Publications by authors named "Jouliana Sadek"

4 Publications

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Modulation of virus-induced NF-κB signaling by NEMO coiled coil mimics.

Nat Commun 2020 04 14;11(1):1786. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York, NY, 10003, USA.

Protein-protein interactions featuring intricate binding epitopes remain challenging targets for synthetic inhibitors. Interactions of NEMO, a scaffolding protein central to NF-κB signaling, exemplify this challenge. Various regulators are known to interact with different coiled coil regions of NEMO, but the topological complexity of this protein has limited inhibitor design. We undertook a comprehensive effort to block the interaction between vFLIP, a Kaposi's sarcoma herpesviral oncoprotein, and NEMO using small molecule screening and rational design. Our efforts reveal that a tertiary protein structure mimic of NEMO is necessary for potent inhibition. The rationally designed mimic engages vFLIP directly causing complex disruption, protein degradation and suppression of NF-κB signaling in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). NEMO mimic treatment induces cell death and delays tumor growth in a PEL xenograft model. Our studies with this inhibitor reveal the critical nexus of signaling complex stability in the regulation of NF-κB by a viral oncoprotein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15576-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156456PMC
April 2020

Inhibition of Hsp90 Suppresses PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling and Has Antitumor Activity in Burkitt Lymphoma.

Mol Cancer Ther 2017 09 15;16(9):1779-1790. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone that protects proteins, including oncogenic signaling complexes, from proteolytic degradation. PU-H71 is a next-generation Hsp90 inhibitor that preferentially targets the functionally distinct pool of Hsp90 present in tumor cells. Tumors that are driven by the MYC oncoprotein may be particularly sensitive to PU-H71 due to the essential role of Hsp90 in the epichaperome, which maintains the malignant phenotype in the setting of MYC. Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma characterized by MYC dysregulation. In this study, we evaluated Hsp90 as a potential therapeutic target in BL. We found that primary BL tumors overexpress Hsp90 and that Hsp90 inhibition has antitumor activity and , including potent activity in a patient-derived xenograft model of BL. To evaluate the targets of PU-H71 in BL, we performed high-affinity capture followed by proteomic analysis using mass spectrometry. We found that Hsp90 inhibition targets multiple components of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling, highlighting the importance of this pathway in BL. Finally, we found that the anti-lymphoma activity of PU-H71 is synergistic with dual PI3K/mTOR inhibition and Overall, this work provides support for Hsp90 as a therapeutic target in BL and suggests the potential for combination therapy with PU-H71 and inhibitors of PI3K/mTOR. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-16-0848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5587381PMC
September 2017

Identification of a nucleoside analog active against adenosine kinase-expressing plasma cell malignancies.

J Clin Invest 2017 Jun 15;127(6):2066-2080. Epub 2017 May 15.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine.

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a largely incurable malignancy of B cell origin with plasmacytic differentiation. Here, we report the identification of a highly effective inhibitor of PEL. This compound, 6-ethylthioinosine (6-ETI), is a nucleoside analog with toxicity to PEL in vitro and in vivo, but not to other lymphoma cell lines tested. We developed and performed resistome analysis, an unbiased approach based on RNA sequencing of resistant subclones, to discover the molecular mechanisms of sensitivity. We found different adenosine kinase-inactivating (ADK-inactivating) alterations in all resistant clones and determined that ADK is required to phosphorylate and activate 6-ETI. Further, we observed that 6-ETI induces ATP depletion and cell death accompanied by S phase arrest and DNA damage only in ADK-expressing cells. Immunohistochemistry for ADK served as a biomarker approach to identify 6-ETI-sensitive tumors, which we documented for other lymphoid malignancies with plasmacytic features. Notably, multiple myeloma (MM) expresses high levels of ADK, and 6-ETI was toxic to MM cell lines and primary specimens and had a robust antitumor effect in a disseminated MM mouse model. Several nucleoside analogs are effective in treating leukemias and T cell lymphomas, and 6-ETI may fill this niche for the treatment of PEL, plasmablastic lymphoma, MM, and other ADK-expressing cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI83936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5451239PMC
June 2017

The Splicing History of an mRNA Affects Its Level of Translation and Sensitivity to Cleavage by the Virion Host Shutoff Endonuclease during Herpes Simplex Virus Infections.

J Virol 2016 Dec 14;90(23):10844-10856. Epub 2016 Nov 14.

Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics, School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA

During lytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, the virion host shutoff (Vhs) (UL41) endoribonuclease degrades many cellular and viral mRNAs. In uninfected cells, spliced mRNAs emerge into the cytoplasm bound by exon junction complexes (EJCs) and are translated several times more efficiently than unspliced mRNAs that have the same sequence but lack EJCs. Notably, most cellular mRNAs are spliced, whereas most HSV mRNAs are not. To examine the effect of splicing on gene expression during HSV infection, cells were transfected with plasmids harboring an unspliced renilla luciferase (RLuc) reporter mRNA or RLuc constructs with introns near the 5' or 3' end of the gene. After splicing of intron-containing transcripts, all three RLuc mRNAs had the same primary sequence. Upon infection in the presence of actinomycin D, spliced mRNAs were much less sensitive to degradation by copies of Vhs from infecting virions than were unspliced mRNAs. During productive infections (in the absence of drugs), RLuc was expressed at substantially higher levels from spliced than from unspliced mRNAs. Interestingly, the stimulatory effect of splicing on RLuc expression was significantly greater in infected than in uninfected cells. The translational stimulatory effect of an intron during HSV-1 infections could be replicated by artificially tethering various EJC components to an unspliced RLuc transcript. Thus, the splicing history of an mRNA, and the consequent presence or absence of EJCs, affects its level of translation and sensitivity to Vhs cleavage during lytic HSV infections.

Importance: Most mammalian mRNAs are spliced. In contrast, of the more than 80 mRNAs harbored by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), only 5 are spliced. In addition, synthesis of the immediate early protein ICP27 causes partial inhibition of pre-mRNA splicing, with the resultant accumulation of both spliced and unspliced versions of some mRNAs in the cytoplasm. A common perception is that HSV-1 infection necessarily inhibits the expression of spliced mRNAs. In contrast, this study demonstrates two instances in which pre-mRNA splicing actually enhances the synthesis of proteins from mRNAs during HSV-1 infections. Specifically, splicing stabilized an mRNA against degradation by copies of the Vhs endoribonuclease from infecting virions and greatly enhanced the amount of protein synthesized from spliced mRNAs at late times after infection. The data suggest that splicing, and the resultant presence of exon junction complexes on an mRNA, may play an important role in gene expression during HSV-1 infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01302-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5110170PMC
December 2016