2014 Jul 3.

The Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Science Park, PO Box 389, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957, USA. Electronic address:

To determine whether the EP4 receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contributes to the tumor promoting activity of PGs in murine skin, EP4 over-expressing mice (BK5.EP4) were generated and subjected carcinogenesis protocols. An initiation/promotion protocol resulted in 25-fold more squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in the BK5.EP4 mice than wild type (WT) mice. An increase in SCCs also occurred following treatment with initiator alone or UV irradiation. The initiator dimethylbenz[a]anthracene caused cytotoxicity in BK5.EP4, but not WT mice, characterized by sloughing of the interfollicular epidermis, regeneration and subsequent SCC development. A comparison of transcriptomes between BK5.EP4 and WT mice treated with PGE2 showed a significant upregulation of a number of genes known to be associated with tumor development, supporting a pro-tumorigenic role for the EP4 receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molonc.2014.06.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4253556PMC
December 2014

Slug expression in mouse skin and skin tumors is not regulated by p53.

J Invest Dermatol 2014 Feb 5;134(2):566-568. Epub 2013 Sep 5.

Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Science Park, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jid.2013.363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3947144PMC
February 2014

The chemopreventive efficacies of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: the relationship of short-term biomarkers to long-term skin tumor outcome.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2013 Jul 16;6(7):675-85. Epub 2013 May 16.

The Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Science Park, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957, USA.

The ultraviolet B (UVB) component of sunlight, which causes DNA damage and inflammation, is the major cause of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), the most prevalent of all cancers. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and coxibs have been shown to be effective chemoprevention agents in multiple preclinical trials, including NMSC, colon, and urinary bladder cancer. NSAIDs, however, cause gastrointestinal irritation, which led to the recent development of nitric oxide (NO) derivatives that may partially ameliorate this toxicity. This study compared the efficacy of several NSAIDs and NO-NSAIDs on UV-induced NMSC in SKH-1 hairless mice and determined whether various short-term biomarkers were predictive of long-term tumor outcome with these agents. Naproxen at 100 (P = 0.05) and 400 ppm (P < 0.01) in the diet reduced tumor multiplicity by 26% and 63%, respectively. The NO-naproxen at slightly lower molar doses shows similar activities. Aspirin at 60 or 750 ppm in the diet reduced tumor multiplicity by 19% and 50%, whereas the equivalent doses (108 and 1,350 ppm) were slightly less effective. Sulindac at 25 and 150 ppm in the diet, doses far below the human equivalent dose was the most potent NSAID with reductions of 50% and 94%, respectively. In testing short-term biomarkers, we found that agents that reduce UV-induced prostaglandin E2 synthesis and/or inhibit UV-induced keratinocyte proliferation yielded long-term tumor efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-13-0064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3701752PMC
July 2013

Transgenic insulin-like growth factor-1 stimulates activation of COX-2 signaling in mammary glands.

Mol Carcinog 2012 Dec 17;51(12):973-83. Epub 2011 Oct 17.

Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Science Park, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA.

Studies show that elevated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer; however, mechanisms through which IGF-1 promotes mammary tumorigenesis in vivo have not been fully elucidated. To assess the possible involvement of COX-2 signaling in the pro-tumorigenic effects of IGF-1 in mammary glands, we used the unique BK5.IGF-1 mouse model in which transgenic (Tg) mice have significantly increased incidence of spontaneous and DMBA-induced mammary cancer compared to wild type (WT) littermates. Studies revealed that COX-2 expression was significantly increased in Tg mammary glands and tumors, compared to age-matched WTs. Consistent with this, PGE(2) levels were also increased in Tg mammary glands. Analysis of expression of the EP receptors that mediate the effects of PGE(2) showed that among the four G-protein-coupled receptors, EP3 expression was elevated in Tg glands. Up-regulation of the COX-2/PGE(2) /EP3 pathway was accompanied by increased expression of VEGF and a striking enhancement of angiogenesis in IGF-1 Tg mammary glands. Treatment with celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, caused a 45% reduction in mammary PGE(2) levels, attenuated the influx of mast cells and reduced vascularization in Tg glands. These findings indicate that the COX-2/PGE(2) /EP3 signaling pathway is involved in IGF-1-stimulated mammary tumorigenesis and that COX-2-selective inhibitors may be useful in the prevention or treatment of breast cancer associated with elevated IGF-1 levels in humans. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.20868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3790642PMC
December 2012

The EP1 receptor for prostaglandin E2 promotes the development and progression of malignant murine skin tumors.

Mol Carcinog 2012 Jul 7;51(7):553-64. Epub 2011 Jul 7.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957, USA.

High levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis resulting from the up-regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been shown to be critical for the development of non-melanoma skin tumors. This effect of PGE2 is likely mediated by one or more of its 4 G-protein coupled membrane receptors, EP1-4. A previous study showed that BK5.EP1 transgenic mice produced more carcinomas than wild type (WT) mice using initiation/promotion protocols, although the tumor response was dependent on the type of tumor promoter used. In this study, a single topical application of either 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) or benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), alone, was found to elicit squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in the BK5.EP1 transgenic mice, but not in WT mice. While the epidermis of both WT and transgenic mice was hyperplastic several days after DMBA, this effect regressed in the WT mice while proliferation continued in the transgenic mice. Several parameters associated with carcinogen initiation were measured and were found to be similar between genotypes, including CYP1B1 and aromatase expression, B[a]P adduct formation, Ras activity, and keratinocyte stem cell numbers. However, EP1 transgene expression elevated COX-2 levels in the epidermis and SCC could be completely prevented in DMBA-treated BK5.EP1 mice either by feeding the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib in their diet or by crossing them onto a COX-2 null background. These data suggest that the tumor promoting/progressing effects of EP1 require the PGE2 synthesized by COX-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.20820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3270117PMC
July 2012

Hydroxyethyl starch (130 kD) inhibits Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathways in rat lungs challenged with lipopolysaccharide.

Anesth Analg 2011 Jul 17;113(1):112-9. Epub 2011 Mar 17.

Department of Anesthesiology, Renji Hospital, Medical School of Shanghai Jiaotong University, 1630 Dongfang Rd., Shanghai, 200127, China.

Background: A number of studies have shown that hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions are able to down-regulate the expression of inflammatory mediators and inhibit neutrophil-mediated tissue injuries when they are used in patients with sepsis or other diseases with severe inflammatory responses. However, our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms is limited. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling has a pivotal role in inflammatory processes. In this study, we examined the possible involvement of TLR4 signaling in the antiinflammatory effects of HES.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 mg/kg, IV) and received IV saline (30 mL/kg) or HES 130/0.4 (15 or 30 mL/kg). Six hours after LPS challenge, rats were killed and their lungs harvested. Lung injury was examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. TLR4 mRNA expression, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 MAPK activation, and activator protein 1 (AP-1) activity in the lungs were detected with quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively.

Results: Compared with saline, HES profoundly attenuated the histological changes induced by LPS in the lungs at both dose levels. Molecular analysis showed that both 15 and 30 mL/kg HES significantly decreased TLR4 mRNA levels and inhibited activation of p38 MAPK and AP-1 in rats challenged with LPS, whereas activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 MAPK was not affected by either dose of HES.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that the beneficial effects of HES 130/0.4 on inflammation are mediated at least in part by inhibiting the TLR4/p38 MAPK/AP-1 pathway in lungs from rats challenged with LPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182159c15DOI Listing
July 2011

Molecular mechanisms of mouse skin tumor promotion.

Cancers (Basel) 2010 ;2(2):436-82

The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park - Research Division, P.O. Box 389, Smithville, TX 78957.

Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the promotion of skin carcinogenesis. Induction of sustained proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia by direct activation of mitotic signaling pathways or indirectly in response to chronic wounding and/or inflammation, or due to a block in terminal differentiation or resistance to apoptosis is necessary to allow clonal expansion of initiated cells with DNA mutations to form skin tumors. The mitotic pathways include activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Chronic inflammation results in inflammatory cell secretion of growth factors and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species, all of which can stimulate proliferation. Persistent activation of these pathways leads to tumor promotion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers2020436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3033564PMC
November 2013

Transcriptional regulation of estrogen receptor-alpha by p53 in human breast cancer cells.

Cancer Res 2009 Apr 7;69(8):3405-14. Epub 2009 Apr 7.

The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park Research Division, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA.

Estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and p53 are critical prognostic indicators in breast cancer. Loss of functional p53 is correlated with poor prognosis, ER negativity, and resistance to antiestrogen treatment. Previously, we found that p53 genotype was correlated with ER expression and response to tamoxifen in mammary tumors arising in mouse mammary tumor virus-Wnt-1 transgenic mice. These results lead us to hypothesize that p53 may regulate ER expression. To test this, MCF-7 cells were treated with doxorubicin or ionizing radiation, both of which stimulated a 5-fold increase in p53 expression. ER expression was also increased 4-fold over a 24-h time frame. In cells treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting p53, expression of both p53 and ER was significantly reduced (>60%) by 24 h. Induction of ER by DNA-damaging agents was p53 dependent as either ionizing radiation or doxorubicin failed to up-regulate ER after treatment with p53-targeting siRNA. To further investigate whether p53 directly regulates transcription of the ER gene promoter, MCF-7 cells were transiently transfected with a wild-type (WT) p53 expression vector along with a luciferase reporter containing the proximal promoter of ER. In cells transfected with WT p53, transcription from the ER promoter was increased 8-fold. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that p53 was recruited to the ER promoter along with CARM1, CBP, c-Jun, and Sp1 and that this multifactor complex was formed in a p53-dependent manner. These data show that p53 regulates ER expression through transcriptional control of the ER promoter, accounting for their concordant expression in human breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3079369PMC
April 2009

Paracrine overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-1 enhances mammary tumorigenesis in vivo.

Am J Pathol 2008 Sep 7;173(3):824-34. Epub 2008 Aug 7.

University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Smithville, TX 78957, USA.

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) stimulates proliferation, regulates tissue development, protects against apoptosis, and promotes the malignant phenotype in the breast and other organs. Some epidemiological studies have linked high circulating levels of IGF-1 with an increased risk of breast cancer. To study the role of IGF-1 in mammary tumorigenesis in vivo, we used transgenic mice in which overexpression of IGF-1 is under the control of the bovine keratin 5 (BK5) promoter and is directed to either the myoepithelial or basal cells in a variety of organs, including the mammary gland. This model closely recapitulates the paracrine exposure of breast epithelium to stromal IGF-1 seen in women. Histologically, mammary glands from transgenic mice were hyperplastic and highly vascularized. Mammary glands from prepubertal transgenic mice had significantly increased ductal proliferation compared with wild-type tissues, although this difference was not maintained after puberty. Transgenic mice also had increased susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis, and 74% of the BK5.IGF-1 mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (20 microg/day) developed mammary tumors compared with 29% of the wild-type mice. Interestingly, 31% of the vehicle-treated BK5.IGF-1 animals, but none of the wild-type animals, spontaneously developed mammary cancer. The mammary tumors were moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas that expressed functional, nuclear estrogen receptor at both the protein and mRNA levels. These data support the hypothesis that tissue overexpression of IGF-1 stimulates mammary tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2353/ajpath.2008.071005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2527085PMC
September 2008

Multiple signaling pathways are responsible for prostaglandin E2-induced murine keratinocyte proliferation.

Mol Cancer Res 2008 Jun;6(6):1003-16

Science Park-Research Division, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, PO Box 389, Smithville, TX 78957, USA.

Although prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown by pharmacologic and genetic studies to be important in skin cancer, the molecular mechanism(s) by which it contributes to tumor growth is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which PGE2 stimulates murine keratinocyte proliferation using in vitro and in vivo models. In primary mouse keratinocyte cultures, PGE2 activated the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling pathways as well as increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) production and activated the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). EGFR activation was not significantly inhibited by pretreatment with a c-src inhibitor (PP2), nor by a protein kinase A inhibitor (H-89). However, PGE2-stimulated extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation was completely blocked by EGFR, ERK1/2, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway inhibitors. In addition, these inhibitors attenuated the PGE2-induced proliferation, nuclear factor-kappa B, activator protein-1 (AP-1), and CREB binding to the promoter regions of the cyclin D1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes and expression of cyclin D1 and VEGF in primary mouse keratinocytes. Similarly, in vivo, we found that WT mice treated with PGE2 and untreated cyclooxygenase-2-overexpressing transgenic mice had higher levels of cell proliferation and expression of cyclin D1 and VEGF, as well as higher levels of activated EGFR, nuclear factor-kappa B, AP-1, and CREB, than vehicle-treated WT mice. Our findings provide evidence for a link between cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression and EGFR-, ERK-, PI3K-, cAMP-mediated cell proliferation, and the tumor-promoting activity of PGE2 in mouse skin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-07-2144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2759608PMC
June 2008

Cyclo-oxygenase-2 plays a critical role in UV-induced skin carcinogenesis.

Photochem Photobiol 2008 Mar-Apr;84(2):322-9. Epub 2008 Jan 11.

The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Smithville, TX, USA.

Besides induction of DNA damage and p53 mutations, chronic exposure to UV irradiation leads to the constitutive up-regulation of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and to increased production of its primary product in skin, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). COX-2 has also been shown to be constitutively overexpressed in mouse, as well as human, UV-induced skin cancers and premalignant lesions. UV exposure results in ligand-independent activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and subsequent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathways leading to transcriptional activation of the COX-2 gene. Use of COX-2-specific inhibitors and genetic manipulation of COX-2 expression have demonstrated that UV induction of COX-2 in the skin contributes to the induction of epidermal hyperplasia, edema, inflammation, and counters the induction of apoptosis after UV exposure. Likewise, inhibition of COX-2 activity or reduced expression in COX-2 knockout mice resulted in significantly reduced UV-induced tumorigenesis, while overexpression of COX-2 in transgenic mice enhanced UV-induced tumor development. A combination of signaling from the PGE2 EP1, EP2 and/or EP4 receptors mediates the effects of COX-2 overexpression. These studies demonstrate the crucial role of COX-2 in the development of UV-related nonmelanoma skin cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.2007.00261.xDOI Listing
April 2008

The effect of cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression on skin carcinogenesis is context dependent.

Mol Carcinog 2007 Dec;46(12):981-92

Department of Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA.

The up-regulation of the inducible form of cyclooxygenase (COX-2), a central enzyme in the prostaglandin (PG) biosynthetic pathway, occurs in many epithelial tumors and has been associated with tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. To better understand the role of COX-2 in skin tumor development, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress COX-2 under the control of the keratin 14 promoter. We previously reported (Cancer Res. 62: 2516, 2002) that these mice, referred to as keratin 14 (K14).COX2 mice, were unexpectedly very resistant to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) tumor promotion. The current studies were undertaken to determine the mechanism of this resistance and determine if it was restricted to TPA promotion. Transgenic and wild-type mice were subjected to a complete carcinogenesis protocol using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) only, as well as a two-stage protocol using DMBA plus an unrelated tumor promoter, anthralin. In addition, the responses of transgenic and wild-type mice to TPA in terms of induction of proliferation and various down-stream mediators were examined. The TPA resistance phenotype correlated with a reduced ability to induce ornithine decarboxylase, interleukin-1alpha, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and a reduced proliferation response. This resistance phenotype appears to be restricted to phorbol ester promotion because K14.COX2 mice developed six times more tumors than wild-type mice when anthralin was used as the tumor promoter. Additionally, K14.COX2 mice treated only with DMBA developed approximately 3.5 times more tumors than wild-type mice, suggesting that PGs have intrinsic tumor promoting activity. We conclude that the role of PGs in skin tumorigenesis is context dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.20340DOI Listing
December 2007

A role for cyclooxygenase-2 in ultraviolet light-induced skin carcinogenesis.

Mol Carcinog 2007 Aug;46(8):692-8

Department of Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park--Research Division, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA.

Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer in the United States and its incidence is on the rise. These cancers generally arise on sun-exposed areas of the body and the ultraviolet (UV) B spectrum of sunlight has been clearly identified as the major carcinogen responsible for skin cancer development. Besides inducing DNA damage directly, UV exposure of the skin induces the expression of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which catalyzes the first step in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, the primary product in skin being prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). COX-2 has been shown to be overexpressed in premalignant lesions as well as in nonmelanoma skin cancers in both humans and mice chronically exposed to UV. Through the use of COX-2-selective inhibitors and COX-2 knockout mice, it has been shown that UV-induced COX-2 expression plays a major role in UV-induced PGE(2) production, inflammation, edema, keratinocyte proliferation, epidermal hyperplasia, and generation of a pro-oxidant state leading to oxidative DNA damage. Chronic exposure to UV leads to chronic up-regulation of COX-2 expression and chronic inflammation along with the accumulation of DNA damage and mutations, all of which combine to induce malignant changes in epidermal keratinocytes and skin cancers. Both inhibition of COX-2 activity and reduction in COX-2 expression by genetic manipulations significantly reduce, while overexpression of COX-2 in transgenic mice significantly increases UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Together these studies demonstrate that COX-2 expression/activity is critical to the development of UV-related nonmelanoma skin cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.20329DOI Listing
August 2007

Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is critical for chronic UV-induced murine skin carcinogenesis.

Mol Carcinog 2007 May;46(5):363-71

The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA.

While it has been established that both the constitutive and inducible forms of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2, respectively) play important roles in chemical initiation-promotion protocols with phorbol ester tumor promoters, the contribution of these two enzymes to ultraviolet (UV) light-induced skin tumors has not been fully assessed. To better understand the contribution of COX-1 and COX-2 to UV carcinogenesis, we transferred the null allele for each isoform onto the SKH-1 hairless strain of mouse. Due to low viability on this background with complete knockout of COX-2, heterozygous mice were used in UV carcinogenesis experiments. While the lack of one allele of COX-1 had no effect on tumor outcome, the lack of one allele of COX-2 resulted in a 50-65% reduction in tumor multiplicity and a marked decrease in tumor size. Additionally, transgenic SKH-1 mice that overexpress COX-2 under the control of a keratin 14 promoter developed 70% more tumors than wild-type SKH-1 mice. The lack of one allele of either COX-1 or COX-2 reduced prostaglandin (PG) E2 levels in response to a single UV treatment. The proliferative response to UV was significantly reduced in COX-2, but not COX-1, heterozygous mice. UV-induced apoptosis, however, was greater in COX-2 heterozygous mice. Collectively, these results clearly establish the requirement for COX-2 in the development of skin tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.20284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2243235PMC
May 2007

Matrix metalloproteinases and angiogenesis.

Authors:
Joyce E Rundhaug

J Cell Mol Med 2005 Apr-Jun;9(2):267-85

Department of Carcinogenesis, Science Park--Research Division, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX, 78957, USA.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes that proteolytically degrade various components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Angiogenesis is the process of forming new blood vessels from existing ones and requires degradation of the vascular basement membrane and remodeling of the ECM in order to allow endothelial cells to migrate and invade into the surrounding tissue. MMPs participate in this remodeling of basement membranes and ECM. However, it has become clear that MMPs contribute more to angiogenesis than just degrading ECM components. Specific MMPs have been shown to enhance angiogenesis by helping to detach pericytes from vessels undergoing angiogenesis, by releasing ECM-bound angiogenic growth factors, by exposing cryptic proangiogenic integrin binding sites in the ECM, by generating promigratory ECM component fragments, and by cleaving endothelial cell-cell adhesions. MMPs can also contribute negatively to angiogenesis through the generation of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors by proteolytic cleavage of certain collagen chains and plasminogen and by modulating cell receptor signaling by cleaving off their ligand-binding domains. A number of inhibitors of MMPs that show antiangiogenic activity are already in early stages of clinical trials, primarily to treat cancer and cancer-associated angiogenesis. However, because of the multiple effects of MMPs on angiogenesis, careful testing of these MMP inhibitors is necessary to show that these compounds do not actually enhance angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1582-4934.2005.tb00355.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6740080PMC
September 2005

An antitumorigenic role for murine 8S-lipoxygenase in skin carcinogenesis.

Oncogene 2005 Feb;24(7):1174-87

Science Park-Research Division, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1808 Park Road 1C, PO Box 389, Smithville, TX 78957, USA.

The levels of 8S-lipoxygenase (8S-LOX) expression and of its arachidonic acid metabolite, 8-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (8-HETE), are highly elevated in the early stages of mouse skin carcinogenesis. On the other hand, several reports showing that 8-HETE is also closely associated with keratinocyte differentiation raise a question concerning the role of 8S-LOX/8-HETE in skin carcinogenesis. To address that question, here we conducted a series of gain-of-function studies. Skin targeted loricrin 8S-LOX/C57BL/6J transgenic mice showed a more differentiated epidermal phenotype as well as a 64% reduced papilloma development in a two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol. Forced expression of 8S-LOX in MT1/2 cells, a murine papilloma cell line, also caused a more differentiated appearance as well as keratin 1 expression. Overexpression of 8S-LOX in CH72 cells, a murine carcinoma cell line, inhibited cell proliferation by 30% in vitro and by 86% in in vivo xenografts. Exogenous addition of 5 muM 8-HETE to CH72 cells caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Finally, immunohistochemical analyses showed 8S-LOX protein expression was strictly confined to the differentiated compartment of mouse skin and throughout tumorigenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that 8S-LOX plays a role as a prodifferentiating, antitumorigenic, and tumor suppressing gene in mouse skin carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1208269DOI Listing
February 2005

SAGE profiling of UV-induced mouse skin squamous cell carcinomas, comparison with acute UV irradiation effects.

Mol Carcinog 2005 Jan;42(1):40-52

Department of Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA.

Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the primary environmental insult responsible for the development of most common skin cancers. To better understand the multiple molecular events that contribute to the development of UV-induced skin cancer, in a first study, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was used to compare the global gene expression profiles of normal SKH-1 mice epidermis with that of UV-induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) from SKH-1 mice. More than 200 genes were found to be differentially expressed in SCCs compared to normal skin (P < 0.0005 level of significance). As expected, genes related to epidermal proliferation and differentiation were deregulated in SCCs relative to normal skin. However, various novel genes, not previously associated with skin carcinogenesis, were also identified as deregulated in SCCs. Northern blot analyses on various selected genes validated the SAGE findings: caspase-14 (reduced 8.5-fold in SCCs); cathepsins D and S (reduced 3-fold and increased 11.3-fold, respectively, in SCCs); decorin, glutathione S-transferase omega-1, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7, and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (increased 18-, 12-, 12-, 18.3-, and 11-folds, respectively, in SCCs). Chemokine (C-C motif), ligand 27 (CCL27), which was found downregulated 12.7-fold in SCCs by SAGE, was also observed to be strongly downregulated 6-24 h after a single and multiple UV treatments. In a second independent study we compared the expression profile of UV-irradiated versus sham-treated SKH-1 epidermis. Interestingly, numerous genes determined to be deregulated 8 h after a single UV dose were also deregulated in SCCs. For instance, genes whose expression was upregulated both after acute UV-treated skin and SCCs included keratins 6 and 16, small proline-rich proteins, and S100 calcium binding protein A9. Studies like those described here do not only provide insights into genes and pathways involved in skin carcinogenesis but also allow us to identify early UV irradiation deregulated surrogate biomarkers of potential use in chemoprevention studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.20064DOI Listing
January 2005

Matrix metalloproteinases, angiogenesis, and cancer: commentary re: A. C. Lockhart et al., Reduction of wound angiogenesis in patients treated with BMS-275291, a broad spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor. Clin. Cancer Res., 9: 00-00, 2003.

Authors:
Joyce E Rundhaug

Clin Cancer Res 2003 Feb;9(2):551-4

Department of Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA.

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February 2003

Regulation of transcription of the intracellular interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene by AP-1 in mouse carcinoma cells.

Mol Carcinog 2002 Apr;33(4):237-43

The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA.

Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is involved in many processes, including epidermal inflammation and hyperplasia after irritation or injury. However, the mechanism by which intracellular IL-1Ra (icIL-1Ra) expression is regulated in mouse keratinocytes has not been reported. We found that the CH72 mouse carcinoma cell line constitutively expresses the icIL-1Ra mRNA. To study the transcriptional factors responsible for the constitutive expression of icIL-1Ra, we functionally characterized 4.5 kb of the 5' flanking region of the human icIL-1Ra gene in these cells. We first demonstrated that icIL-1Ra expression in these cells was regulated at the level of transcription. Deletion analysis of the promoter showed that regulatory elements for constitutive expression were located -158 to -49 bp upstream of the transcription start site for icIL-1Ra. We investigated the cis- and trans-acting factors required for icIL-1Ra expression. An activating protein-1 (AP-1) site was identified as the positive regulatory element necessary for the constitutive expression of the icIL-1Ra promoter in CH72 cells. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and cotransfection experiments showed that c-jun and c-fos proteins bound to the AP-1 site and functionally transactivated the icIL-1Ra promoter in mouse carcinoma CH72 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.10042DOI Listing
April 2002