Publications by authors named "Joungmok Kim"

45 Publications

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Authors:
Daniel J Klionsky Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz Sara Abdelfatah Mahmoud Abdellatif Asghar Abdoli Steffen Abel Hagai Abeliovich Marie H Abildgaard Yakubu Princely Abudu Abraham Acevedo-Arozena Iannis E Adamopoulos Khosrow Adeli Timon E Adolph Annagrazia Adornetto Elma Aflaki Galila Agam Anupam Agarwal Bharat B Aggarwal Maria Agnello Patrizia Agostinis Javed N Agrewala Alexander Agrotis Patricia V Aguilar S Tariq Ahmad Zubair M Ahmed Ulises Ahumada-Castro Sonja Aits Shu Aizawa Yunus Akkoc Tonia Akoumianaki Hafize Aysin Akpinar Ahmed M Al-Abd Lina Al-Akra Abeer Al-Gharaibeh Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali Simon Alberti Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez Cristiano Alessandri Muhammad Ali M Abdul Alim Al-Bari Saeb Aliwaini Javad Alizadeh Eugènia Almacellas Alexandru Almasan Alicia Alonso Guillermo D Alonso Nihal Altan-Bonnet Dario C Altieri Élida M C Álvarez Sara Alves Cristine Alves da Costa Mazen M Alzaharna Marialaura Amadio Consuelo Amantini Cristina Amaral Susanna Ambrosio Amal O Amer Veena Ammanathan Zhenyi An Stig U Andersen Shaida A Andrabi Magaiver Andrade-Silva Allen M Andres Sabrina Angelini David Ann Uche C Anozie Mohammad Y Ansari Pedro Antas Adam Antebi Zuriñe Antón Tahira Anwar Lionel Apetoh Nadezda Apostolova Toshiyuki Araki Yasuhiro Araki Kohei Arasaki Wagner L Araújo Jun Araya Catherine Arden Maria-Angeles Arévalo Sandro Arguelles Esperanza Arias Jyothi Arikkath Hirokazu Arimoto Aileen R Ariosa Darius Armstrong-James Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin Angeles Aroca Daniela S Arroyo Ivica Arsov Rubén Artero Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro Michael Aschner Milad Ashrafizadeh Osnat Ashur-Fabian Atanas G Atanasov Alicia K Au Patrick Auberger Holger W Auner Laure Aurelian Riccardo Autelli Laura Avagliano Yenniffer Ávalos Sanja Aveic Célia Alexandra Aveleira Tamar Avin-Wittenberg Yucel Aydin Scott Ayton Srinivas Ayyadevara Maria Azzopardi Misuzu Baba Jonathan M Backer Steven K Backues Dong-Hun Bae Ok-Nam Bae Soo Han Bae Eric H Baehrecke Ahruem Baek Seung-Hoon Baek Sung Hee Baek Giacinto Bagetta Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna Hua Bai Jie Bai Xiyuan Bai Yidong Bai Nandadulal Bairagi Shounak Baksi Teresa Balbi Cosima T Baldari Walter Balduini Andrea Ballabio Maria Ballester Salma Balazadeh Rena Balzan Rina Bandopadhyay Sreeparna Banerjee Sulagna Banerjee Ágnes Bánréti Yan Bao Mauricio S Baptista Alessandra Baracca Cristiana Barbati Ariadna Bargiela Daniela Barilà Peter G Barlow Sami J Barmada Esther Barreiro George E Barreto Jiri Bartek Bonnie Bartel Alberto Bartolome Gaurav R Barve Suresh H Basagoudanavar Diane C Bassham Robert C Bast Alakananda Basu Henri Batoko Isabella Batten Etienne E Baulieu Bradley L Baumgarner Jagadeesh Bayry Rupert Beale Isabelle Beau Florian Beaumatin Luiz R G Bechara George R Beck Michael F Beers Jakob Begun Christian Behrends Georg M N Behrens Roberto Bei Eloy Bejarano Shai Bel Christian Behl Amine Belaid Naïma Belgareh-Touzé Cristina Bellarosa Francesca Belleudi Melissa Belló Pérez Raquel Bello-Morales Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran Sebastián Beltran Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook Mykolas Bendorius Bruno A Benitez Irene Benito-Cuesta Julien Bensalem Martin W Berchtold Sabina Berezowska Daniele Bergamaschi Matteo Bergami Andreas Bergmann Laura Berliocchi Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent Amélie Bernard Lionel Berthoux Cagri G Besirli Sebastien Besteiro Virginie M Betin Rudi Beyaert Jelena S Bezbradica Kiran Bhaskar Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova Resham Bhattacharya Sujoy Bhattacharya Shalmoli Bhattacharyya Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan Sujit Kumar Bhutia Lanrong Bi Xiaolin Bi Trevor J Biden Krikor Bijian Viktor A Billes Nadine Binart Claudia Bincoletto Asa B Birgisdottir Geir Bjorkoy Gonzalo Blanco Ana Blas-Garcia Janusz Blasiak Robert Blomgran Klas Blomgren Janice S Blum Emilio Boada-Romero Mirta Boban Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia Philippe Boeuf Barry Boland Pascale Bomont Paolo Bonaldo Srinivasa Reddy Bonam Laura Bonfili Juan S Bonifacino Brian A Boone Martin D Bootman Matteo Bordi Christoph Borner Beat C Bornhauser Gautam Borthakur Jürgen Bosch Santanu Bose Luis M Botana Juan Botas Chantal M Boulanger Michael E Boulton Mathieu Bourdenx Benjamin Bourgeois Nollaig M Bourke Guilhem Bousquet Patricia Boya Peter V Bozhkov Luiz H M Bozi Tolga O Bozkurt Doug E Brackney Christian H Brandts Ralf J Braun Gerhard H Braus Roberto Bravo-Sagua José M Bravo-San Pedro Patrick Brest Marie-Agnès Bringer Alfredo Briones-Herrera V Courtney Broaddus Peter Brodersen Jeffrey L Brodsky Steven L Brody Paola G Bronson Jeff M Bronstein Carolyn N Brown Rhoderick E Brown Patricia C Brum John H Brumell Nicola Brunetti-Pierri Daniele Bruno Robert J Bryson-Richardson Cecilia Bucci Carmen Buchrieser Marta Bueno Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina Simone Buraschi Shilpa Buch J Ross Buchan Erin M Buckingham Hikmet Budak Mauricio Budini Geert Bultynck Florin Burada Joseph R Burgoyne M Isabel Burón Victor Bustos Sabrina Büttner Elena Butturini Aaron Byrd Isabel Cabas Sandra Cabrera-Benitez Ken Cadwell Jingjing Cai Lu Cai Qian Cai Montserrat Cairó Jose A Calbet Guy A Caldwell Kim A Caldwell Jarrod A Call Riccardo Calvani Ana C Calvo Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera Niels Os Camara Jacques H Camonis Nadine Camougrand Michelangelo Campanella Edward M Campbell François-Xavier Campbell-Valois Silvia Campello Ilaria Campesi Juliane C Campos Olivier Camuzard Jorge Cancino Danilo Candido de Almeida Laura Canesi Isabella Caniggia Barbara Canonico Carles Cantí Bin Cao Michele Caraglia Beatriz Caramés Evie H Carchman Elena Cardenal-Muñoz Cesar Cardenas Luis Cardenas Sandra M Cardoso Jennifer S Carew Georges F Carle Gillian Carleton Silvia Carloni Didac Carmona-Gutierrez Leticia A Carneiro Oliana Carnevali Julian M Carosi Serena Carra Alice Carrier Lucie Carrier Bernadette Carroll A Brent Carter Andreia Neves Carvalho Magali Casanova Caty Casas Josefina Casas Chiara Cassioli Eliseo F Castillo Karen Castillo Sonia Castillo-Lluva Francesca Castoldi Marco Castori Ariel F Castro Margarida Castro-Caldas Javier Castro-Hernandez Susana Castro-Obregon Sergio D Catz Claudia Cavadas Federica Cavaliere Gabriella Cavallini Maria Cavinato Maria L Cayuela Paula Cebollada Rica Valentina Cecarini Francesco Cecconi Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko Simone Cenci Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré João J Cerqueira Janete M Cerutti Davide Cervia Vildan Bozok Cetintas Silvia Cetrullo Han-Jung Chae Andrei S Chagin Chee-Yin Chai Gopal Chakrabarti Oishee Chakrabarti Tapas Chakraborty Trinad Chakraborty Mounia Chami Georgios Chamilos David W Chan Edmond Y W Chan Edward D Chan H Y Edwin Chan Helen H Chan Hung Chan Matthew T V Chan Yau Sang Chan Partha K Chandra Chih-Peng Chang Chunmei Chang Hao-Chun Chang Kai Chang Jie Chao Tracey Chapman Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand Samrat Chatterjee Shail K Chaube Anu Chaudhary Santosh Chauhan Edward Chaum Frédéric Checler Michael E Cheetham Chang-Shi Chen Guang-Chao Chen Jian-Fu Chen Liam L Chen Leilei Chen Lin Chen Mingliang Chen Mu-Kuan Chen Ning Chen Quan Chen Ruey-Hwa Chen Shi Chen Wei Chen Weiqiang Chen Xin-Ming Chen Xiong-Wen Chen Xu Chen Yan Chen Ye-Guang Chen Yingyu Chen Yongqiang Chen Yu-Jen Chen Yue-Qin Chen Zhefan Stephen Chen Zhi Chen Zhi-Hua Chen Zhijian J Chen Zhixiang Chen Hanhua Cheng Jun Cheng Shi-Yuan Cheng Wei Cheng Xiaodong Cheng Xiu-Tang Cheng Yiyun Cheng Zhiyong Cheng Zhong Chen Heesun Cheong Jit Kong Cheong Boris V Chernyak Sara Cherry Chi Fai Randy Cheung Chun Hei Antonio Cheung King-Ho Cheung Eric Chevet Richard J Chi Alan Kwok Shing Chiang Ferdinando Chiaradonna Roberto Chiarelli Mario Chiariello Nathalia Chica Susanna Chiocca Mario Chiong Shih-Hwa Chiou Abhilash I Chiramel Valerio Chiurchiù Dong-Hyung Cho Seong-Kyu Choe Augustine M K Choi Mary E Choi Kamalika Roy Choudhury Norman S Chow Charleen T Chu Jason P Chua John Jia En Chua Hyewon Chung Kin Pan Chung Seockhoon Chung So-Hyang Chung Yuen-Li Chung Valentina Cianfanelli Iwona A Ciechomska Mariana Cifuentes Laura Cinque Sebahattin Cirak Mara Cirone Michael J Clague Robert Clarke Emilio Clementi Eliana M Coccia Patrice Codogno Ehud Cohen Mickael M Cohen Tania Colasanti Fiorella Colasuonno Robert A Colbert Anna Colell Miodrag Čolić Nuria S Coll Mark O Collins María I Colombo Daniel A Colón-Ramos Lydie Combaret Sergio Comincini Márcia R Cominetti Antonella Consiglio Andrea Conte Fabrizio Conti Viorica Raluca Contu Mark R Cookson Kevin M Coombs Isabelle Coppens Maria Tiziana Corasaniti Dale P Corkery Nils Cordes Katia Cortese Maria do Carmo Costa Sarah Costantino Paola Costelli Ana Coto-Montes Peter J Crack Jose L Crespo Alfredo Criollo Valeria Crippa Riccardo Cristofani Tamas Csizmadia Antonio Cuadrado Bing Cui Jun Cui Yixian Cui Yong Cui Emmanuel Culetto Andrea C Cumino Andrey V Cybulsky Mark J Czaja Stanislaw J Czuczwar Stefania D'Adamo Marcello D'Amelio Daniela D'Arcangelo Andrew C D'Lugos Gabriella D'Orazi James A da Silva Hormos Salimi Dafsari Ruben K Dagda Yasin Dagdas Maria Daglia Xiaoxia Dai Yun Dai Yuyuan Dai Jessica Dal Col Paul Dalhaimer Luisa Dalla Valle Tobias Dallenga Guillaume Dalmasso Markus Damme Ilaria Dando Nico P Dantuma April L Darling Hiranmoy Das Srinivasan Dasarathy Santosh K Dasari Srikanta Dash Oliver Daumke Adrian N Dauphinee Jeffrey S Davies Valeria A Dávila Roger J Davis Tanja Davis Sharadha Dayalan Naidu Francesca De Amicis Karolien De Bosscher Francesca De Felice Lucia De Franceschi Chiara De Leonibus Mayara G de Mattos Barbosa Guido R Y De Meyer Angelo De Milito Cosimo De Nunzio Clara De Palma Mauro De Santi Claudio De Virgilio Daniela De Zio Jayanta Debnath Brian J DeBosch Jean-Paul Decuypere Mark A Deehan Gianluca Deflorian James DeGregori Benjamin Dehay Gabriel Del Rio Joe R Delaney Lea M D Delbridge Elizabeth Delorme-Axford M Victoria Delpino Francesca Demarchi Vilma Dembitz Nicholas D Demers Hongbin Deng Zhiqiang Deng Joern Dengjel Paul Dent Donna Denton Melvin L DePamphilis Channing J Der Vojo Deretic Albert Descoteaux Laura Devis Sushil Devkota Olivier Devuyst Grant Dewson Mahendiran Dharmasivam Rohan Dhiman Diego di Bernardo Manlio Di Cristina Fabio Di Domenico Pietro Di Fazio Alessio Di Fonzo Giovanni Di Guardo Gianni M Di Guglielmo Luca Di Leo Chiara Di Malta Alessia Di Nardo Martina Di Rienzo Federica Di Sano George Diallinas Jiajie Diao Guillermo Diaz-Araya Inés Díaz-Laviada Jared M Dickinson Marc Diederich Mélanie Dieudé Ivan Dikic Shiping Ding Wen-Xing Ding Luciana Dini Jelena Dinić Miroslav Dinic Albena T Dinkova-Kostova Marc S Dionne Jörg H W Distler Abhinav Diwan Ian M C Dixon Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny Ina Dobrinski Oxana Dobrovinskaya Radek Dobrowolski Renwick C J Dobson Jelena Đokić Serap Dokmeci Emre Massimo Donadelli Bo Dong Xiaonan Dong Zhiwu Dong Gerald W Dorn Ii Volker Dotsch Huan Dou Juan Dou Moataz Dowaidar Sami Dridi Liat Drucker Ailian Du Caigan Du Guangwei Du Hai-Ning Du Li-Lin Du André du Toit Shao-Bin Duan Xiaoqiong Duan Sónia P Duarte Anna Dubrovska Elaine A Dunlop Nicolas Dupont Raúl V Durán Bilikere S Dwarakanath Sergey A Dyshlovoy Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari Leopold Eckhart Charles L Edelstein Thomas Efferth Eftekhar Eftekharpour Ludwig Eichinger Nabil Eid Tobias Eisenberg N Tony Eissa Sanaa Eissa Miriam Ejarque Abdeljabar El Andaloussi Nazira El-Hage Shahenda El-Naggar Anna Maria Eleuteri Eman S El-Shafey Mohamed Elgendy Aristides G Eliopoulos María M Elizalde Philip M Elks Hans-Peter Elsasser Eslam S Elsherbiny Brooke M Emerling N C Tolga Emre Christina H Eng Nikolai Engedal Anna-Mart Engelbrecht Agnete S T Engelsen Jorrit M Enserink Ricardo Escalante Audrey Esclatine Mafalda Escobar-Henriques Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen Lucile Espert Makandjou-Ola Eusebio Gemma Fabrias Cinzia Fabrizi Antonio Facchiano Francesco Facchiano Bengt Fadeel Claudio Fader Alex C Faesen W Douglas Fairlie Alberto Falcó Bjorn H Falkenburger Daping Fan Jie Fan Yanbo Fan Evandro F Fang Yanshan Fang Yognqi Fang Manolis Fanto Tamar Farfel-Becker Mathias Faure Gholamreza Fazeli Anthony O Fedele Arthur M Feldman Du Feng Jiachun Feng Lifeng Feng Yibin Feng Yuchen Feng Wei Feng Thais Fenz Araujo Thomas A Ferguson Álvaro F Fernández Jose C Fernandez-Checa Sonia Fernández-Veledo Alisdair R Fernie Anthony W Ferrante Alessandra Ferraresi Merari F Ferrari Julio C B Ferreira Susan Ferro-Novick Antonio Figueras Riccardo Filadi Nicoletta Filigheddu Eduardo Filippi-Chiela Giuseppe Filomeni Gian Maria Fimia Vittorio Fineschi Francesca Finetti Steven Finkbeiner Edward A Fisher Paul B Fisher Flavio Flamigni Steven J Fliesler Trude H Flo Ida Florance Oliver Florey Tullio Florio Erika Fodor Carlo Follo Edward A Fon Antonella Forlino Francesco Fornai Paola Fortini Anna Fracassi Alessandro Fraldi Brunella Franco Rodrigo Franco Flavia Franconi Lisa B Frankel Scott L Friedman Leopold F Fröhlich Gema Frühbeck Jose M Fuentes Yukio Fujiki Naonobu Fujita Yuuki Fujiwara Mitsunori Fukuda Simone Fulda Luc Furic Norihiko Furuya Carmela Fusco Michaela U Gack Lidia Gaffke Sehamuddin Galadari Alessia Galasso Maria F Galindo Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage Lorenzo Galluzzi Vincent Galy Noor Gammoh Boyi Gan Ian G Ganley Feng Gao Hui Gao Minghui Gao Ping Gao Shou-Jiang Gao Wentao Gao Xiaobo Gao Ana Garcera Maria Noé Garcia Verónica E Garcia Francisco García-Del Portillo Vega Garcia-Escudero Aracely Garcia-Garcia Marina Garcia-Macia Diana García-Moreno Carmen Garcia-Ruiz Patricia García-Sanz Abhishek D Garg Ricardo Gargini Tina Garofalo Robert F Garry Nils C Gassen Damian Gatica Liang Ge Wanzhong Ge Ruth Geiss-Friedlander Cecilia Gelfi Pascal Genschik Ian E Gentle Valeria Gerbino Christoph Gerhardt Kyla Germain Marc Germain David A Gewirtz Elham Ghasemipour Afshar Saeid Ghavami Alessandra Ghigo Manosij Ghosh Georgios Giamas Claudia Giampietri Alexandra Giatromanolaki Gary E Gibson Spencer B Gibson Vanessa Ginet Edward Giniger Carlotta Giorgi Henrique Girao Stephen E Girardin Mridhula Giridharan Sandy Giuliano Cecilia Giulivi Sylvie Giuriato Julien Giustiniani Alexander Gluschko Veit Goder Alexander Goginashvili Jakub Golab David C Goldstone Anna Golebiewska Luciana R Gomes Rodrigo Gomez Rubén Gómez-Sánchez Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto Raquel Gomez-Sintes Qingqiu Gong Felix M Goni Javier González-Gallego Tomas Gonzalez-Hernandez Rosa A Gonzalez-Polo Jose A Gonzalez-Reyes Patricia González-Rodríguez Ing Swie Goping Marina S Gorbatyuk Nikolai V Gorbunov Kıvanç Görgülü Roxana M Gorojod Sharon M Gorski Sandro Goruppi Cecilia Gotor Roberta A Gottlieb Illana Gozes Devrim Gozuacik Martin Graef Markus H Gräler Veronica Granatiero Daniel Grasso Joshua P Gray Douglas R Green Alexander Greenhough Stephen L Gregory Edward F Griffin Mark W Grinstaff Frederic Gros Charles Grose Angelina S Gross Florian Gruber Paolo Grumati Tilman Grune Xueyan Gu Jun-Lin Guan Carlos M Guardia Kishore Guda Flora Guerra Consuelo Guerri Prasun Guha Carlos Guillén Shashi Gujar Anna Gukovskaya Ilya Gukovsky Jan Gunst Andreas Günther Anyonya R Guntur Chuanyong Guo Chun Guo Hongqing Guo Lian-Wang Guo Ming Guo Pawan Gupta Shashi Kumar Gupta Swapnil Gupta Veer Bala Gupta Vivek Gupta Asa B Gustafsson David D Gutterman Ranjitha H B Annakaisa Haapasalo James E Haber Aleksandra Hać Shinji Hadano Anders J Hafrén Mansour Haidar Belinda S Hall Gunnel Halldén Anne Hamacher-Brady Andrea Hamann Maho Hamasaki Weidong Han Malene Hansen Phyllis I Hanson Zijian Hao Masaru Harada Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic Nirmala Hariharan Nigil Haroon James Harris Takafumi Hasegawa Noor Hasima Nagoor Jeffrey A Haspel Volker Haucke Wayne D Hawkins Bruce A Hay Cole M Haynes Soren B Hayrabedyan Thomas S Hays Congcong He Qin He Rong-Rong He You-Wen He Yu-Ying He Yasser Heakal Alexander M Heberle J Fielding Hejtmancik Gudmundur Vignir Helgason Vanessa Henkel Marc Herb Alexander Hergovich Anna Herman-Antosiewicz Agustín Hernández Carlos Hernandez Sergio Hernandez-Diaz Virginia Hernandez-Gea Amaury Herpin Judit Herreros Javier H Hervás Daniel Hesselson Claudio Hetz Volker T Heussler Yujiro Higuchi Sabine Hilfiker Joseph A Hill William S Hlavacek Emmanuel A Ho Idy H T Ho Philip Wing-Lok Ho Shu-Leong Ho Wan Yun Ho G Aaron Hobbs Mark Hochstrasser Peter H M Hoet Daniel Hofius Paul Hofman Annika Höhn Carina I Holmberg Jose R Hombrebueno Chang-Won Hong Yi-Ren Hong Lora V Hooper Thorsten Hoppe Rastislav Horos Yujin Hoshida I-Lun Hsin Hsin-Yun Hsu Bing Hu Dong Hu Li-Fang Hu Ming Chang Hu Ronggui Hu Wei Hu Yu-Chen Hu Zhuo-Wei Hu Fang Hua Jinlian Hua Yingqi Hua Chongmin Huan Canhua Huang Chuanshu Huang Chuanxin Huang Chunling Huang Haishan Huang Kun Huang Michael L H Huang Rui Huang Shan Huang Tianzhi Huang Xing Huang Yuxiang Jack Huang Tobias B Huber Virginie Hubert Christian A Hubner Stephanie M Hughes William E Hughes Magali Humbert Gerhard Hummer James H Hurley Sabah Hussain Salik Hussain Patrick J Hussey Martina Hutabarat Hui-Yun Hwang Seungmin Hwang Antonio Ieni Fumiyo Ikeda Yusuke Imagawa Yuzuru Imai Carol Imbriano Masaya Imoto Denise M Inman Ken Inoki Juan Iovanna Renato V Iozzo Giuseppe Ippolito Javier E Irazoqui Pablo Iribarren Mohd Ishaq Makoto Ishikawa Nestor Ishimwe Ciro Isidoro Nahed Ismail Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas Eisuke Itakura Daisuke Ito Davor Ivankovic Saška Ivanova Anand Krishnan V Iyer José M Izquierdo Masanori Izumi Marja Jäättelä Majid Sakhi Jabir William T Jackson Nadia Jacobo-Herrera Anne-Claire Jacomin Elise Jacquin Pooja Jadiya Hartmut Jaeschke Chinnaswamy Jagannath Arjen J Jakobi Johan Jakobsson Bassam Janji Pidder Jansen-Dürr Patric J Jansson Jonathan Jantsch Sławomir Januszewski Alagie Jassey Steve Jean Hélène Jeltsch-David Pavla Jendelova Andreas Jenny Thomas E Jensen Niels Jessen Jenna L Jewell Jing Ji Lijun Jia Rui Jia Liwen Jiang Qing Jiang Richeng Jiang Teng Jiang Xuejun Jiang Yu Jiang Maria Jimenez-Sanchez Eun-Jung Jin Fengyan Jin Hongchuan Jin Li Jin Luqi Jin Meiyan Jin Si Jin Eun-Kyeong Jo Carine Joffre Terje Johansen Gail V W Johnson Simon A Johnston Eija Jokitalo Mohit Kumar Jolly Leo A B Joosten Joaquin Jordan Bertrand Joseph Dianwen Ju Jeong-Sun Ju Jingfang Ju Esmeralda Juárez Delphine Judith Gábor Juhász Youngsoo Jun Chang Hwa Jung Sung-Chul Jung Yong Keun Jung Heinz Jungbluth Johannes Jungverdorben Steffen Just Kai Kaarniranta Allen Kaasik Tomohiro Kabuta Daniel Kaganovich Alon Kahana Renate Kain Shinjo Kajimura Maria Kalamvoki Manjula Kalia Danuta S Kalinowski Nina Kaludercic Ioanna Kalvari Joanna Kaminska Vitaliy O Kaminskyy Hiromitsu Kanamori Keizo Kanasaki Chanhee Kang Rui Kang Sang Sun Kang Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan Tomotake Kanki Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti Anumantha G Kanthasamy Arthi Kanthasamy Marc Kantorow Orsolya Kapuy Michalis V Karamouzis Md Razaul Karim Parimal Karmakar Rajesh G Katare Masaru Kato Stefan H E Kaufmann Anu Kauppinen Gur P Kaushal Susmita Kaushik Kiyoshi Kawasaki Kemal Kazan Po-Yuan Ke Damien J Keating Ursula Keber John H Kehrl Kate E Keller Christian W Keller Jongsook Kim Kemper Candia M Kenific Oliver Kepp Stephanie Kermorgant Andreas Kern Robin Ketteler Tom G Keulers Boris Khalfin Hany Khalil Bilon Khambu Shahid Y Khan Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal Rekha Khandia Widuri Kho Noopur V Khobrekar Sataree Khuansuwan Mukhran Khundadze Samuel A Killackey Dasol Kim Deok Ryong Kim Do-Hyung Kim Dong-Eun Kim Eun Young Kim Eun-Kyoung Kim Hak-Rim Kim Hee-Sik Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim Jeong Hun Kim Jin Kyung Kim Jin-Hoi Kim Joungmok Kim Ju Hwan Kim Keun Il Kim Peter K Kim Seong-Jun Kim Scot R Kimball Adi Kimchi Alec C Kimmelman Tomonori Kimura Matthew A King Kerri J Kinghorn Conan G Kinsey Vladimir Kirkin Lorrie A Kirshenbaum Sergey L Kiselev Shuji Kishi Katsuhiko Kitamoto Yasushi Kitaoka Kaio Kitazato Richard N Kitsis Josef T Kittler Ole Kjaerulff Peter S Klein Thomas Klopstock Jochen Klucken Helene Knævelsrud Roland L Knorr Ben C B Ko Fred Ko Jiunn-Liang Ko Hotaka Kobayashi Satoru Kobayashi Ina Koch Jan C Koch Ulrich Koenig Donat Kögel Young Ho Koh Masato Koike Sepp D Kohlwein Nur M Kocaturk Masaaki Komatsu Jeannette König Toru Kono Benjamin T Kopp Tamas Korcsmaros Gözde Korkmaz Viktor I Korolchuk Mónica Suárez Korsnes Ali Koskela Janaiah Kota Yaichiro Kotake Monica L Kotler Yanjun Kou Michael I Koukourakis Evangelos Koustas Attila L Kovacs Tibor Kovács Daisuke Koya Tomohiro Kozako Claudine Kraft Dimitri Krainc Helmut Krämer Anna D Krasnodembskaya Carole Kretz-Remy Guido Kroemer Nicholas T Ktistakis Kazuyuki Kuchitsu Sabine Kuenen Lars Kuerschner Thomas Kukar Ajay Kumar Ashok Kumar Deepak Kumar Dhiraj Kumar Sharad Kumar Shinji Kume Caroline Kumsta Chanakya N Kundu Mondira Kundu Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara Lukasz Kurgan Tatiana G Kutateladze Ozlem Kutlu SeongAe Kwak Ho Jeong Kwon Taeg Kyu Kwon Yong Tae Kwon Irene Kyrmizi Albert La Spada Patrick Labonté Sylvain Ladoire Ilaria Laface Frank Lafont Diane C Lagace Vikramjit Lahiri Zhibing Lai Angela S Laird Aparna Lakkaraju Trond Lamark Sheng-Hui Lan Ane Landajuela Darius J R Lane Jon D Lane Charles H Lang Carsten Lange Ülo Langel Rupert Langer Pierre Lapaquette Jocelyn Laporte Nicholas F LaRusso Isabel Lastres-Becker Wilson Chun Yu Lau Gordon W Laurie Sergio Lavandero Betty Yuen Kwan Law Helen Ka-Wai Law Rob Layfield Weidong Le Herve Le Stunff Alexandre Y Leary Jean-Jacques Lebrun Lionel Y W Leck Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet Changwook Lee Chung-Pei Lee Da-Hye Lee Edward B Lee Erinna F Lee Gyun Min Lee He-Jin Lee Heung Kyu Lee Jae Man Lee Jason S Lee Jin-A Lee Joo-Yong Lee Jun Hee Lee Michael Lee Min Goo Lee Min Jae Lee Myung-Shik Lee Sang Yoon Lee Seung-Jae Lee Stella Y Lee Sung Bae Lee Won Hee Lee Ying-Ray Lee Yong-Ho Lee Youngil Lee Christophe Lefebvre Renaud Legouis Yu L Lei Yuchen Lei Sergey Leikin Gerd Leitinger Leticia Lemus Shuilong Leng Olivia Lenoir Guido Lenz Heinz Josef Lenz Paola Lenzi Yolanda León Andréia M Leopoldino Christoph Leschczyk Stina Leskelä Elisabeth Letellier Chi-Ting Leung Po Sing Leung Jeremy S Leventhal Beth Levine Patrick A Lewis Klaus Ley Bin Li Da-Qiang Li Jianming Li Jing Li Jiong Li Ke Li Liwu Li Mei Li Min Li Min Li Ming Li Mingchuan Li Pin-Lan Li Ming-Qing Li Qing Li Sheng Li Tiangang Li Wei Li Wenming Li Xue Li Yi-Ping Li Yuan Li Zhiqiang Li Zhiyong Li Zhiyuan Li Jiqin Lian Chengyu Liang Qiangrong Liang Weicheng Liang Yongheng Liang YongTian Liang Guanghong Liao Lujian Liao Mingzhi Liao Yung-Feng Liao Mariangela Librizzi Pearl P Y Lie Mary A Lilly Hyunjung J Lim Thania R R Lima Federica Limana Chao Lin Chih-Wen Lin Dar-Shong Lin Fu-Cheng Lin Jiandie D Lin Kurt M Lin Kwang-Huei Lin Liang-Tzung Lin Pei-Hui Lin Qiong Lin Shaofeng Lin Su-Ju Lin Wenyu Lin Xueying Lin Yao-Xin Lin Yee-Shin Lin Rafael Linden Paula Lindner Shuo-Chien Ling Paul Lingor Amelia K Linnemann Yih-Cherng Liou Marta M Lipinski Saška Lipovšek Vitor A Lira Natalia Lisiak Paloma B Liton Chao Liu Ching-Hsuan Liu Chun-Feng Liu Cui Hua Liu Fang Liu Hao Liu Hsiao-Sheng Liu Hua-Feng Liu Huifang Liu Jia Liu Jing Liu Julia Liu Leyuan Liu Longhua Liu Meilian Liu Qin Liu Wei Liu Wende Liu Xiao-Hong Liu Xiaodong Liu Xingguo Liu Xu Liu Xuedong Liu Yanfen Liu Yang Liu Yang Liu Yueyang Liu Yule Liu J Andrew Livingston Gerard Lizard Jose M Lizcano Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer Matilde E LLeonart David Llobet-Navàs Alicia Llorente Chih Hung Lo Damián Lobato-Márquez Qi Long Yun Chau Long Ben Loos Julia A Loos Manuela G López Guillermo López-Doménech José Antonio López-Guerrero Ana T López-Jiménez Óscar López-Pérez Israel López-Valero Magdalena J Lorenowicz Mar Lorente Peter Lorincz Laura Lossi Sophie Lotersztajn Penny E Lovat Jonathan F Lovell Alenka Lovy Péter Lőw Guang Lu Haocheng Lu Jia-Hong Lu Jin-Jian Lu Mengji Lu Shuyan Lu Alessandro Luciani John M Lucocq Paula Ludovico Micah A Luftig Morten Luhr Diego Luis-Ravelo Julian J Lum Liany Luna-Dulcey Anders H Lund Viktor K Lund Jan D Lünemann Patrick Lüningschrör Honglin Luo Rongcan Luo Shouqing Luo Zhi Luo Claudio Luparello Bernhard Lüscher Luan Luu Alex Lyakhovich Konstantin G Lyamzaev Alf Håkon Lystad Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk Alvin C Ma Changle Ma Mengxiao Ma Ning-Fang Ma Quan-Hong Ma Xinliang Ma Yueyun Ma Zhenyi Ma Ormond A MacDougald Fernando Macian Gustavo C MacIntosh Jeffrey P MacKeigan Kay F Macleod Sandra Maday Frank Madeo Muniswamy Madesh Tobias Madl Julio Madrigal-Matute Akiko Maeda Yasuhiro Maejima Marta Magarinos Poornima Mahavadi Emiliano Maiani Kenneth Maiese Panchanan Maiti Maria Chiara Maiuri Barbara Majello Michael B Major Elena Makareeva Fayaz Malik Karthik Mallilankaraman Walter Malorni Alina Maloyan Najiba Mammadova Gene Chi Wai Man Federico Manai Joseph D Mancias Eva-Maria Mandelkow Michael A Mandell Angelo A Manfredi Masoud H Manjili Ravi Manjithaya Patricio Manque Bella B Manshian Raquel Manzano Claudia Manzoni Kai Mao Cinzia Marchese Sandrine Marchetti Anna Maria Marconi Fabrizio Marcucci Stefania Mardente Olga A Mareninova Marta Margeta Muriel Mari Sara Marinelli Oliviero Marinelli Guillermo Mariño Sofia Mariotto Richard S Marshall Mark R Marten Sascha Martens Alexandre P J Martin Katie R Martin Sara Martin Shaun Martin Adrián Martín-Segura Miguel A Martín-Acebes Inmaculada Martin-Burriel Marcos Martin-Rincon Paloma Martin-Sanz José A Martina Wim Martinet Aitor Martinez Ana Martinez Jennifer Martinez Moises Martinez Velazquez Nuria Martinez-Lopez Marta Martinez-Vicente Daniel O Martins Joilson O Martins Waleska K Martins Tania Martins-Marques Emanuele Marzetti Shashank Masaldan Celine Masclaux-Daubresse Douglas G Mashek Valentina Massa Lourdes Massieu Glenn R Masson Laura Masuelli Anatoliy I Masyuk Tetyana V Masyuk Paola Matarrese Ander Matheu Satoaki Matoba Sachiko Matsuzaki Pamela Mattar Alessandro Matte Domenico Mattoscio José L Mauriz Mario Mauthe Caroline Mauvezin Emanual Maverakis Paola Maycotte Johanna Mayer Gianluigi Mazzoccoli Cristina Mazzoni Joseph R Mazzulli Nami McCarty Christine McDonald Mitchell R McGill Sharon L McKenna BethAnn McLaughlin Fionn McLoughlin Mark A McNiven Thomas G McWilliams Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou Tania Catarina Medeiros Diego L Medina Lynn A Megeney Klara Megyeri Maryam Mehrpour Jawahar L Mehta Alfred J Meijer Annemarie H Meijer Jakob Mejlvang Alicia Meléndez Annette Melk Gonen Memisoglu Alexandrina F Mendes Delong Meng Fei Meng Tian Meng Rubem Menna-Barreto Manoj B Menon Carol Mercer Anne E Mercier Jean-Louis Mergny Adalberto Merighi Seth D Merkley Giuseppe Merla Volker Meske Ana Cecilia Mestre Shree Padma Metur Christian Meyer Hemmo Meyer Wenyi Mi Jeanne Mialet-Perez Junying Miao Lucia Micale Yasuo Miki Enrico Milan Małgorzata Milczarek Dana L Miller Samuel I Miller Silke Miller Steven W Millward Ira Milosevic Elena A Minina Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Mehdi Mirzaei Amit Mishra Nandita Mishra Paras Kumar Mishra Maja Misirkic Marjanovic Roberta Misasi Amit Misra Gabriella Misso Claire Mitchell Geraldine Mitou Tetsuji Miura Shigeki Miyamoto Makoto Miyazaki Mitsunori Miyazaki Taiga Miyazaki Keisuke Miyazawa Noboru Mizushima Trine H Mogensen Baharia Mograbi Reza Mohammadinejad Yasir Mohamud Abhishek Mohanty Sipra Mohapatra Torsten Möhlmann Asif Mohmmed Anna Moles Kelle H Moley Maurizio Molinari Vincenzo Mollace Andreas Buch Møller Bertrand Mollereau Faustino Mollinedo Costanza Montagna Mervyn J Monteiro Andrea Montella L Ruth Montes Barbara Montico Vinod K Mony Giacomo Monzio Compagnoni Michael N Moore Mohammad A Moosavi Ana L Mora Marina Mora David Morales-Alamo Rosario Moratalla Paula I Moreira Elena Morelli Sandra Moreno Daniel Moreno-Blas Viviana Moresi Benjamin Morga Alwena H Morgan Fabrice Morin Hideaki Morishita Orson L Moritz Mariko Moriyama Yuji Moriyasu Manuela Morleo Eugenia Morselli Jose F Moruno-Manchon Jorge Moscat Serge Mostowy Elisa Motori Andrea Felinto Moura Naima Moustaid-Moussa Maria Mrakovcic Gabriel Muciño-Hernández Anupam Mukherjee Subhadip Mukhopadhyay Jean M Mulcahy Levy Victoriano Mulero Sylviane Muller Christian Münch Ashok Munjal Pura Munoz-Canoves Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano Christian Münz Tomokazu Murakawa Claudia Muratori Brona M Murphy J Patrick Murphy Aditya Murthy Timo T Myöhänen Indira U Mysorekar Jennifer Mytych Seyed Mohammad Nabavi Massimo Nabissi Péter Nagy Jihoon Nah Aimable Nahimana Ichiro Nakagawa Ken Nakamura Hitoshi Nakatogawa Shyam S Nandi Meera Nanjundan Monica Nanni Gennaro Napolitano Roberta Nardacci Masashi Narita Melissa Nassif Ilana Nathan Manabu Natsumeda Ryno J Naude Christin Naumann Olaia Naveiras Fatemeh Navid Steffan T Nawrocki Taras Y Nazarko Francesca Nazio Florentina Negoita Thomas Neill Amanda L Neisch Luca M Neri Mihai G Netea Patrick Neubert Thomas P Neufeld Dietbert Neumann Albert Neutzner Phillip T Newton Paul A Ney Ioannis P Nezis Charlene C W Ng Tzi Bun Ng Hang T T Nguyen Long T Nguyen Hong-Min Ni Clíona Ní Cheallaigh Zhenhong Ni M Celeste Nicolao Francesco Nicoli Manuel Nieto-Diaz Per Nilsson Shunbin Ning Rituraj Niranjan Hiroshi Nishimune Mireia Niso-Santano Ralph A Nixon Annalisa Nobili Clevio Nobrega Takeshi Noda Uxía Nogueira-Recalde Trevor M Nolan Ivan Nombela Ivana Novak Beatriz Novoa Takashi Nozawa Nobuyuki Nukina Carmen Nussbaum-Krammer Jesper Nylandsted Tracey R O'Donovan Seónadh M O'Leary Eyleen J O'Rourke Mary P O'Sullivan Timothy E O'Sullivan Salvatore Oddo Ina Oehme Michinaga Ogawa Eric Ogier-Denis Margret H Ogmundsdottir Besim Ogretmen Goo Taeg Oh Seon-Hee Oh Young J Oh Takashi Ohama Yohei Ohashi Masaki Ohmuraya Vasileios Oikonomou Rani Ojha Koji Okamoto Hitoshi Okazawa Masahide Oku Sara Oliván Jorge M A Oliveira Michael Ollmann James A Olzmann Shakib Omari M Bishr Omary Gizem Önal Martin Ondrej Sang-Bing Ong Sang-Ging Ong Anna Onnis Juan A Orellana Sara Orellana-Muñoz Maria Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez Elena Ortona Heinz D Osiewacz Abdel-Hamid K Osman Rosario Osta Marisa S Otegui Kinya Otsu Christiane Ott Luisa Ottobrini Jing-Hsiung James Ou Tiago F Outeiro Inger Oynebraten Melek Ozturk Gilles Pagès Susanta Pahari Marta Pajares Utpal B Pajvani Rituraj Pal Simona Paladino Nicolas Pallet Michela Palmieri Giuseppe Palmisano Camilla Palumbo Francesco Pampaloni Lifeng Pan Qingjun Pan Wenliang Pan Xin Pan Ganna Panasyuk Rahul Pandey Udai B Pandey Vrajesh Pandya Francesco Paneni Shirley Y Pang Elisa Panzarini Daniela L Papademetrio Elena Papaleo Daniel Papinski Diana Papp Eun Chan Park Hwan Tae Park Ji-Man Park Jong-In Park Joon Tae Park Junsoo Park Sang Chul Park Sang-Youel Park Abraham H Parola Jan B Parys Adrien Pasquier Benoit Pasquier João F Passos Nunzia Pastore Hemal H Patel Daniel Patschan Sophie Pattingre Gustavo Pedraza-Alva Jose Pedraza-Chaverri Zully Pedrozo Gang Pei Jianming Pei Hadas Peled-Zehavi Joaquín M Pellegrini Joffrey Pelletier Miguel A Peñalva Di Peng Ying Peng Fabio Penna Maria Pennuto Francesca Pentimalli Cláudia Mf Pereira Gustavo J S Pereira Lilian C Pereira Luis Pereira de Almeida Nirma D Perera Ángel Pérez-Lara Ana B Perez-Oliva María Esther Pérez-Pérez Palsamy Periyasamy Andras Perl Cristiana Perrotta Ida Perrotta Richard G Pestell Morten Petersen Irina Petrache Goran Petrovski Thorsten Pfirrmann Astrid S Pfister Jennifer A Philips Huifeng Pi Anna Picca Alicia M Pickrell Sandy Picot Giovanna M Pierantoni Marina Pierdominici Philippe Pierre Valérie Pierrefite-Carle Karolina Pierzynowska Federico Pietrocola Miroslawa Pietruczuk Claudio Pignata Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños Mario Pinar Roberta O Pinheiro Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski Paolo Pinton Karolina Pircs Sujan Piya Paola Pizzo Theo S Plantinga Harald W Platta Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala Markus Plomann Egor Y Plotnikov Helene Plun-Favreau Ryszard Pluta Roger Pocock Stefanie Pöggeler Christian Pohl Marc Poirot Angelo Poletti Marisa Ponpuak Hana Popelka Blagovesta Popova Helena Porta Soledad Porte Alcon Eliana Portilla-Fernandez Martin Post Malia B Potts Joanna Poulton Ted Powers Veena Prahlad Tomasz K Prajsnar Domenico Praticò Rosaria Prencipe Muriel Priault Tassula Proikas-Cezanne Vasilis J Promponas Christopher G Proud Rosa Puertollano Luigi Puglielli Thomas Pulinilkunnil Deepika Puri Rajat Puri Julien Puyal Xiaopeng Qi Yongmei Qi Wenbin Qian Lei Qiang Yu Qiu Joe Quadrilatero Jorge Quarleri Nina Raben Hannah Rabinowich Debora Ragona Michael J Ragusa Nader Rahimi Marveh Rahmati Valeria Raia Nuno Raimundo Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao Abdelhaq Rami Ignacio Ramírez-Pardo David B Ramsden Felix Randow Pundi N Rangarajan Danilo Ranieri Hai Rao Lang Rao Rekha Rao Sumit Rathore J Arjuna Ratnayaka Edward A Ratovitski Palaniyandi Ravanan Gloria Ravegnini Swapan K Ray Babak Razani Vito Rebecca Fulvio Reggiori Anne Régnier-Vigouroux Andreas S Reichert David Reigada Jan H Reiling Theo Rein Siegfried Reipert Rokeya Sultana Rekha Hongmei Ren Jun Ren Weichao Ren Tristan Renault Giorgia Renga Karen Reue Kim Rewitz Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade Ramos S Amer Riazuddin Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues Jean-Ehrland Ricci Romeo Ricci Victoria Riccio Des R Richardson Yasuko Rikihisa Makarand V Risbud Ruth M Risueño Konstantinos Ritis Salvatore Rizza Rosario Rizzuto Helen C Roberts Luke D Roberts Katherine J Robinson Maria Carmela Roccheri Stephane Rocchi George G Rodney Tiago Rodrigues Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva Amaia Rodriguez Ruth Rodriguez-Barrueco Nieves Rodriguez-Henche Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha Jeroen Roelofs Robert S Rogers Vladimir V Rogov Ana I Rojo Krzysztof Rolka Vanina Romanello Luigina Romani Alessandra Romano Patricia S Romano David Romeo-Guitart Luis C Romero Montserrat Romero Joseph C Roney Christopher Rongo Sante Roperto Mathias T Rosenfeldt Philip Rosenstiel Anne G Rosenwald Kevin A Roth Lynn Roth Steven Roth Kasper M A Rouschop Benoit D Roussel Sophie Roux Patrizia Rovere-Querini Ajit Roy Aurore Rozieres Diego Ruano David C Rubinsztein Maria P Rubtsova Klaus Ruckdeschel Christoph Ruckenstuhl Emil Rudolf Rüdiger Rudolf Alessandra Ruggieri Avnika Ashok Ruparelia Paola Rusmini Ryan R Russell Gian Luigi Russo Maria Russo Rossella Russo Oxana O Ryabaya Kevin M Ryan Kwon-Yul Ryu Maria Sabater-Arcis Ulka Sachdev Michael Sacher Carsten Sachse Abhishek Sadhu Junichi Sadoshima Nathaniel Safren Paul Saftig Antonia P Sagona Gaurav Sahay Amirhossein Sahebkar Mustafa Sahin Ozgur Sahin Sumit Sahni Nayuta Saito Shigeru Saito Tsunenori Saito Ryohei Sakai Yasuyoshi Sakai Jun-Ichi Sakamaki Kalle Saksela Gloria Salazar Anna Salazar-Degracia Ghasem H Salekdeh Ashok K Saluja Belém Sampaio-Marques Maria Cecilia Sanchez Jose A Sanchez-Alcazar Victoria Sanchez-Vera Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu J Thomas Sanderson Marco Sandri Stefano Santaguida Laura Santambrogio Magda M Santana Giorgio Santoni Alberto Sanz Pascual Sanz Shweta Saran Marco Sardiello Timothy J Sargeant Apurva Sarin Chinmoy Sarkar Sovan Sarkar Maria-Rosa Sarrias Surajit Sarkar Dipanka Tanu Sarmah Jaakko Sarparanta Aishwarya Sathyanarayan Ranganayaki Sathyanarayanan K Matthew Scaglione Francesca Scatozza Liliana Schaefer Zachary T Schafer Ulrich E Schaible Anthony H V Schapira Michael Scharl Hermann M Schatzl Catherine H Schein Wiep Scheper David Scheuring Maria Vittoria Schiaffino Monica Schiappacassi Rainer Schindl Uwe Schlattner Oliver Schmidt Roland Schmitt Stephen D Schmidt Ingo Schmitz Eran Schmukler Anja Schneider Bianca E Schneider Romana Schober Alejandra C Schoijet Micah B Schott Michael Schramm Bernd Schröder Kai Schuh Christoph Schüller Ryan J Schulze Lea Schürmanns Jens C Schwamborn Melanie Schwarten Filippo Scialo Sebastiano Sciarretta Melanie J Scott Kathleen W Scotto A Ivana Scovassi Andrea Scrima Aurora Scrivo David Sebastian Salwa Sebti Simon Sedej Laura Segatori Nava Segev Per O Seglen Iban Seiliez Ekihiro Seki Scott B Selleck Frank W Sellke Joshua T Selsby Michael Sendtner Serif Senturk Elena Seranova Consolato Sergi Ruth Serra-Moreno Hiromi Sesaki Carmine Settembre Subba Rao Gangi Setty Gianluca Sgarbi Ou Sha John J Shacka Javeed A Shah Dantong Shang Changshun Shao Feng Shao Soroush Sharbati Lisa M Sharkey Dipali Sharma Gaurav Sharma Kulbhushan Sharma Pawan Sharma Surendra Sharma Han-Ming Shen Hongtao Shen Jiangang Shen Ming Shen Weili Shen Zheni Shen Rui Sheng Zhi Sheng Zu-Hang Sheng Jianjian Shi Xiaobing Shi Ying-Hong Shi Kahori Shiba-Fukushima Jeng-Jer Shieh Yohta Shimada Shigeomi Shimizu Makoto Shimozawa Takahiro Shintani Christopher J Shoemaker Shahla Shojaei Ikuo Shoji Bhupendra V Shravage Viji Shridhar Chih-Wen Shu Hong-Bing Shu Ke Shui Arvind K Shukla Timothy E Shutt Valentina Sica Aleem Siddiqui Amanda Sierra Virginia Sierra-Torre Santiago Signorelli Payel Sil Bruno J de Andrade Silva Johnatas D Silva Eduardo Silva-Pavez Sandrine Silvente-Poirot Rachel E Simmonds Anna Katharina Simon Hans-Uwe Simon Matias Simons Anurag Singh Lalit P Singh Rajat Singh Shivendra V Singh Shrawan K Singh Sudha B Singh Sunaina Singh Surinder Pal Singh Debasish Sinha Rohit Anthony Sinha Sangita Sinha Agnieszka Sirko Kapil Sirohi Efthimios L Sivridis Panagiotis Skendros Aleksandra Skirycz Iva Slaninová Soraya S Smaili Andrei Smertenko Matthew D Smith Stefaan J Soenen Eun Jung Sohn Sophia P M Sok Giancarlo Solaini Thierry Soldati Scott A Soleimanpour Rosa M Soler Alexei Solovchenko Jason A Somarelli Avinash Sonawane Fuyong Song Hyun Kyu Song Ju-Xian Song Kunhua Song Zhiyin Song Leandro R Soria Maurizio Sorice Alexander A Soukas Sandra-Fausia Soukup Diana Sousa Nadia Sousa Paul A Spagnuolo Stephen A Spector M M Srinivas Bharath Daret St Clair Venturina Stagni Leopoldo Staiano Clint A Stalnecker Metodi V Stankov Peter B Stathopulos Katja Stefan Sven Marcel Stefan Leonidas Stefanis Joan S Steffan Alexander Steinkasserer Harald Stenmark Jared Sterneckert Craig Stevens Veronika Stoka Stephan Storch Björn Stork Flavie Strappazzon Anne Marie Strohecker Dwayne G Stupack Huanxing Su Ling-Yan Su Longxiang Su Ana M Suarez-Fontes Carlos S Subauste Selvakumar Subbian Paula V Subirada Ganapasam Sudhandiran Carolyn M Sue Xinbing Sui Corey Summers Guangchao Sun Jun Sun Kang Sun Meng-Xiang Sun Qiming Sun Yi Sun Zhongjie Sun Karen K S Sunahara Eva Sundberg Katalin Susztak Peter Sutovsky Hidekazu Suzuki Gary Sweeney J David Symons Stephen Cho Wing Sze Nathaniel J Szewczyk Anna Tabęcka-Łonczynska Claudio Tabolacci Frank Tacke Heinrich Taegtmeyer Marco Tafani Mitsuo Tagaya Haoran Tai Stephen W G Tait Yoshinori Takahashi Szabolcs Takats Priti Talwar Chit Tam Shing Yau Tam Davide Tampellini Atsushi Tamura Chong Teik Tan Eng-King Tan Ya-Qin Tan Masaki Tanaka Motomasa Tanaka Daolin Tang Jingfeng Tang Tie-Shan Tang Isei Tanida Zhipeng Tao Mohammed Taouis Lars Tatenhorst Nektarios Tavernarakis Allen Taylor Gregory A Taylor Joan M Taylor Elena Tchetina Andrew R Tee Irmgard Tegeder David Teis Natercia Teixeira Fatima Teixeira-Clerc Kumsal A Tekirdag Tewin Tencomnao Sandra Tenreiro Alexei V Tepikin Pilar S Testillano Gianluca Tettamanti Pierre-Louis Tharaux Kathrin Thedieck Arvind A Thekkinghat Stefano Thellung Josephine W Thinwa V P Thirumalaikumar Sufi Mary Thomas Paul G Thomes Andrew Thorburn Lipi Thukral Thomas Thum Michael Thumm Ling Tian Ales Tichy Andreas Till Vincent Timmerman Vladimir I Titorenko Sokol V Todi Krassimira Todorova Janne M Toivonen Luana Tomaipitinca Dhanendra Tomar Cristina Tomas-Zapico Sergej Tomić Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong Chao Tong Xin Tong Sharon A Tooze Maria L Torgersen Satoru Torii Liliana Torres-López Alicia Torriglia Christina G Towers Roberto Towns Shinya Toyokuni Vladimir Trajkovic Donatella Tramontano Quynh-Giao Tran Leonardo H Travassos Charles B Trelford Shirley Tremel Ioannis P Trougakos Betty P Tsao Mario P Tschan Hung-Fat Tse Tak Fu Tse Hitoshi Tsugawa Andrey S Tsvetkov David A Tumbarello Yasin Tumtas María J Tuñón Sandra Turcotte Boris Turk Vito Turk Bradley J Turner Richard I Tuxworth Jessica K Tyler Elena V Tyutereva Yasuo Uchiyama Aslihan Ugun-Klusek Holm H Uhlig Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł Ilya V Ulasov Midori Umekawa Christian Ungermann Rei Unno Sylvie Urbe Elisabet Uribe-Carretero Suayib Üstün Vladimir N Uversky Thomas Vaccari Maria I Vaccaro Björn F Vahsen Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg Rut Valdor Maria J Valente Ayelén Valko Richard B Vallee Angela M Valverde Greet Van den Berghe Stijn van der Veen Luc Van Kaer Jorg van Loosdregt Sjoerd J L van Wijk Wim Vandenberghe Ilse Vanhorebeek Marcos A Vannier-Santos Nicola Vannini M Cristina Vanrell Chiara Vantaggiato Gabriele Varano Isabel Varela-Nieto Máté Varga M Helena Vasconcelos Somya Vats Demetrios G Vavvas Ignacio Vega-Naredo Silvia Vega-Rubin-de-Celis Guillermo Velasco Ariadna P Velázquez Tibor Vellai Edo Vellenga Francesca Velotti Mireille Verdier Panayotis Verginis Isabelle Vergne Paul Verkade Manish Verma Patrik Verstreken Tim Vervliet Jörg Vervoorts Alexandre T Vessoni Victor M Victor Michel Vidal Chiara Vidoni Otilia V Vieira Richard D Vierstra Sonia Viganó Helena Vihinen Vinoy Vijayan Miquel Vila Marçal Vilar José M Villalba Antonio Villalobo Beatriz Villarejo-Zori Francesc Villarroya Joan Villarroya Olivier Vincent Cecile Vindis Christophe Viret Maria Teresa Viscomi Dora Visnjic Ilio Vitale David J Vocadlo Olga V Voitsekhovskaja Cinzia Volonté Mattia Volta Marta Vomero Clarissa Von Haefen Marc A Vooijs Wolfgang Voos Ljubica Vucicevic Richard Wade-Martins Satoshi Waguri Kenrick A Waite Shuji Wakatsuki David W Walker Mark J Walker Simon A Walker Jochen Walter Francisco G Wandosell Bo Wang Chao-Yung Wang Chen Wang Chenran Wang Chenwei Wang Cun-Yu Wang Dong Wang Fangyang Wang Feng Wang Fengming Wang Guansong Wang Han Wang Hao Wang Hexiang Wang Hong-Gang Wang Jianrong Wang Jigang Wang Jiou Wang Jundong Wang Kui Wang Lianrong Wang Liming Wang Maggie Haitian Wang Meiqing Wang Nanbu Wang Pengwei Wang Peipei Wang Ping Wang Ping Wang Qing Jun Wang Qing Wang Qing Kenneth Wang Qiong A Wang Wen-Tao Wang Wuyang Wang Xinnan Wang Xuejun Wang Yan Wang Yanchang Wang Yanzhuang Wang Yen-Yun Wang Yihua Wang Yipeng Wang Yu Wang Yuqi Wang Zhe Wang Zhenyu Wang Zhouguang Wang Gary Warnes Verena Warnsmann Hirotaka Watada Eizo Watanabe Maxinne Watchon Anna Wawrzyńska Timothy E Weaver Grzegorz Wegrzyn Ann M Wehman Huafeng Wei Lei Wei Taotao Wei Yongjie Wei Oliver H Weiergräber Conrad C Weihl Günther Weindl Ralf Weiskirchen Alan Wells Runxia H Wen Xin Wen Antonia Werner Beatrice Weykopf Sally P Wheatley J Lindsay Whitton Alexander J Whitworth Katarzyna Wiktorska Manon E Wildenberg Tom Wileman Simon Wilkinson Dieter Willbold Brett Williams Robin S B Williams Roger L Williams Peter R Williamson Richard A Wilson Beate Winner Nathaniel J Winsor Steven S Witkin Harald Wodrich Ute Woehlbier Thomas Wollert Esther Wong Jack Ho Wong Richard W Wong Vincent Kam Wai Wong W Wei-Lynn Wong An-Guo Wu Chengbiao Wu Jian Wu Junfang Wu Kenneth K Wu Min Wu Shan-Ying Wu Shengzhou Wu Shu-Yan Wu Shufang Wu William K K Wu Xiaohong Wu Xiaoqing Wu Yao-Wen Wu Yihua Wu Ramnik J Xavier Hongguang Xia Lixin Xia Zhengyuan Xia Ge Xiang Jin Xiang Mingliang Xiang Wei Xiang Bin Xiao Guozhi Xiao Hengyi Xiao Hong-Tao Xiao Jian Xiao Lan Xiao Shi Xiao Yin Xiao Baoming Xie Chuan-Ming Xie Min Xie Yuxiang Xie Zhiping Xie Zhonglin Xie Maria Xilouri Congfeng Xu En Xu Haoxing Xu Jing Xu JinRong Xu Liang Xu Wen Wen Xu Xiulong Xu Yu Xue Sokhna M S Yakhine-Diop Masamitsu Yamaguchi Osamu Yamaguchi Ai Yamamoto Shunhei Yamashina Shengmin Yan Shian-Jang Yan Zhen Yan Yasuo Yanagi Chuanbin Yang Dun-Sheng Yang Huan Yang Huang-Tian Yang Hui Yang Jin-Ming Yang Jing Yang Jingyu Yang Ling Yang Liu Yang Ming Yang Pei-Ming Yang Qian Yang Seungwon Yang Shu Yang Shun-Fa Yang Wannian Yang Wei Yuan Yang Xiaoyong Yang Xuesong Yang Yi Yang Ying Yang Honghong Yao Shenggen Yao Xiaoqiang Yao Yong-Gang Yao Yong-Ming Yao Takahiro Yasui Meysam Yazdankhah Paul M Yen Cong Yi Xiao-Ming Yin Yanhai Yin Zhangyuan Yin Ziyi Yin Meidan Ying Zheng Ying Calvin K Yip Stephanie Pei Tung Yiu Young H Yoo Kiyotsugu Yoshida Saori R Yoshii Tamotsu Yoshimori Bahman Yousefi Boxuan Yu Haiyang Yu Jun Yu Jun Yu Li Yu Ming-Lung Yu Seong-Woon Yu Victor C Yu W Haung Yu Zhengping Yu Zhou Yu Junying Yuan Ling-Qing Yuan Shilin Yuan Shyng-Shiou F Yuan Yanggang Yuan Zengqiang Yuan Jianbo Yue Zhenyu Yue Jeanho Yun Raymond L Yung David N Zacks Gabriele Zaffagnini Vanessa O Zambelli Isabella Zanella Qun S Zang Sara Zanivan Silvia Zappavigna Pilar Zaragoza Konstantinos S Zarbalis Amir Zarebkohan Amira Zarrouk Scott O Zeitlin Jialiu Zeng Ju-Deng Zeng Eva Žerovnik Lixuan Zhan Bin Zhang Donna D Zhang Hanlin Zhang Hong Zhang Hong Zhang Honghe Zhang Huafeng Zhang Huaye Zhang Hui Zhang Hui-Ling Zhang Jianbin Zhang Jianhua Zhang Jing-Pu Zhang Kalin Y B Zhang Leshuai W Zhang Lin Zhang Lisheng Zhang Lu Zhang Luoying Zhang Menghuan Zhang Peng Zhang Sheng Zhang Wei Zhang Xiangnan Zhang Xiao-Wei Zhang Xiaolei Zhang Xiaoyan Zhang Xin Zhang Xinxin Zhang Xu Dong Zhang Yang Zhang Yanjin Zhang Yi Zhang Ying-Dong Zhang Yingmei Zhang Yuan-Yuan Zhang Yuchen Zhang Zhe Zhang Zhengguang Zhang Zhibing Zhang Zhihai Zhang Zhiyong Zhang Zili Zhang Haobin Zhao Lei Zhao Shuang Zhao Tongbiao Zhao Xiao-Fan Zhao Ying Zhao Yongchao Zhao Yongliang Zhao Yuting Zhao Guoping Zheng Kai Zheng Ling Zheng Shizhong Zheng Xi-Long Zheng Yi Zheng Zu-Guo Zheng Boris Zhivotovsky Qing Zhong Ao Zhou Ben Zhou Cefan Zhou Gang Zhou Hao Zhou Hong Zhou Hongbo Zhou Jie Zhou Jing Zhou Jing Zhou Jiyong Zhou Kailiang Zhou Rongjia Zhou Xu-Jie Zhou Yanshuang Zhou Yinghong Zhou Yubin Zhou Zheng-Yu Zhou Zhou Zhou Binglin Zhu Changlian Zhu Guo-Qing Zhu Haining Zhu Hongxin Zhu Hua Zhu Wei-Guo Zhu Yanping Zhu Yushan Zhu Haixia Zhuang Xiaohong Zhuang Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter Christine M Zimmermann Elena Ziviani Teresa Zoladek Wei-Xing Zong Dmitry B Zorov Antonio Zorzano Weiping Zou Zhen Zou Zhengzhi Zou Steven Zuryn Werner Zwerschke Beate Brand-Saberi X Charlie Dong Chandra Shekar Kenchappa Zuguo Li Yong Lin Shigeru Oshima Yueguang Rong Judith C Sluimer Christina L Stallings Chun-Kit Tong

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hong Kong Baptist University, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong, China.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

mTOR as a central hub of nutrient signalling and cell growth.

Nat Cell Biol 2019 01 2;21(1):63-71. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The highly conserved protein kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR; originally known as mammalian target of rapamycin) is a central cell growth regulator connecting cellular metabolism and growth with a wide range of environmental inputs as part of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. In this Review, we introduce the landmark discoveries in the mTOR field, starting from the isolation of rapamycin to the molecular characterizations of key components of the mTORC signalling network with an emphasis on amino acid sensing, and discuss the perspectives of mTORC inhibitors in therapeutic applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-018-0205-1DOI Listing
January 2019

Autophagy: An Essential Degradation Program for Cellular Homeostasis and Life.

Cells 2018 Dec 19;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Oral Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent cellular degradation program that responds to a variety of environmental and cellular stresses. It is an evolutionarily well-conserved and essential pathway to maintain cellular homeostasis, therefore, dysfunction of autophagy is closely associated with a wide spectrum of human pathophysiological conditions including cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. The discovery and characterization of the kingdom of autophagy proteins have uncovered the molecular basis of the autophagy process. In addition, recent advances on the various post-translational modifications of autophagy proteins have shed light on the multiple layers of autophagy regulatory mechanisms, and provide novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of the diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells7120278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315530PMC
December 2018

The C-terminal region of ATG101 bridges ULK1 and PtdIns3K complex in autophagy initiation.

Autophagy 2018 16;14(12):2104-2116. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

a Department of Life Sciences , Korea University , Seongbuk-gu, Seoul , Republic of Korea.

The initiation of macroautophagy/autophagy is tightly regulated by the upstream ULK1 kinase complex, which affects many downstream factors including the PtdIns3K complex. The phosphorylation of the right position at the right time on downstream molecules is governed by proper complex formation. One component of the ULK1 complex, ATG101, known as an accessory protein, is a stabilizer of ATG13 in cells. The WF finger region of ATG101 plays an important role in the recruitment of WIPI1 (WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting protein 1) and ZFYVE1 (zinc finger FYVE-type containing 1). Here, we report that the C-terminal region identified in the structure of the human ATG101-ATG13 complex is responsible for the binding of the PtdIns3K complex. This region adopts a β-strand conformation in free ATG101, but either an α-helix or random coil in our ATG101-ATG13 complex, which protrudes from the core and interacts with other molecules. The C-terminal deletion of ATG101 shows a significant defect in the interaction with PtdIns3K components and subsequently impairs autophagosome formation. This result clearly presents an additional role of ATG101 for bridging the ULK1 and PtdIns3K complexes in the mammalian autophagy process. Abbreviations: ATG: autophagy related; BECN1: beclin 1; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HORMA: Hop1p/Rev7p/MAD2; HsATG13: HORMA domain of ATG13 from Homo sapiens; KO: knockout; MAD2: mitotic arrest deficient 2 like 1; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; PIK3C3/VPS34: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PIK3R4/VPS15: phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 4; PtdIns3K: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; RB1CC1/FIP200: RB1 inducible coiled-coil 1; SAXS: small-angle X-ray scattering; ScAtg13: HORMA domain of Atg13 from Sccharomyces cerevisiae; SEC-SAXS: size-exclusion chromatography with small-angle X-ray scattering; SpAtg13: HORMA domain of Atg13 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; ULK1: unc51-like autophagy activating kinase 1; UVRAG: UV radiation resistance associated; WIPI1: WD repeat domain: phosphoinositide interacting 1; ZFYVE1/DFCP1: zinc finger FYVE-type containing 1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2018.1504716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6984762PMC
October 2019

Mitochondrial ROS-derived PTEN oxidation activates PI3K pathway for mTOR-induced myogenic autophagy.

Cell Death Differ 2018 11 24;25(11):1921-1937. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea.

Muscle differentiation is a crucial process controlling muscle development and homeostasis. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) rapidly increase and function as critical cell signaling intermediates during the muscle differentiation. However, it has not yet been elucidated how they control myogenic signaling. Autophagy, a lysosome-mediated degradation pathway, is importantly recognized as intracellular remodeling mechanism of cellular organelles during muscle differentiation. Here, we demonstrated that the mtROS stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade, and the activated mTORC1 subsequently induced autophagic signaling via phosphorylation of uncoordinated-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) at serine 317 and upregulation of Atg proteins to prompt muscle differentiation. Treatment with MitoQ or rapamycin impaired both phosphorylation of ULK1 and expression of Atg proteins. Therefore, we propose a novel regulatory paradigm in which mtROS are required to initiate autophagic reconstruction of cellular organization through mTOR activation in muscle differentiation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-018-0165-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6219511PMC
November 2018

Ursolic Acid Causes Cell Death in PC-12 Cells by Inducing Apoptosis and Impairing Autophagy.

Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):847-853

Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Ursolic acid (UA) is a natural pentacyclic triterpene that has various biological activities, including anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the ability of UA to cause cell death in pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. UA was cytotoxic to PC-12 cells (half-maximum inhibitory concentration=53.2 μM) and significantly reduced the clonogenic ability of PC-12 cells. It also triggered apoptosis by reducing the level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), activating caspase-3, and inducing cleavage of poly (ADP-ribosyl) polymerase. To investigate the effects of UA treatment on the induction and progression of autophagy, the levels of p62 and the conversion of the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-I to LC3-II, which are important markers of autophagic flux, were monitored. UA treatment induced the accumulation of p62 and increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. These results demonstrate that UA treatment induced autophagy, but the downstream signaling pathway was blocked. In summary, this study shows that UA kills PC-12 cells by inducing apoptosis and impairing autophagy progression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.12293DOI Listing
February 2018

Induction of Cell Death by Betulinic Acid through Induction of Apoptosis and Inhibition of Autophagic Flux in Microglia BV-2 Cells.

Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2017 Nov;25(6):618-624

Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea.

Betulinic acid (BA), a natural pentacyclic triterpene found in many medicinal plants is known to have various biological activity including tumor suppression and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the cell-death induction effect of BA was investigated in BV-2 microglia cells. BA was cytotoxic to BV-2 cells with IC₅₀ of approximately 2.0 µM. Treatment of BA resulted in a dose-dependent chromosomal DNA degradation, suggesting that these cells underwent apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis further confirmed that BA-treated BV-2 cells showed hypodiploid DNA content. BA treatment triggered apoptosis by decreasing Bcl-2 levels, activation of capase-3 protease and cleavage of PARP. In addition, BA treatment induced the accumulation of p62 and the increase in conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, which are important autophagic flux monitoring markers. The increase in LC3-II indicates that BA treatment induced autophagosome formation, however, accumulation of p62 represents that the downstream autophagy pathway is blocked. It is demonstrated that BA induced cell death of BV-2 cells by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting autophagic flux. These data may provide important new information towards understanding the mechanisms by which BA induce cell death in microglia BV-2 cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2016.255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5685431PMC
November 2017

MTORC1-mediated NRBF2 phosphorylation functions as a switch for the class III PtdIns3K and autophagy.

Autophagy 2017 Mar 6;13(3):592-607. Epub 2017 Jan 6.

b Center for Autophagy Research, Department of Internal Medicine , University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , Dallas , TX , USA.

NRBF2/Atg38 has been identified as the fifth subunit of the macroautophagic/autophagic class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) complex, along with ATG14/Barkor, BECN1/Vps30, PIK3R4/p150/Vps15 and PIK3C3/Vps34. However, its functional mechanism and regulation are not fully understood. Here, we report that NRBF2 is a fine tuning regulator of PtdIns3K controlled by phosphorylation. Human NRBF2 is phosphorylated by MTORC1 at S113 and S120. Upon nutrient starvation or MTORC1 inhibition, NRBF2 phosphorylation is diminished. Phosphorylated NRBF2 preferentially interacts with PIK3C3/PIK3R4. Suppression of NRBF2 phosphorylation by MTORC1 inhibition alters its binding preference from PIK3C3/PIK3R4 to ATG14/BECN1, leading to increased autophagic PtdIns3K complex assembly, as well as enhancement of ULK1 protein complex association. Consequently, NRBF2 in its unphosphorylated form promotes PtdIns3K lipid kinase activity and autophagy flux, whereas its phosphorylated form blocks them. This study reveals NRBF2 as a critical molecular switch of PtdIns3K and autophagy activation, and its on/off state is precisely controlled by MTORC1 through phosphorylation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2016.1269988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5361594PMC
March 2017

Targeting of AMP-activated protein kinase: prospects for computer-aided drug design.

Expert Opin Drug Discov 2017 Jan 14;12(1):47-59. Epub 2016 Nov 14.

b Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School , Kyung Hee University , Seoul , Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Dysregulation of energy homeostasis has been implicated in a number of human chronic diseases including diabetes, obesity, cancer, and inflammation. Given the functional attributes as a central regulator of energy homeostasis, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is emerging as a therapeutic target for these diseases, and lines of evidence have highlighted the need for rational and robust screening systems for identifying specific AMPK modulators with a therapeutic potential for preventing and/or curing these diseases. Areas covered: Here, the authors review the recent advances in the understanding of three-dimensional structures of AMPK in relationship with the regulatory mechanisms, potentials of AMPK as a therapeutic target in human chronic diseases, and prospects of computer-based drug design for AMPK. Expert opinion: Accumulating information of AMPK structure has provided us with deep insight into the molecular basis underlying the regulatory mechanisms, and further discloses several structural domains, which can be served for a target site for computer-based drug design. Molecular docking and simulations provides useful information about the binding sites between potent drugs and AMPK as well as a rational screening format to discover isoform-specific AMPK modulators. For these reasons, the authors suggest that computer-aided virtual screening methods hold promise as a rational approach for discovering more specific AMPK modulators.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17460441.2017.1255194DOI Listing
January 2017

Bacterial Overexpression and Denaturing Purification of VPS34-Binding Domain of Beclin 1.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2016 Oct;26(10):1808-1816

Department of Oral Biochemistry and Molecular biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea.

As a scaffolding subunit of the PIK3C3/VPS34 complex, Beclin 1 recruits a variety of proteins to class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (VPS34), resulting in the formation of a distinct PIK3C3/VPS34 complex with a specific function. Therefore, the investigation of a number of Beclin 1 domains required for the protein-protein interactions will provide important clues to understand the PIK3C3/VPS34 complex, of which Beclin1-VPS34 interaction is the core unit. In the present study, we have designed a bacterial overexpression system for the Beclin 1 domain corresponding to VPS34 binding (Vps34-BD) and set up the denaturing purification protocol due to the massive aggregation of Vps34-BD in . The expression and purification conditions determined in this study successfully provided soluble and functional Vps34-BD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1604.04085DOI Listing
October 2016

Ezetimibe, an NPC1L1 inhibitor, is a potent Nrf2 activator that protects mice from diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

Free Radic Biol Med 2016 10 12;99:520-532. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress is important for the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a chronic disease that ranges from hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Nrf2-Keap1) pathway is essential for cytoprotection against oxidative stress. In this study, we found that oxidative stress or inflammatory biomarkers and TUNEL positive cells were markedly increased in NASH patients compared to normal or simple steatosis. In addition, we identified that the hepatic mRNA levels of Nrf2 target genes such as Nqo-1 and GSTA-1 were significantly increased in NASH patients. Ezetimibe, a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, improves NAFLD and alleviates oxidative stress. However, the precise mechanism of its antioxidant function remains largely unknown. We now demonstrate that ezetimibe activates Nrf2-Keap1 pathway which was dependent of autophagy adaptor protein p62, without causing cytotoxicity. Ezetimibe activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which in turn phosphorylates p62 (p-S351) via their direct interaction. Correspondingly, Ezetimibe protected liver cells from saturated fatty acid-induced apoptotic cell death through p62-dependent Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, its role as an Nrf2 activator was supported by methione- and choline- deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH mouse model, showing that ezetimibe decreased the susceptibility of the liver to oxidative injury. These data demonstrate that the molecular mechanisms underlying ezetimibe's antioxidant role in the pathogenesis of NASH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.09.009DOI Listing
October 2016

Novel pharmacological modulators of autophagy: an updated patent review (2012-2015).

Expert Opin Ther Pat 2016 Nov 8;26(11):1273-1289. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

b Department of Oral Biochemistry and Molecular Biology , School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University , Seoul , Korea.

Introduction: Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent degradation pathway that maintains cellular homeostasis in response to a variety of cellular stresses. Accumulating reports based on animal models have indicated the importance of this catabolic program in many human pathophysiological conditions, including diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, aging, and cancers. Therefore, autophagy has been highlighted as a novel therapeutic target with a wide range of beneficial effects on human diseases. Here, we review the recent advances of our knowledge toward autophagy, as well as the efforts for developing autophagy modulators. Areas covered: The relevant patents (published at 2012-2015) and the research literature claiming the pharmacological modulation of autophagy are reviewed. Also, their molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic utilities are discussed. Expert opinion: Considering the molecular machinery involved in autophagy induction, the targeting of autophagy-specific protein is very important to design the therapeutic interventions for specifically treating a variety of autophagy-associated disorders. Many patents and the research literature described in this review have shown promising applications of the relevant autophagy modulators for cancer or neurodegeneration treatments, a few of which are already being considered for clinical evaluation. However, most patents have claimed the modulators of autophagy with little information regarding their mechanisms of action. To design highly potent therapeutics, further work, such as developing compounds that specifically target the autophagy-specific machinery, are required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13543776.2016.1217996DOI Listing
November 2016

AMPK activators: mechanisms of action and physiological activities.

Exp Mol Med 2016 Apr 1;48:e224. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis, which coordinates metabolic pathways and thus balances nutrient supply with energy demand. Because of the favorable physiological outcomes of AMPK activation on metabolism, AMPK has been considered to be an important therapeutic target for controlling human diseases including metabolic syndrome and cancer. Thus, activators of AMPK may have potential as novel therapeutics for these diseases. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of both indirect and direct AMPK activators and their modes of action in relation to the structure of AMPK. We discuss the functional differences among isoform-specific AMPK complexes and their significance regarding the development of novel AMPK activators and the potential for combining different AMPK activators in the treatment of human disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/emm.2016.16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4855276PMC
April 2016

Rag GTPase in amino acid signaling.

Amino Acids 2016 Apr 18;48(4):915-928. Epub 2016 Jan 18.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Catholic University of Daegu, 13-13 Hayang-ro, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan, 712-702, Korea.

Rag small GTPases were identified as the sixth subfamily of Ras-related GTPases. Compelling evidence suggests that Rag heterodimer (RagA/B and RagC/D) plays an important role in amino acid signaling toward mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which is a central player in the control of cell growth in response to a variety of environmental cues, including growth factors, cellular energy/oxygen status, and amino acids. Upon amino acid stimulation, active Rag heterodimer (RagA/B(GTP)-RagC/D(GDP)) recruits mTORC1 to the lysosomal membrane where Rheb resides. In this review, we provide a current understanding on the amino acid-regulated cell growth control via Rag-mTORC1 with recently identified key players, including Ragulator, v-ATPase, and GATOR complexes. Moreover, the functions of Rag in physiological systems and in autophagy are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-016-2171-xDOI Listing
April 2016

Systematic analyses of the ultraviolet radiation resistance-associated gene product (UVRAG) protein interactome by tandem affinity purification.

Arch Pharm Res 2016 Mar 21;39(3):370-9. Epub 2015 Nov 21.

Department of Oral Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Dentistry, Research Center for Tooth and Periodontal Tissue Regeneration, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 130-701, Korea.

Ultraviolet radiation resistance-associated gene product (UVRAG) was originally identified as a protein involved in cellular responses to UV irradiation. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that UVRAG plays as an important role in autophagy, a lysosome-dependent catabolic program, as a part of a pro-autophagy PIK3C3/VPS34 lipid kinase complex. Several recent studies have shown that UVRAG is also involved in autophagy-independent cellular functions, such as DNA repair/stability and vesicular trafficking/fusion. Here, we examined the UVRAG protein interactome to obtain information about its functional network. To this end, we screened UVRAG-interacting proteins using a tandem affinity purification method coupled with MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Our results demonstrate that UVRAG interacts with various proteins involved in a wide spectrum of cellular functions, including genome stability, protein translational elongation, protein localization (trafficking), vacuole organization, transmembrane transport as well as autophagy. Notably, the interactome list of high-confidence UVRAG-interacting proteins is enriched for proteins involved in the regulation of genome stability. Our systematic UVRAG interactome analysis should provide important clues for understanding a variety of UVRAG functions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12272-015-0689-1DOI Listing
March 2016

AMPK and autophagy in glucose/glycogen metabolism.

Mol Aspects Med 2015 Dec 20;46:46-62. Epub 2015 Aug 20.

Department of Oral Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Research Center for Tooth and Periodontal Tissue Regeneration, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Glucose/glycogen metabolism is a primary metabolic pathway acting on a variety of cellular needs, such as proliferation, growth, and survival against stresses. The multiple regulatory mechanisms underlying a specific metabolic fate have been documented and explained the molecular basis of various pathophysiological conditions, including metabolic disorders and cancers. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been appreciated for many years as a central metabolic regulator to inhibit energy-consuming pathways as well as to activate the compensating energy-producing programs. In fact, glucose starvation is a potent physiological AMPK activating condition, in which AMPK triggers various subsequent metabolic events depending on cells or tissues. Of note, the recent studies show bidirectional interplay between AMPK and glycogen. A growing number of studies have proposed additional level of metabolic regulation by a lysosome-dependent catabolic program, autophagy. Autophagy is a critical degradative pathway not only for maintenance of cellular homeostasis to remove potentially dangerous constituents, such as protein aggregates and dysfunctional subcellular organelles, but also for adaptive responses to metabolic stress, such as nutrient starvation. Importantly, many lines of evidence indicate that autophagy is closely connected with nutrient signaling modules, including AMPK, to fine-tune the metabolic pathways in response to many different cellular cues. In this review, we introduce the studies demonstrating the role of AMPK and autophagy in glucose/glycogen metabolism. Also, we describe the recent advances on their contributions to the metabolic disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2015.08.002DOI Listing
December 2015

Advances in Anthrax Detection: Overview of Bioprobes and Biosensors.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2015 Jun 19;176(4):957-77. Epub 2015 May 19.

Department of Oral Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 130-701, South Korea.

Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. Although anthrax commonly affects domestic and wild animals, it causes a rare but lethal infection in humans. A variety of techniques have been introduced and evaluated to detect anthrax using cultures, polymerase chain reaction, and immunoassays to address the potential threat of anthrax being used as a bioweapon. The high-potential harm of anthrax in bioterrorism requires sensitive and specific detection systems that are rapid, field-ready, and real-time monitoring. Here, we provide a systematic overview of anthrax detection probes with their potential applications in various ultra-sensitive diagnostic systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-015-1625-zDOI Listing
June 2015

Development of in vitro PIK3C3/VPS34 complex protein assay for autophagy-specific inhibitor screening.

Anal Biochem 2015 Jul 8;480:21-7. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

Department of Oral Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Autophagy is an important catabolic program to respond to a variety of cellular stresses by forming a double membrane vesicle, autophagosome. Autophagy plays key roles in various cellular functions. Accordingly, dysregulation of autophagy is closely associated with diseases such as diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiomyopathy, and cancer. In this sense, autophagy is emerging as an important therapeutic target for disease control. Among the autophagy machineries, PIK3C3/VPS34 complex functions as an autophagy-triggering kinase to recruit the subsequent autophagy protein machineries on the phagophore membrane. Accumulating evidence showing that inhibition of PIK3C3/VPS34 complex successfully inhibits autophagy makes the complex an attractive target for developing autophagy inhibitors. However, one concern about PIK3C3/VPS34 complex is that many different PIK3C3/VPS34 complexes have distinct cellular functions. In this study, we have developed an in vitro PIK3C3/VPS34 complex monitoring assay for autophagy inhibitor screening in a high-throughput assay format instead of targeting the catalytic activity of the PIK3C3/VPS34 complex, which shuts down all PIK3C3/VPS34 complexes. We performed in vitro reconstitution of an essential autophagy-promoting PIK3C3/VPS34 complex, Vps34-Beclin1-ATG14L complex, in a microwell plate (96-well format) and successfully monitored the complex formation in many different conditions. This PIK3C3/VPS34 complex protein assay would provide a reliable tool for the screening of autophagy-specific inhibitors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2015.04.004DOI Listing
July 2015

Screening methods for AMP-activated protein kinase modulators: a patent review.

Expert Opin Ther Pat 2015 Mar 23;25(3):261-77. Epub 2014 Dec 23.

Kyung Hee University, School of Dentistry, Oral Biochemistry and Molecular Biology , Seoul , Republic of Korea.

Introduction: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a cellular energy gauge that maintains cellular homeostasis and has been suggested to play important roles in tumorigenesis, lifespan and autophagy. Accordingly, AMPK is a potential target of drugs for controlling a growing number of human diseases ranging from metabolic disorders to cancer, highlighting the need for rational and robust screening systems for identifying compounds that modulate AMPK.

Areas Covered: The relevant screening methods in the patent and scientific literature were analyzed, and key features of direct AMPK modulators are discussed in the context of their physiological relevance and the three-dimensional structure of the AMPK complex.

Expert Opinion: The mechanism of action of modulators is important in designing drugs with enhanced efficacy, specificity and stability. Most patented assay formats for identifying AMPK modulators are based on classical enzyme assays that monitor AMPK activity or changes in AMPK-dependent cellular physiology. However, these systems do not provide information about underlying mechanisms. Two patented assay systems use a specific domain or the three-dimensional structure of AMPK to identify AMPK modulators. The recent identification of two AMPK modulators, A-769662 and C-2 (or its prodrug, C-13), suggests the promise of structure-based assays in discovering more potent and specific modulators of AMPK.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/13543776.2014.995626DOI Listing
March 2015

Cryptotanshinone induces G1 cell cycle arrest and autophagic cell death by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase signal pathway in HepG2 hepatoma.

Apoptosis 2014 Apr;19(4):615-28

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical Research Center for Reactive Oxygen Species and Biomedical Science Institute, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 130-701, Republic of Korea.

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) performs a pivotal function in energy homeostasis via the monitoring of intracellular energy status. Once activated under the various metabolic stress conditions, AMPK regulates a multitude of metabolic pathways to balance cellular energy. In addition, AMPK also induces cell cycle arrest or apoptosis through several tumor suppressors including LKB1, TSC2, and p53. LKB1 is a direct upstream kinase of AMPK, while TSC2 and p53 are direct substrates of AMPK. Therefore, it is expected that activators of AMPK signal pathway might be useful for treatment or prevention of cancer. In the present study, we report that cryptotanshinone, a natural compound isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, robustly activated AMPK signaling pathway, including LKB1, p53, TSC2, thereby leading to suppression of mTORC1 in a number of LKB1-expressing cancer cells including HepG2 human hepatoma, but not in LKB1-deficient cancer cells. Cryptotanshinone induced HepG2 cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase in an AMPK-dependent manner, and a portion of cells underwent apoptosis as a result of long-term treatment. It also induced autophagic HepG2 cell death in an AMPK-dependent manner. Cryptotanshinone significantly attenuated tumor growth in an HCT116 cancer xenograft in vivo model, with a substantial activation of AMPK signal pathways. Collectively, we demonstrate for the first time that cryptotanshinone harbors the therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer through AMPK activation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10495-013-0929-0DOI Listing
April 2014

ULK1 induces autophagy by phosphorylating Beclin-1 and activating VPS34 lipid kinase.

Nat Cell Biol 2013 Jul 19;15(7):741-50. Epub 2013 May 19.

Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

Autophagy is the primary cellular catabolic program activated in response to nutrient starvation. Initiation of autophagy, particularly by amino-acid withdrawal, requires the ULK kinases. Despite its pivotal role in autophagy initiation, little is known about the mechanisms by which ULK promotes autophagy. Here we describe a molecular mechanism linking ULK to the pro-autophagic lipid kinase VPS34. Following amino-acid starvation or mTOR inhibition, the activated ULK1 phosphorylates Beclin-1 on Ser 14, thereby enhancing the activity of the ATG14L-containing VPS34 complexes. The Beclin-1 Ser 14 phosphorylation by ULK is required for full autophagic induction in mammals and this requirement is conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our study reveals a molecular link from ULK1 to activation of the autophagy-specific VPS34 complex and autophagy induction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncb2757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3885611PMC
July 2013

AMPK connects energy stress to PIK3C3/VPS34 regulation.

Autophagy 2013 Jul 2;9(7):1110-1. Epub 2013 May 2.

Department of Oral Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Research Center for Tooth and Periodontal Tissue Regeneration; School of Dentistry; Kyung Hee University; Seoul, Korea.

The class III phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)-3 kinase, PIK3C3/VPS34, forms multiple complexes and regulates a variety of cellular functions, especially in intracellular vesicle trafficking and autophagy. Even though PtdIns3P, the product of PIK3C3, is thought to be a critical membrane marker for the autophagosome, it is unclear how PIK3C3 is regulated in response to autophagy-inducing stimuli. A complexity of PIK3C3 biology is due in part to the existence of multiple complexes, of which the ATG14- or UVRAG-containing complexes play important roles in autophagy. We recently discovered differential regulation of distinct PIK3C3 complexes in response to energy starvation and showed a mechanism by which AMPK directly phosphorylates PIK3C3 and BECN1 to regulate non- and pro-autophagic PIK3C3 complexes, respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/auto.24877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3722323PMC
July 2013

Biochemical characterization and evaluation of potent inhibitors of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 acetohydroxyacid synthase.

Biochimie 2013 Jul 22;95(7):1411-21. Epub 2013 Mar 22.

Department of Chemistry, Institute of Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Republic of Korea.

Microbes and plants synthesize essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine via a common biosynthetic pathway in which the first reaction is catalyzed by acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 4.1.3.18). Recently, AHAS was identified as a potential anti bacterial target. To help find an effective inhibitor that could act as an antibacterial compound, we cloned and characterized the catalytic subunit (CSU) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AHAS, and found four potent inhibitors through chemical library screening. The ilvI gene of P. aeruginosa encodes a 65-kDa AHAS protein, consistent with the size of the purified enzyme on SDS-PAGE. Enzyme kinetics showed that the enzyme has a Km of 14.2 mM and a specific activity of 0.12 U/mg. Enzyme activity was optimum at a temperature of 37 °C and a pH of 7.5. The Kd for thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) was 89.92 ± 17.9 μM, as determined by fluorescence quenching. The cofactor activation constants (Ks) for ThDP and (Kc) for Mg(2+) were 0.6 ± 0.1 and 560.8 ± 7.4 μM, respectively. Further, we determined that AVS2087, AVS2093, AVS2236, and AVS2387 compounds are potent inhibitors of the catalytic subunit of P. aeruginosa AHAS. These compounds inhibit nearly 100% of AHAS activity, with IC50 values of 1.19 μM, 5.0 nM, 25 nM, and 13 nM, respectively. Compound AVS2093 showed growth inhibition with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 742.9 μg/ml against P. aeruginosa strain ATCC 9027. Furthermore, these findings were supported by molecular docking studies with the AVS compounds against P. aeruginosa AHAS in which AVS2093 showed minimum binding energy (-7.8 kJ/mol) by interacting with the receptor through a single hydrogen bond of 2.873 Å. Correlation of AVS2093 activity with P. aeruginosa AHAS cell growth inhibition suggested that AHAS might serve as a target protein for the development of novel antibacterial therapeutics. Results of the current study provide an impetus to further evaluate the potency of these inhibitors against pathogenic P. aeruginosa strains in vivo and to design more potent antibacterial agents based on these AVS inhibitors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2013.03.007DOI Listing
July 2013

Differential regulation of distinct Vps34 complexes by AMPK in nutrient stress and autophagy.

Cell 2013 Jan;152(1-2):290-303

Department of Oral Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Research Center for Tooth and Periodontal Tissue Regeneration, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea.

Autophagy is a stress response protecting cells from unfavorable conditions, such as nutrient starvation. The class III phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Vps34, forms multiple complexes and regulates both intracellular vesicle trafficking and autophagy induction. Here, we show that AMPK plays a key role in regulating different Vps34 complexes. AMPK inhibits the nonautophagy Vps34 complex by phosphorylating T163/S165 in Vps34 and therefore suppresses overall PI(3)P production and protects cells from starvation. In parallel, AMPK activates the proautophagy Vps34 complex by phosphorylating S91/S94 in Beclin1 to induce autophagy. Atg14L, an autophagy-essential gene present only in the proautophagy Vps34 complex, inhibits Vps34 phosphorylation but increases Beclin1 phosphorylation by AMPK. As such, Atg14L dictates the differential regulation (either inhibition or activation) of different Vps34 complexes in response to glucose starvation. Our study reveals an intricate molecular regulation of Vps34 complexes by AMPK in nutrient stress response and autophagy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2012.12.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3587159PMC
January 2013

Optimization of the masking molecule for active-site-protected immobilization of Taq DNA polymerase and its application.

Anal Biochem 2013 Jan 1;432(2):139-41. Epub 2012 Oct 1.

Department of Chemistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea.

The method of oriented and activity-preserved immobilization of biologically active proteins based on concepts of active-site masking and kinetic control was further developed in this study. Minimal requirements for the masking DNA molecule were found to be a 5'overhang of 5-7 nucleotides and a double-stranded region of 11-13 bp to retain approximately 70% of the enzyme activity. The amplification range of protected immobilized (PIM) Taq DNA polymerase was over 1.2 kb. These data suggest that PIM Taq DNA polymerase can be used for various commercial applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2012.09.033DOI Listing
January 2013

AMPK and mTOR in cellular energy homeostasis and drug targets.

Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2012 17;52:381-400. Epub 2011 Oct 17.

Life Sciences Institute and Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central controller of cell growth and proliferation. mTOR forms two distinct complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 is regulated by multiple signals such as growth factors, amino acids, and cellular energy and regulates numerous essential cellular processes including translation, transcription, and autophagy. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor and signal transducer that is regulated by a wide array of metabolic stresses. These two pathways serve as a signaling nexus for regulating cellular metabolism, energy homeostasis, and cell growth, and dysregulation of each pathway may contribute to the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. This review focuses on our current understanding of the relationship between AMPK and mTORC1 signaling and discusses their roles in cellular and organismal energy homeostasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010611-134537DOI Listing
May 2012

Ultrasensitive diagnosis for an anthrax-protective antigen based on a polyvalent directed peptide polymer coupled to zinc oxide nanorods.

Adv Mater 2011 Dec 14;23(45):5425-9. Epub 2011 Oct 14.

Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.

A flexible poly-D-lysine polymer conjugated with different target-binding peptides is demonstrated with an ultralow concentration detection limit compared to those of other conventional detection systems. This polyvalent directed peptide polymer (PDPP) exhibits increased binding affinity and detects anthrax protective antigen at low levels using a well-known zinc oxide nanorod detection system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201103284DOI Listing
December 2011

Amino acid signaling in TOR activation.

Annu Rev Biochem 2011 ;80:1001-32

Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

The target of rapamycin (TOR) is a central cell growth regulator conserved from yeast to mammals. Uncontrolled TOR activation is commonly observed in human cancers. TOR forms two distinct structural and functional complexes, TORC1 and TORC2. TORC1 promotes cell growth and cell size by stimulating protein synthesis. A wide range of signals, including nutrients, energy levels, and growth factors, are known to control TORC1 activity. Among them, amino acids (AA) not only potently activate TORC1 but are also required for TORC1 activation by other stimuli, such as growth factors. The mechanisms of growth factors and cellular energy status in activating TORC1 have been well elucidated, whereas the molecular basis of AA signaling is just emerging. Recent advances in the role of AA signaling on TORC1 activation have revealed key components, including the Rag GTPases, protein kinases, nutrient transporters, and the intracellular trafficking machinery, in relaying AA signals to TORC1 activation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-biochem-062209-094414DOI Listing
October 2011

The autophagy initiating kinase ULK1 is regulated via opposing phosphorylation by AMPK and mTOR.

Autophagy 2011 Jun 1;7(6):643-4. Epub 2011 Jun 1.

Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, Dulbecco Center for Cancer Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, USA.

The serine/threonine kinase ULK1 is a mammalian homolog of Atg1, part of the Atg1 kinase complex, which is the most upstream component of the core autophagy machinery conserved from yeast to mammals. In budding yeast, activity of the Atg1 kinase complex is inhibited by TORC1 (target of rapamycin complex 1), but how the counterpart ULK1 complex in mammalian cells is regulated has been unknown. Our laboratories recently discovered that AMPK associates with, and directly phosphorylates, ULK1 on several sites and this modification is required for ULK1 activation after glucose deprivation. In contrast, when nutrients are plentiful, the mTORC1 complex phosphorylates ULK1, preventing its association and activation by AMPK. These studies have revealed a molecular mechanism of ULK1 regulation by nutrient signals via the actions of AMPK and mTORC1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3359466PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/auto.7.6.15123DOI Listing
June 2011

Regulation of the autophagy initiating kinase ULK1 by nutrients: roles of mTORC1 and AMPK.

Cell Cycle 2011 May 15;10(9):1337-8. Epub 2011 Mar 15.

The serine/threonine kinase ULK1 is a mammalian homolog of AT G1, an upstream component of the core autophagy machinery. Studies in yeast AT G1 kinase complex demonstrate that the AT G1 kinase complex assembly is regulated by phosphorylaltion of AT G13 in a TORC1-dependent manner. However, the mammalian ULK1 complex appears to have different mechanisms of regulation because the mammalian ULK1-AT G13 association is not regulated by TORC1. Recently, we and Shaw’s group reported that AMPK phosphorylates ULK1 in response to cellular energy starvation to control ULK1 kinase function and autophagy induction. When nutrients are sufficient, mTORC1 phosphorylates ULK1, preventing its association and activation by AMPK. These studies have revealed a molecular mechanism of ULK1 regulation by nutrient signals via the coordinated actions of AMPK and mTORC1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.10.9.15291DOI Listing
May 2011