Publications by authors named "Jouni J T Junnila"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Persistent fontanelles in Chihuahuas. Part I. Distribution and clinical relevance.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jul 24;35(4):1834-1847. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The Chihuahua dog breed is known for frequent occurrence of a bregmatic fontanelle on the dorsal skull. A common conception is that this skull defect is a clinically irrelevant finding. No studies, however, describe its prevalence or whether it is accompanied by other persistent fontanelles (PFs). Although Chihuahuas are predisposed to Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM), it is unknown whether PFs occur more commonly in dogs with clinical signs that are caused by CM or SM.

Hypothesis/objectives: To describe the number and location of PFs at cranial sutures (CSs) and to compare the occurrence of these PFs in dogs with and without CM/SM-related clinical signs. We hypothesized that PFs also occur commonly at lateral and caudal cranial surfaces, affect a higher number of CSs, and are larger in dogs with CM/SM-related clinical signs.

Animals: Fifty client-owned Chihuahuas with or without CM/SM-related clinical signs.

Results: Of the 50 dogs evaluated, 46 (92%) had either 1 or several PFs. The mean ± SD number of PFs was 2.8 ± 3.0 (range, 0-13). A total of 138 PFs occupied 118 CSs with 57 (48%) located dorsally, 44 (37%) caudally, and 17 (14%) laterally. The number of CSs affected by PFs was significantly higher (P ≤ .001) and total PF area was significantly larger (P = .003) in dogs with CM/SM-related clinical signs.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: Persistent fontanelles are very common in this group of Chihuahuas and appear at dorsal, lateral, and caudal cranial surfaces. They are more numerous and larger in Chihuahuas with CM/SM-related clinical signs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.16151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295709PMC
July 2021

Persistent fontanelles in Chihuahuas. Part II: Association with craniocervical junction abnormalities, syringomyelia, and ventricular volume.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jul 3;35(4):1848-1856. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Persistent fontanelles (PFs) are, in Chihuahuas, almost ubiquitous. Furthermore, Chihuahuas are predisposed to other craniomorphological abnormalities, including syringomyelia (SM), ventriculomegaly, and craniocervical junction (CCJ) overcrowding resulting in neural tissue deviation. It is, however, undetermined if PFs are more common in dogs with these structural abnormalities, and their etiology is unknown.

Hypothesis/objectives: Persistent fontanelles are more numerous and larger in Chihuahuas with low body weight, older age, SM, dilated fourth ventricle, ventriculomegaly, and CCJ overcrowding.

Animals: Fifty client-owned Chihuahuas.

Methods: Cross-sectional study evaluating the association of both the number of cranial sutures affected by PFs (NAS) and total fontanelle area (TFA), based on computed tomography with SM, fourth ventricle dilatation, lateral ventricle volume, and extent of neural tissue compression at the CCJ based on magnetic resonance images.

Results: The NASs was higher and TFA larger in dogs with low body weight (NAS: P = .007; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.384-0.861; TFA: P = .002; 95% CI = -1.91 to -0.478), larger lateral ventricles (NAS: P ≤ .001; 95% CI = 1.04-1.15; TFA: P ≤ .001; 95% CI = 0.099-0.363), and more severe neural tissue compression at the CCJ (NAS: P ≤ .001; 95% CI = 1.26-2.06; TFA: P = .03; 95% CI = 0.066-1.13). Similarly, dogs with SM (NAS: P = .004; 95% CI = 1.26-3.32; TFA: mean ± SD, 130 ± 217 mm ; P = .05) had higher NAS and larger TFA than did dogs without SM (43.7 ± 61.0 mm ). Age was not associated with NAS (P = .81; 95% CI = 0.989-1.01) or TFA (P = .33; 95% CI = -0.269 to 0.092).

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: Persistent fontanelles are associated with small size, SM, ventriculomegaly, and CCJ overcrowding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.16123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295681PMC
July 2021

The intra- and intertester repeatability of radiographic elbow incongruity grading is high in chondrodystrophic dog breeds.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2020 May 6;61(3):329-335. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Elbow incongruity is a form of elbow dysplasia that causes osteoarthritis, pain, and lameness, and it is common in chondrodystrophic dog breeds. The objective of this retrospective secondary analysis study was to evaluate the intra- and interobserver repeatability of a novel radiographic incongruity grading system for assessing elbow incongruity in three chondrodystrophic dog breeds-the dachshund, Skye Terrier, and Glen of Imaal Terrier. We conducted an observer agreement study that included 220 mediolateral antebrachial radiographs from 110 dogs with the elbow in 90° flexion. The radiographs were independently assessed by three observers at three time points, using a four-stepped grading scale. The proportion of agreement and Kappa coefficient were calculated. Both the intra- and interobserver proportions of agreement were substantial when three grades were required to be identical (.705-.777 and .609, respectively), and almost perfect for two identical grades (.991-1.000 and .991, respectively). Some differences in repeatability between breeds were noted; specifically, the intraobserver repeatability was higher in the dachshund, and the interobserver repeatability was lower in the Glen of Imaal Terrier. Our study showed that the radiographic imaging protocol and incongruity grading system have high repeatability when assessing elbow incongruity in chondrodystrophic dog breeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12853DOI Listing
May 2020

The Finnish Canine Stifle Index: responsiveness to change and intertester reliability.

Vet Rec 2020 Jun 4;186(18):604. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The responsiveness and the intertester reliability of the Finnish Canine Stifle Index (FCSI) were tested, and a cut-off between compromised and severely compromised performance level was set.

Methods: Three groups of dogs were used, 29 with any stifle dysfunction (STIF), 17 with other musculoskeletal disease except stifle (OTHER) and 11 controls (CTRL). All dogs were tested with the FCSI by the same physiotherapist at three occasions, at baseline, at six weeks and 10 weeks, and once also by another physiotherapist.

Results: Dogs in the STIF group demonstrated significantly higher (P<0.001) FCSI scores than in OTHER or CTRL groups at baseline. Only the STIF group showed a significant (P<0.001) change in FCSI score at all time points, indicating responsiveness to change. There were no significant differences between the evaluators (P=0.736), showing good intertester reliability, supported by moderate to good (0.78) intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The evaluator performing the FCSI did not have a significant effect when comparing the groups of dogs (P=0.214). The 95 per cent confidence intervals of the ICC per group were 0.79 (0.60, 0.91) for STIF, 0.83 (0.53, 0.96) for OTHER 0.78 (0.64, 0.88) for all dogs. A cut-off differentiating a severely compromised from a compromised performance was set at 120, having sensitivity of 83 per cent and specificity of 89 per cent.

Conclusion: The FCSI is a recommendable measure of dogs' stifle functionality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.105030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365560PMC
June 2020

Response to letter to editor regarding Seizure-precipitating factors in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

J Vet Intern Med 2019 05 5;33(3):1121-1122. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6524384PMC
May 2019

Seizure-precipitating factors in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

J Vet Intern Med 2019 Mar 21;33(2):701-707. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Stress, sleep deprivation, and infectious diseases are important seizure-precipitating factors in human epilepsy patients. However, these factors have not been thoroughly studied in epileptic dogs.

Objective: Seizure-precipitating factors are common in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy and the occurrence of these factors associate with the dogs' signalment, personality, and epilepsy-related factors.

Animals: Fifty dogs with diagnosed idiopathic epilepsy from the hospital populations of University Veterinary Teaching Hospital of University of Helsinki and Referral Animal Hospital Aisti.

Methods: In a retrospective cross-sectional observational study, owners were interviewed about their dogs' possible seizure-precipitating factors according to a predefined questionnaire. The dogs were identified and selected by searching the medical records of the participating animal hospitals.

Results: The prevalence of seizure-precipitating factors in the study population was 74% (37/50). The most frequently reported factors included stress-related situations, sleep deprivation, weather, and hormonal factors. In dogs with focal onset seizures, the number of precipitating factors was 1.9 (95% CI 1.1-3.4) times higher compared to dogs with generalized seizures.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: Seizure-precipitating factors are common in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy, and the nature of these factors is consistent with those of human patients. Aside from antiepileptic medication, acknowledging and avoiding seizure-precipitating factors could help veterinarians achieve better treatment outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430923PMC
March 2019

Developing a testing battery for measuring dogs' stifle functionality: the Finnish Canine Stifle Index (FCSI).

Vet Rec 2018 09 19;183(10):324. Epub 2018 May 19.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

This study aimed at developing a quantitative testing battery for dogs' stifle functionality, as, unlike in human medicine, currently none is available in the veterinary field. Forty-three dogs with surgically treated unilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture and 21 dogs with no known musculoskeletal problems were included. Eight previously studied tests: compensation in sitting and lying positions, symmetry of thrust in hindlimbs when rising from lying and sitting, static weight bearing, stifle flexion and extension and muscle mass symmetry, were summed into the Finnish Canine Stifle Index (FCSI). Sensitivities and specificities of the dichotomised FCSI score were calculated against orthopaedic examination, radiological and force platform analysis and a conclusive assessment (combination of previous). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)was used to evaluate FCSI score differences between the groups. Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency was calculated. The range of the index score was 0-263, with a proposed cut-off value of 60 between 'adequate' and 'compromised' functional performance. In comparison to the conclusive assessment, the sensitivity and specificity of the FCSI were 90 per cent and 90.5 per cent, respectively. Cronbach's alpha for internal reliability of the FCSI score was 0.727. An estimate of the surgically treated and control dogs' FCSI scores were 105 (95 per cent CI 93 to 116) and 20 (95 per cent CI 4 to 37), respectively. The difference between the groups was significant (P<0.001).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.104588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6166606PMC
September 2018

Vital pulp therapy in dogs: 190 cases (2001-2011).

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014 Feb;244(4):449-59

Anident Veterinary Clinic, Lamminpääntie 43, FI-01490 Veikkola, Finland.

Objective: To evaluate factors associated with the outcome of vital pulp therapy (VPT) in dogs.

Design: Retrospective study.

Sample: 190 teeth in 138 dogs.

Procedures: Medical records were reviewed; radiographs obtained before, immediately after, and during the last available follow-up examination for VPT were evaluated. Treatment was categorized as successful (with radiographic evidence of continued secondary dentin production, continued root formation in immature teeth, and absence of clinical and radiographic signs of apical periodontitis and internal or external inflammatory root resorption), having no evidence of failure (with signs for success fulfilled except the width of the apical periodontal ligament space, which could be wider than but no more than double the width of the periodontal ligament space in other areas), or failed (with radiographic evidence of pulp necrosis, apical periodontitis, or inflammatory root resorption). Associations between diagnostic or treatment-related variables and outcome were assessed with multinomial logistic regression.

Results: Overall, treatment was classified as successful for 162 of 190 (85%) teeth, including 23 (12%) teeth with no evidence of failure, and as having failed for 28 (15%) teeth. The overall success rate was 137 of 149 (92%) for teeth treated with mineral trioxide aggregate alone and 21 of 36 (58%) for teeth treated with Ca(OH)2 alone. Use of Ca(OH)2 and deep penetration of dressing material into the vital pulp were each significantly associated with increased odds of treatment failure.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Results indicated that VPT with mineral trioxide aggregate was an effective option for use in crown reduction to treat malocclusion and for treatment of recent crown fractures in immature or mature permanent teeth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.244.4.449DOI Listing
February 2014

A comparison of thermographic imaging, physical examination and modified questionnaire as an instrument to assess painful conditions in cats.

J Feline Med Surg 2013 Feb 16;15(2):124-31. Epub 2012 Oct 16.

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Pain recognition in cats is difficult and requires a multidisciplinary approach for diagnosis. A total of 103 client-owned cats were enrolled in this prospective, blinded clinical trial. Cats were invited to the clinic, or presented for annual rechecks/vaccinations, or gastrointestinal, dental or locomotor problems. The cats were of different breeds; both shorthaired and longhaired cats were included. Those cats that tolerated it were palpated and all cats were examined with the non-invasive method of thermographic imaging. Owners filled out a questionnaire about their cat's behaviour and estimated whether the cat was in any pain. The agreement between a questionnaire and thermographic imaging or palpation was low. Also, the agreement between the owner's estimation of pain and thermographic imaging or palpation was low. The agreement between palpation and thermographic imaging was moderate, suggesting that thermographic imaging is a potential tool in clinical practice for detecting and screening cats that are, potentially, in pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X12463926DOI Listing
February 2013
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