Publications by authors named "Jotaro Igarashi"

31 Publications

Identification and Characterization of a Redox Sensor Phosphodiesterase from sp. PN-J185 Containing Bacterial Hemerythrin and HD-GYP Domains.

Biochemistry 2020 03 20;59(8):983-991. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511, Japan.

The second messenger bis(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) regulates numerous important physiological functions in bacteria. In this study, we identified and characterized the first dimeric, full-length, non-heme iron-bound phosphodiesterase (PDE) containing bacterial hemerythrin and HD-GYP domains (Bhr-HD-GYP). We found that the amino acid sequence encoded by the gene from sp. PN-J185 contains an N-terminal bacterial hemerythrin domain and a C-terminal HD-GYP domain, which is characteristic of proteins with PDE activity toward c-di-GMP. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy analyses showed that Bhr-HD-GYP contains 4 equiv of iron atoms per subunit, suggesting both hemerythrin and HD-GYP domains have non-heme di-iron sites. A redox-dependent spectral change expected for oxo-bridged non-heme iron with carboxylate ligands was observed, and this redox interconversion was reversible. However, unlike marine invertebrate hemerythrin, which functions as an oxygen-binding protein, Bhr-HD-GYP did not form an oxygen adduct because of rapid autoxidation. The reduced ferrous iron complex of the protein catalyzed the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP to its linearized product, 5'-phosphoguanylyl-(3',5')-guanosine (pGpG), whereas the oxidized ferric iron complex had no significant activity. These results suggest that Bhr-HD-GYP is a redox and oxygen sensor enzyme that regulates c-di-GMP levels in response to changes in cellular redox status or oxygen concentration. Our study may lead to an improved understanding of the physiology of iron-oxidizing bacterium sp. PN-J185.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.0c00021DOI Listing
March 2020

Hydrogen sulfide stimulates the catalytic activity of a heme-regulated phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS).

J Inorg Biochem 2012 Apr 11;109:66-71. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Ec DOS, a heme-regulated phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli, is an oxygen sensor enzyme composed of a heme-bound O(2) sensor domain at the N-terminus and a catalytic domain at the C-terminus. The catalytic activity of Ec DOS is substantially enhanced with the formation of a Fe(II) heme-O(2) complex. The physiological importance of H(2)S as a fourth signaling gas molecule in addition to O(2), CO and NO is an emerging focus of research, since H(2)S participates in various physiological functions. In the present study, we showed that catalysis by Ec DOS is markedly increased by H(2)S under aerobic conditions. Absorption spectral findings suggest that SH(-)-modified heme iron complexes, such as Fe(III)-SH(-) and Fe(II)-O(2) complexes, represent the active species for H(2)S-induced catalysis. We further examined the role of Cys residues in H(2)S-induced catalysis using Cys→Ala mutant enzymes. Based on the collective data, we speculate that H(2)S-induced catalytic enhancement is facilitated by an admixture of Fe(III)-SH(-) and Fe(II)-O(2) complexes formed during catalysis and modification of specific Cys residue(s) in the catalytic domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2012.01.001DOI Listing
April 2012

Leu65 in the heme distal side is critical for the stability of the Fe(II)-O2 complex of YddV, a globin-coupled oxygen sensor diguanylate cyclase.

J Inorg Biochem 2012 Mar 17;108:163-70. Epub 2011 Sep 17.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan.

YddV is a globin-coupled oxygen sensor enzyme in that O(2) binding to the Fe(II) heme in the sensor domain substantially enhances its diguanylate cyclase activity. The Fe(III) heme-bound enzyme is also the active form. Amino acid sequence comparisons indicate that Leu65 is well conserved in globin-coupled oxygen sensor enzymes. Absorption spectra of the Fe(III) heme complexes of L65G, L65M, L65Q and L65T mutants of the isolated heme domain of YddV (YddV-heme) were substantially different from that of the wild-type protein. Specifically, Soret bands of the 6-coordinated high-spin Fe(III) complexes of mutant proteins (with H(2)O and His98 as axial ligands) were located at around 403-406 nm, distinct from that (391 nm) of the 5-coordinated high-spin Fe(III) complex of wild-type protein with His98 as the axial ligand. The autooxidation rate constant (>0.10 min(-1)) of the Fe(II)-O(2) complex of L65G was substantially higher than that (0.011 min(-1)) of the wild-type protein. Affinities of O(2) for the Fe(II) complexes of L65G and L65T were markedly higher than that for the wild-type protein. Thus, we suggest that the well-conserved Leu65 located in the heme distal side is critical for restricting water access to the heme distal side to avoid rapid autooxidation of YddV, which needs a stable Fe(II)-O(2) complex with a low autooxidation rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2011.09.019DOI Listing
March 2012

Identification and functional and spectral characterization of a globin-coupled histidine kinase from Anaeromyxobacter sp. Fw109-5.

J Biol Chem 2011 Oct 18;286(41):35522-35534. Epub 2011 Aug 18.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan. Electronic address:

Two-component signal transduction systems regulate numerous important physiological functions in bacteria. In this study we have identified, cloned, overexpressed, and characterized a dimeric full-length heme-bound (heme:protein, 1:1 stoichiometry) globin-coupled histidine kinase (AfGcHK) from Anaeromyxobacter sp. strain Fw109-5 for the first time. The Fe(III), Fe(II)-O(2), and Fe(II)-CO complexes of the protein displayed autophosphorylation activity, whereas the Fe(II) complex had no significant activity. A H99A mutant lost heme binding ability, suggesting that this residue is the heme proximal ligand. Moreover, His-183 was proposed as the autophosphorylation site based on the finding that the H183A mutant protein was not phosphorylated. The phosphate group of autophosphorylated AfGcHK was transferred to Asp-52 and Asp-169 of a response regulator, as confirmed from site-directed mutagenesis experiments. Based on the amino acid sequences and crystal structures of other globin-coupled oxygen sensor enzymes, Tyr-45 was assumed to be the O(2) binding site at the heme distal side. The O(2) dissociation rate constant, 0.10 s(-1), was substantially increased up to 8.0 s(-1) upon Y45L mutation. The resonance Raman frequencies representing ν(Fe-O2) (559 cm(-1)) and ν(O-O) (1149 cm(-1)) of the Fe(II)-O(2) complex of Y45F mutant AfGcHK were distinct from those of the wild-type protein (ν(Fe-O2), 557 cm(-1); ν(O-O), 1141 cm(-1)), supporting the proposal that Tyr-45 is located at the distal side and forms hydrogen bonds with the oxygen molecule bound to the Fe(II) complex. Thus, we have successfully identified and characterized a novel heme-based globin-coupled oxygen sensor histidine kinase, AfGcHK, in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.274811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3195594PMC
October 2011

Phosphorylation of a heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase enhances the interaction with heat-shock protein 90 and substantially upregulates kinase activity.

Protein Pept Lett 2011 Dec;18(12):1251-7

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase (HRI) functions under conditions of heme shortage caused by blood diseases such as erythropoietic protoporphyria and β-thalassemia, and retains the heme:globin ratio at 1:1 by sensing the heme concentration in reticulocytes. This HRI function is regulated by various factors including autophosphorylation and protein-protein interactions. A heat-shock protein controls HRI function, however, the molecular mechanism of catalytic regulation of HRI by the heat-shock protein is unclear. In the present study, we examined the interactions of HRI with a heat-shock protein, Hsp90, under various conditions, using a pull-down assay and measuring catalytic activity. It was found that [1] an interaction between Hsp90 and phosphorylated HRI was evident, whereas no interaction was observed between Hsp90 and HRI dephosphorylated by treatment with λ protein phosphatase; [2] Hsp90 enhanced the kinase activity of phosphorylated HRI but not dephosphorylated HRI, but this enhancement was not observed in the presence of heme; and, [3] autophosphorylation of HRI was not influenced by Hsp90. Therefore, we propose that autophosphorylation of HRI is critical for catalytic regulation by Hsp90 under heme-shortage conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986611797642733DOI Listing
December 2011

A hydrogen-bonding network formed by the B10-E7-E11 residues of a truncated hemoglobin from Tetrahymena pyriformis is critical for stability of bound oxygen and nitric oxide detoxification.

J Biol Inorg Chem 2011 Apr 5;16(4):599-609. Epub 2011 Feb 5.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan.

Truncated hemoglobins (trHbs) are distributed from bacteria to unicellular eukaryotes and have roles in oxygen transport and nitric oxide detoxification. It is known that trHbs exist in ciliates of the Tetrahymena group, but trHb structure and function remain poorly understood. To investigate trHb function with respect to stability of bound oxygen and protein structure, we measured the oxygen binding kinetics of Tetrahymena pyriformis trHb, and determined the crystal structure of the protein. The O(2) association and dissociation rate constants of T. pyriformis trHb were 5.5 μM(-1 )s(-1) and 0.18 s(-1), respectively. The autooxidation rate constant was 3.8 × 10(-3) h(-1). These values are similar to those of HbN from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The three-dimensional structure of an Fe(II)-O(2) complex of T. pyriformis trHb was determined at 1.73-Å resolution. Tyr25 (B10) and Gln46 (E7) were hydrogen-bonded to a heme-bound O(2) molecule. Tyr25 donated a hydrogen bond to the terminal oxygen atom, whereas Gln46 hydrogen-bonded to the proximal oxygen atom. Furthermore, Tyr25 was hydrogen-bonded to the Gln46 and Gln50 (E11) residues. Mutations at Tyr25, Gln46, and Gln50 increased the O(2) dissociation and autooxidation rate constants. An Fe(III)-H(2)O complex of T. pyriformis trHb was formed following reaction of the Fe(II)-O(2) complex of T. pyriformis trHb, in a crystal state, with nitric oxide. This suggests that T. pyriformis trHb functions in nitric oxide detoxification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00775-011-0761-3DOI Listing
April 2011

Autophosphorylation of heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase and the role of the modification in catalysis.

FEBS J 2011 Apr 3;278(6):918-28. Epub 2011 Feb 3.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) kinase (HRI), functions in response to heme shortage in reticulocytes and aids in the maintenance of a heme:globin ratio of 1:1. Under normal conditions, heme binds to HRI and blocks its function. However, during heme shortage, heme dissociates from the protein and autophosphorylation subsequently occurs. Autophosphorylation comprises a preliminary critical step before the execution of the intrinsic function of HRI; specifically, phosphorylation of Ser-51 of eIF2α to inhibit translation of the globin protein. The present study indicates that dephosphorylated mouse HRI exhibits strong intramolecular interactions (between the N-terminal and C-terminal domains) compared to phosphorylated HRI. It is therefore suggested that autophosphorylation reduces the intramolecular interaction, which induces irreversible catalytic flow to the intrinsic eIF2α kinase activity after heme dissociates from the protein. With the aid of MS, we identified 33 phosphorylated sites in mouse HRI overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Phosphorylated sites at Ser, Thr and Tyr were predominantly localized within the kinase insertion region (16 sites) and kinase domain (12 sites), whereas the N-terminal domain contained five sites. We further generated 30 enzymes with mutations at the phosphorylated residues and examined their catalytic activities. The activities of Y193F, T485A and T490A mutants were significantly lower than that of wild-type protein, whereas the other mutant proteins displayed essentially similar activity. Accordingly, we suggest that Tyr193, Thr485 and Thr490 are essential residues in the catalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08007.xDOI Listing
April 2011

Important roles of Tyr43 at the putative heme distal side in the oxygen recognition and stability of the Fe(II)-O2 complex of YddV, a globin-coupled heme-based oxygen sensor diguanylate cyclase.

Biochemistry 2010 Dec 19;49(49):10381-93. Epub 2010 Nov 19.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

YddV from Escherichia coli (Ec) is a novel globin-coupled heme-based oxygen sensor protein displaying diguanylate cyclase activity in response to oxygen availability. In this study, we quantified the turnover numbers of the active [Fe(III), 0.066 min(-1); Fe(II)-O(2) and Fe(II)-CO, 0.022 min(-1)] [Fe(III), Fe(III)-protoporphyrin IX complex; Fe(II), Fe(II)-protoporphyrin IX complex] and inactive forms [Fe(II) and Fe(II)-NO, <0.01 min(-1)] of YddV for the first time. Our data indicate that the YddV reaction is the rate-determining step for two consecutive reactions coupled with phosphodiesterase Ec DOS activity on cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) [turnover number of Ec DOS-Fe(II)-O(2), 61 min(-1)]. Thus, O(2) binding and the heme redox switch of YddV appear to be critical factors in the regulation of c-di-GMP homeostasis. The redox potential and autoxidation rate of heme of the isolated heme domain of YddV (YddV-heme) were determined to be -17 mV versus the standard hydrogen electrode and 0.0076 min(-1), respectively. The Fe(II) complexes of Y43A and Y43L mutant proteins (residues at the heme distal side of the isolated heme-bound globin domain of YddV) exhibited very low O(2) affinities, and thus, their Fe(II)-O(2) complexes were not detected on the spectra. The O(2) dissociation rate constant of the Y43W protein was >150 s(-1), which is significantly larger than that of the wild-type protein (22 s(-1)). The autoxidation rate constants of the Y43F and Y43W mutant proteins were 0.069 and 0.12 min(-1), respectively, which are also markedly higher than that of the wild-type protein. The resonance Raman frequencies representing ν(Fe-O(2)) (559 cm(-1)) of the Fe(II)-O(2) complex and ν(Fe-CO) (505 cm(-1)) of the Fe(II)-CO complex of Y43F differed from those (ν(Fe-O(2)), 565 cm(-1); ν(Fe-CO), 495 cm(-1)) of the wild-type protein, suggesting that Tyr43 forms hydrogen bonds with both O(2) and CO molecules. On the basis of the results, we suggest that Tyr43 located at the heme distal side is important for the O(2) recognition and stability of the Fe(II)-O(2) complex, because the hydroxyl group of the residue appears to interact electrostatically with the O(2) molecule bound to the Fe(II) complex in YddV. Our findings clearly support a role of Tyr in oxygen sensing, and thus modulation of overall conversion from GTP to pGpG via c-di-GMP catalyzed by YddV and Ec DOS, which may be applicable to other globin-coupled oxygen sensor enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi100733qDOI Listing
December 2010

Heme-binding characteristics of the isolated PAS-B domain of mouse Per2, a transcriptional regulatory factor associated with circadian rhythms.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2011 Feb 29;1814(2):326-33. Epub 2010 Sep 29.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Mouse period homolog 2 (mPer2), an important transcriptional regulatory factor associated with circadian rhythms, is composed of two N-terminal PAS (PAS-A and PAS-B) domains and a C-terminal domain. The PAS-A domain of mPer2 binds the heme iron via a Cys axial ligand. A corresponding transcriptional regulatory factor, neuronal PAS 2 protein (NPAS2), also contains PAS-A and PAS-B domains at the N-terminus with heme-binding capability. In particular, the PAS-B domain appears important for protein-protein interactions critical for transcriptional regulation. In the present study, we examined the heme-binding characteristics of the isolated PAS-B domain of mPer2. Our experiments show that the Fe(III) heme binds the isolated PAS-B domain with a heme to protein stoichiometry of 1:1. The Fe(III) protein complex is suggested to consist of an admixture of 6-coordinated His-bound high-spin and low-spin complexes. Marked pH-dependent spectral changes were observed, in contrast to the spectrum of the Fe(III) bound PAS-A domain of mPer2, which appeared pH-resistant. Treatment with diethylpyrocarbonate abolished the heme-binding ability of this protein, supporting the proposal that His is the axial ligand. Heme dissociation was composed of two phases with rate constants of 4.3 × 10⁻⁴ s⁻¹ (50%) and 4.0 × 10⁻³ s⁻¹ (50%), which were markedly higher than that (1.5 × 10⁻⁷ s⁻¹) of the prototype heme protein, myoglobin. The Soret CD band of the H454A PAS-B mutant was significantly different from those of wild-type and other His mutant proteins, strongly suggesting that His454 is one of the axial ligands for the Fe(III) complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2010.09.007DOI Listing
February 2011

Catalysis and oxygen binding of Ec DOS: a haem-based oxygen-sensor enzyme from Escherichia coli.

J Biochem 2010 Dec 21;148(6):693-703. Epub 2010 Sep 21.

The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka, Japan.

A phosphodiesterase (PDE) from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS) is a novel haem-based oxygen sensor enzyme. Binding of O(2) to the reduced haem in the sensor domain enhances PDE activity exerted by the catalytic domain. Kinetic analysis of oxygen-dependent catalytic enhancement showed a sigmoidal curve with a Hill coefficient value of 2.8. To establish the molecular mechanism underlying allosteric regulation, we analysed binding of the O(2) ligand following reduction of haem in the isolated dimeric sensor domain using pulse radiolysis. Spectral changes accompanying O(2) binding were composed of two phases as a result of reduction of two haem complexes when high-dose electron beams were applied. In contrast, upon reduction of the dimer with a low-dose beam, the kinetics of O(2) ligation displayed single-phase behaviour as a result of the reduction of one haem complex within dimer. Based on these results, we propose that the faster phase corresponds to binding of the first O(2) molecule to one subunit of the dimer, followed by binding of the second O(2) molecule to the other subunit. Notably, for the haem axial ligand mutant proteins, M95A and M95L, O(2) binding displayed single-phase kinetics and was independent of electron beam dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jb/mvq103DOI Listing
December 2010

The FG loop of a heme-based gas sensor enzyme, Ec DOS, functions in heme binding, autoxidation and catalysis.

J Inorg Biochem 2009 Oct 24;103(10):1380-5. Epub 2009 Jul 24.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Ec DOS is a heme-based gas sensor enzyme that catalyzes conversion from cyclic-di-GMP to linear-di-GMP in response to gas molecules, such as oxygen, CO and NO. Ec DOS contains an N-terminal heme-binding PAS domain and C-terminal phosphodiesterase domain. Based on crystal structures of the isolated heme-binding domain, it is suggested that the FG loop is involved in intra-molecular signal transduction to the catalytic domain. We generated nine full-length proteins mutated at ionic and non-ionic polar residues between positions 83 and 96 corresponding to the F-helix and FG loop, and examined the heme binding properties, autoxidation rates, and catalytic activities of mutant proteins. N84A and R85A mutant proteins displayed lower heme binding affinities, consistent with the finding that Asn84 interacts with propionate of protoporphyrin IX, and Arg85 with Asp40 on the heme proximal side. Autoxidation rates (0.058-0.54 min(-1)) of R91A, S96A and K89A/R91A/E93A mutant proteins were significantly higher than that (0.0053 min(-1)) of wild-type protein, suggesting that these residues in the FG loop form heme distal architecture conferring stability to the Fe(II)-O(2) complex. Catalytic activities of N84A and R85A mutant proteins with low heme affinity were significantly higher than those of wild-type protein in the absence of gas molecules. Accordingly, we propose that loss of heme binding enhances basal catalysis without the gas molecule, consistent with previous reports on heme inhibition of Ec DOS catalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2009.07.012DOI Listing
October 2009

Role of Phe113 at the distal side of the heme domain of an oxygen-sensor (Ec DOS) in the characterization of the heme environment.

J Inorg Biochem 2009 Jul 3;103(7):989-96. Epub 2009 May 3.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

The heme-based oxygen-sensor enzyme from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS) is a heme-regulated phosphodiesterase with activity on cyclic-di-GMP and is composed of an N-terminal heme-bound sensor domain with the PAS structure and a C-terminal functional domain. The activity of Ec DOS is substantially enhanced by the binding of O(2) to the Fe(II)-protoporphyrin IX complex [Fe(II) complex] in the sensor domain. The binding of O(2) to the Fe(II) complex changes the structure of the sensor domain, and this altered structure becomes a signal that is transduced to the functional domain to trigger catalysis. The first step in intra-molecular signal transduction is the binding of O(2) to the Fe(II) complex, and detailed elucidation of this molecular mechanism is thus worthy of exploration. The X-ray crystal structure reveals that Phe113 is located close to the O(2) molecule bound to the Fe(II) complex in the sensor domain. Here, we found that the O(2) association rate constants (>200x10(-3) microM(-1)s(-1): F113L; 26x10(-3) microM(-1)s(-1): F113Y) of the Fe(II) complexes of Phe113 mutants were markedly different from that (51x10(-3) microM(-1)s(-1)) of the wild-type enzyme, and auto-oxidation rates (0.00068 min(-1): F113L; 0.039 min(-1): F113Y) of the Phe113 mutants also differed greatly from that (0.0062 min(-1)) of the wild-type enzyme. We thus suggest that Phe113, residing near the O(2) molecule, has a critical role in optimizing the Fe(II)-O(2) complex for effective regulation of catalysis by the oxygen-sensor enzyme. Interactions of CO and cyanide anion with the mutant proteins were also studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2009.04.009DOI Listing
July 2009

Crystal structures of constitutive nitric oxide synthases in complex with de novo designed inhibitors.

J Med Chem 2009 Apr;52(7):2060-6

Departments of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-3900, USA.

New nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors were designed de novo with knowledge gathered from the studies on the nNOS-selective dipeptide inhibitors. Each of the new inhibitors consists of three fragments: an aminopyridine ring, a pyrrolidine, and a tail of various length and polarity. The in vitro inhibitory assays indicate good potency and isoform selectivity for some of the compounds. Crystal structures of these inhibitors bound to either wild type or mutant nNOS and eNOS have confirmed design expectations. The aminopyridine ring mimics the guanidinium group of L-arginine and functions as an anchor to place the compound in the NOS active site where it hydrogen bonds to a conserved Glu. The rigidity of the pyrrolidine ring places the pyrrolidine ring nitrogen between the same conserved Glu and the selective residue nNOS Asp597/eNOS Asn368, which results in similar interactions observed with the alpha-amino group of dipeptide inhibitors bound to nNOS. These structures provide additional information to help in the design of inhibitors with greater potency, physicochemical properties, and isoform selectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm900007aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3103786PMC
April 2009

Selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and the prevention of cerebral palsy.

Ann Neurol 2009 Feb;65(2):209-17

Department of Chemistry, Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3113, USA.

Objective: To design a new class of selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors, and demonstrate that administration in a rabbit model for cerebral palsy (CP) prevents hypoxia-ischemia-induced deaths and reduces the number of newborn kits exhibiting signs of CP.

Methods: We used a novel computer-based drug design method called fragment hopping to identify new chemical entities, synthesized them, and conducted in vitro enzyme inhibition studies with the three isozymes of NOS and in vivo experiments to monitor cardiovascular effects on pregnant rabbit dams, NOS activity, and NO(x) (NO and NO(2)) concentration in fetal brain, and assess neurobehavioral effects on kits born to saline- and compound treated dams.

Results: The computer-based design led to the development of powerful and highly selective compounds for inhibition of neuronal NOS over the other isozymes. After maternal administration in a rabbit model of CP, these compounds were found to distribute to fetal brain, to be nontoxic, without cardiovascular effects, inhibit fetal brain NOS activity in vivo, reduce NO concentration in fetal brain, and dramatically ameliorate deaths and number of newborn kits exhibiting signs of CP.

Interpretation: This approach may lead to new preventive strategies for CP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.21555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2658647PMC
February 2009

Arg97 at the heme-distal side of the isolated heme-bound PAS domain of a heme-based oxygen sensor from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS) plays critical roles in autoxidation and binding to gases, particularly O2.

Biochemistry 2008 Aug 2;47(34):8874-84. Epub 2008 Aug 2.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

The catalytic activity of heme-regulated phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS) on cyclic di-GMP is markedly enhanced upon binding of gas molecules, such as O2 and CO, to the heme iron complex in the sensor domain. Arg97 interacts directly with O2 bound to Fe(II) heme in the crystal structure of the isolated heme-bound sensor domain with the PAS structure (Ec DOS-PAS) and may thus be critical in ligand recognition. To establish the specific role of Arg97, we generated Arg97Ala, Arg97Glu, and Arg97Ile mutant Ec DOS-PAS proteins and examined binding to O2, CO, and cyanide, as well as redox potentials. The autoxidation rates of the Arg97Ala and Arg97Glu mutant proteins were up to 2000-fold higher, while the O2 dissociation rate constant for dissociation from the Fe(II)-O2 heme complex of the Arg97Ile mutant was 100-fold higher than that of the wild-type protein. In contrast, the redox potential values of the mutant proteins were only slightly different from that of the wild type (within 10 mV). Accordingly, we propose that Arg97 plays critical roles in recognition of the O2 molecule and redox switching by stabilizing the Fe(II)-O2 complex, thereby anchoring O2 to the heme iron and lowering the autoxidation rate to prevent formation of Fe(III) hemin species not regulated by gas molecules. Arg97 mutations significantly influenced interactions with the internal ligand Met95, during CO binding to the Fe(II) complex. Moreover, the binding behavior of cyanide to the Fe(III) complexes of the Arg mutant proteins was similar to that of O2, which is evident from the Kd values, suggestive of electrostatic interactions between cyanide and Arg97.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi800248cDOI Listing
August 2008

Heme-binding characteristics of the isolated PAS-A domain of mouse Per2, a transcriptional regulatory factor associated with circadian rhythms.

Biochemistry 2008 Jun 15;47(23):6157-68. Epub 2008 May 15.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku UniVersity, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Neuronal PAS protein 2 (NPAS2), a heme-binding transcriptional regulatory factor, is involved in circadian rhythms. Period homologue (Per) is another important transcriptional regulatory factor that binds to cryptochrome (Cry). The resultant Per/Cry heterodimer interacts with the NPAS2/BMAL1 heterodimer to inhibit the transcription of Per and Cry. Previous cell biology experiments indicate that mouse Per2 (mPer2) is also a heme-binding protein, and heme shuttling between mPer2 and NPAS2 may regulate transcription. In the present study, we show that the isolated PAS-A domain of mPer2 (PAS-A-mPer2) binds the Fe(III) protoporphyrin IX complex (hemin) with a heme:protein stoichiometry of 1:1. Optical absorption and EPR spectroscopic findings suggest that the Fe(III)-bound PAS-A-mPer2 is a six-coordinated low-spin complex with Cys and an unknown axial ligand. A Hg (2+) binding study supports the theory that Cys is one of the axial ligands for Fe(III)-bound PAS-A-mPer2. The dissociation rate constant of the Fe(III) complex from PAS-A-mPer2 (6.3 x 10 (-4) s (-1)) was comparable to that of the heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI), a heme-sensor enzyme (1.5 x 10 (-3) s (-1)), but markedly higher than that of metmyoglobin (8.4 x 10 (-7) s (-1)). As confirmed by a Soret absorption spectral shift, heme transferred from the holo basic helix-loop-helix PAS-A of NPAS2 to apoPAS-A-mPer2. The Soret CD spectrum of the C215A mutant PAS-A-mPer2 protein was markedly different from that of the wild-type protein. On the basis of the data, we propose that PAS-A-mPer2 is a heme-sensor protein in which Cys215 is the heme axial ligand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi7023892DOI Listing
June 2008

Elucidation of the heme binding site of heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase and the role of the regulatory motif in heme sensing by spectroscopic and catalytic studies of mutant proteins.

J Biol Chem 2008 Jul 1;283(27):18782-91. Epub 2008 May 1.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University at Katahira, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) kinase (HRI) functions in response to the heme iron concentration. At the appropriate heme iron concentrations under normal conditions, HRI function is suppressed by binding of the heme iron. Conversely, upon heme iron shortage, HRI autophosphorylates and subsequently phosphorylates the substrate, eIF2alpha, leading to the termination of protein synthesis. The molecular mechanism of heme sensing by HRI, including identification of the specific binding site, remains to be established. In the present study we demonstrate that His-119/His-120 and Cys-409 are the axial ligands for the Fe(III)-protoporphyrin IX complex (hemin) in HRI, based on spectral data on site-directed mutant proteins. Cys-409 is part of the heme-regulatory Cys-Pro motif in the kinase domain. A P410A full-length mutant protein displayed loss of heme iron affinity. Surprisingly, inhibitory effects of the heme iron on catalysis and changes in the heme dissociation rate constants in full-length His-119/His-120 and Cys-409 mutant proteins were marginally different to wild type. In contrast, heme-induced inhibition of Cys-409 mutants of the isolated kinase domain and N-terminal-truncated proteins was substantially weaker than that of the full-length enzyme. A pulldown assay disclosed heme-dependent interactions between the N-terminal and kinase domains. Accordingly, we propose that heme regulation is induced by interactions between heme and the catalytic domain in conjunction with global tertiary structural changes at the N-terminal domain that accompany heme coordination and not merely by coordination of the heme iron with amino acids on the protein surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M801400200DOI Listing
July 2008

Minimal pharmacophoric elements and fragment hopping, an approach directed at molecular diversity and isozyme selectivity. Design of selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

J Am Chem Soc 2008 Mar 6;130(12):3900-14. Epub 2008 Mar 6.

Department of Chemistry, Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113, USA.

Fragment hopping, a new fragment-based approach for de novo inhibitor design focusing on ligand diversity and isozyme selectivity, is described. The core of this approach is the derivation of the minimal pharmacophoric element for each pharmacophore. Sites for both ligand binding and isozyme selectivity are considered in deriving the minimal pharmacophoric elements. Five general-purpose libraries are established: the basic fragment library, the bioisostere library, the rules for metabolic stability, the toxicophore library, and the side chain library. These libraries are employed to generate focused fragment libraries to match the minimal pharmacophoric elements for each pharmacophore and then to link the fragment to the desired molecule. This method was successfully applied to neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which is implicated in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. Starting with the nitroarginine-containing dipeptide inhibitors we developed previously, a small organic molecule with a totally different chemical structure was designed, which showed nanomolar nNOS inhibitory potency and more than 1000-fold nNOS selectivity. The crystallographic analysis confirms that the small organic molecule with a constrained conformation can exactly mimic the mode of action of the dipeptide nNOS inhibitors. Therefore, a new peptidomimetic strategy, referred to as fragment hopping, which creates small organic molecules that mimic the biological function of peptides by a pharmacophore-driven strategy for fragment-based de novo design, has been established as a new type of fragment-based inhibitor design. As an open system, the newly established approach efficiently incorporates the concept of early "ADME/Tox" considerations and provides a basic platform for medicinal chemistry-driven efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja0772041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2929563PMC
March 2008

Eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase is a nitric oxide-responsive mercury sensor enzyme: potent inhibition of catalysis by the mercury cation and reversal by nitric oxide.

FEBS Lett 2007 Aug 1;581(21):4109-14. Epub 2007 Aug 1.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

The activity of one of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinases, heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI), is modulated by heme binding. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that Hg2+ strongly inhibits the function of HRI (IC50=0.6 microM), and nitric oxide fully reverses this inhibition. Other divalent metal cations, such as Fe2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+, also significantly inhibit kinase activity with IC50 values of 1.9-8.5 microM. Notably, inhibition by cations other than Hg2+ is not reversed by nitric oxide. Our present data support dual roles of Hg2+ and nitric oxide in the regulation of protein synthesis during cell emergency states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2007.07.055DOI Listing
August 2007

Identification of Cys385 in the isolated kinase insertion domain of heme-regulated eIF2 alpha kinase (HRI) as the heme axial ligand by site-directed mutagenesis and spectral characterization.

J Inorg Biochem 2007 Aug 24;101(8):1172-9. Epub 2007 May 24.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Heme-regulated eIF2alpha kinase (HRI) is an important enzyme that modulates protein synthesis during cellular emergency/stress conditions, such as heme deficiency in red cells. It is essential to identify the heme axial ligand(s) and/or binding sites to establish the heme regulation mechanism of HRI. Previous reports suggest that a His residue in the N-terminal region and a Cys residue in the C-terminal region trans to the His are axial ligands of the heme. Moreover, mutational analyses indicate that a residue located in the kinase insertion (KI) domain between Kinase I and Kinase II domains in the C-terminal region is an axial ligand. In the present study, we isolate the KI domain of mouse HRI and employ site-directed mutagenesis to identify the heme axial ligand. The optical absorption spectrum of the Fe(III) hemin-bound wild-type KI displays a broad Soret band at around 373nm, while that of the Fe(II) heme-bound protein contains a band at 422nm. Spectral titration studies conducted for both the Fe(III) hemin and Fe(II) heme complexes with KI support a 1:1 stoichiometry of heme iron to protein. Resonance Raman spectra of Fe(III) hemin-bound KI suggest that thiol is the axial ligand in a 5-coordinate high-spin heme complex as a major form. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of Fe(III) hemin-bound KI indicate that the axial ligands are OH(-) and Cys. Since Cys385 is the only cysteine in KI, the residue was mutated to Ser, and its spectral characteristics were analyzed. The Soret band position, heme spectral titration behavior and ESR parameters of the Cys385Ser mutant were markedly different from those of wild-type KI. Based on these spectroscopic findings, we conclude that Cys385 is an axial ligand of isolated KI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.05.004DOI Listing
August 2007

Characterization of heme-regulated eIF2alpha kinase: roles of the N-terminal domain in the oligomeric state, heme binding, catalysis, and inhibition.

Biochemistry 2006 Aug;45(32):9894-905

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Heme-regulated eIF2alpha kinase [heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI)] plays a critical role in the regulation of protein synthesis by heme iron. The kinase active site is located in the C-terminal domain, whereas the N-terminal domain is suggested to regulate catalysis in response to heme binding. Here, we found that the rate of dissociation for Fe(III)-protoporphyrin IX was much higher for full-length HRI (1.5 x 10(-)(3) s(-)(1)) than for myoglobin (8.4 x 10(-)(7) s(-)(1)) or the alpha-subunit of hemoglobin (7.1 x 10(-)(6) s(-)(1)), demonstrating the heme-sensing character of HRI. Because the role of the N-terminal domain in the structure and catalysis of HRI has not been clear, we generated N-terminal truncated mutants of HRI and examined their oligomeric state, heme binding, axial ligands, substrate interactions, and inhibition by heme derivatives. Multiangle light scattering indicated that the full-length enzyme is a hexamer, whereas truncated mutants (truncations of residues 1-127 and 1-145) are mainly trimers. In addition, we found that one molecule of heme is bound to the full-length and truncated mutant proteins. Optical absorption and electron spin resonance spectra suggested that Cys and water/OH(-) are the heme axial ligands in the N-terminal domain-truncated mutant complex. We also found that HRI has a moderate affinity for heme, allowing it to sense the heme concentration in the cell. Study of the kinetics showed that the HRI kinase reaction follows classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics with respect to ATP but sigmoidal kinetics and positive cooperativity between subunits with respect to the protein substrate (eIF2alpha). Removal of the N-terminal domain decreased this cooperativity between subunits and affected the other kinetic parameters including inhibition by Fe(III)-protoporphyrin IX, Fe(II)-protoporphyrin IX, and protoporphyrin IX. Finally, we found that HRI is inhibited by bilirubin at physiological/pathological levels (IC(50) = 20 microM). The roles of the N-terminal domain and the binding of heme in the structural and functional properties of HRI are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi060556kDOI Listing
August 2006

Structural studies of constitutive nitric oxide synthases with diatomic ligands bound.

J Biol Inorg Chem 2006 Sep 28;11(6):753-68. Epub 2006 Jun 28.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Center in Chemical and Structural Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3900, USA.

Crystal structures are reported for the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-arginine-CO ternary complex as well as the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) heme domain complexed with L: -arginine and diatomic ligands, CO or NO, in the presence of the native cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin, or its oxidized analogs, dihydrobiopterin and 4-aminobiopterin. The nature of the biopterin has no influence on the diatomic ligand binding. The binding geometries of diatomic ligands to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) follow the {MXY}(n) formalism developed from the inorganic diatomic-metal complexes. The structures reveal some subtle structural differences between eNOS and nNOS when CO is bound to the heme which correlate well with the differences in CO stretching frequencies observed by resonance Raman techniques. The detailed hydrogen-bonding geometries depicted in the active site of nNOS structures indicate that it is the ordered active-site water molecule rather than the substrate itself that would most likely serve as a direct proton donor to the diatomic ligands (CO, NO, as well as O(2)) bound to the heme. This has important implications for the oxygen activation mechanism critical to NOS catalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00775-006-0123-8DOI Listing
September 2006

Spectroscopic and DNA-binding characterization of the isolated heme-bound basic helix-loop-helix-PAS-A domain of neuronal PAS protein 2 (NPAS2), a transcription activator protein associated with circadian rhythms.

FEBS J 2006 Jun;273(11):2528-39

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) is a circadian rhythm-associated transcription factor with two heme-binding sites on two PAS domains. In the present study, we compared the optical absorption spectra, resonance Raman spectra, heme-binding kinetics and DNA-binding characteristics of the isolated fragment containing the N-terminal basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) of the first PAS (PAS-A) domain of NPAS2 with those of the PAS-A domain alone. We found that the heme-bound bHLH-PAS-A domain mainly exists as a dimer in solution. The Soret absorption peak of the Fe(III) complex for bHLH-PAS-A (421 nm) was located at a wavelength 9 nm higher than for isolated PAS-A (412 nm). The axial ligand trans to CO in bHLH-PAS-A appears to be His, based on the resonance Raman spectra. In addition, the rate constant for heme association with apo-bHLH-PAS (3.3 x 10(7) mol(-1) x s(-1)) was more than two orders of magnitude higher than for association with apo-PAS-A (< 10(5) mol(-1) x s(-1)). These results suggest that the bHLH domain assists in stable heme binding to NPAS2. Both optical and resonance Raman spectra indicated that the Fe(II)-NO heme complex is five-coordinated. Using the quartz-crystal microbalance method, we found that the bHLH-PAS-A domain binds specifically to the E-box DNA sequence in the presence, but not in the absence, of heme. On the basis of these results, we discuss the mode of heme binding by bHLH-PAS-A and its potential role in regulating DNA binding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05259.xDOI Listing
June 2006

Critical roles of Leu99 and Leu115 at the heme distal side in auto-oxidation and the redox potential of a heme-regulated phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli.

FEBS J 2006 Mar;273(6):1210-23

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

The heme-regulated phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS), which is a heme redox-dependent enzyme, is active with a ferrous heme but inactive with a ferric heme. Global structural changes including axial ligand switching and a change in the rigidity of the FG loop accompanying the heme redox change may be related to the dependence of Ec DOS activity on the redox state. Axial ligands such as CO, NO, and O2 act as inhibitors of Ec DOS because they interact with the ferrous heme complex. The X-ray crystal structure of the isolated heme-bound domain (Ec DosH) shows that Leu99, Phe113 and Leu115 indirectly and directly form a hydrophobic triad on the heme plane and that they should be located at or near the ligand access channel of the heme iron. We generated L99T, L99F, L115T, and L115F mutants of Ec DosH and examined their physicochemical characteristics, including auto-oxidation rates, O2 and CO binding kinetics, and redox potentials. The Fe(III) complex of the L115F mutant was unstable and had a Soret absorption spectrum located 5 nm lower than those of the wild-type and other mutants. Auto-oxidation rates of the mutants (0.049-0.33 min(-1)) were much higher than that of the wild-type (0.0063 min(-1)). Furthermore, the redox potentials of the former three mutants (23.1-34.6 mV versus SHE) were also significantly lower than that of the wild-type (63.9 mV versus SHE). Interaction between O2 and the L99F mutant was different from that in the wild-type, whereas CO binding rates of the mutants were similar to those of the wild-type. Thus, it appears that Leu99 and Leu115 are critical for determining the characteristics of heme iron. Finally, we discuss the roles of these amino-acid residues in the heme electronic states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05145.xDOI Listing
March 2006

Exploring the binding conformations of bulkier dipeptide amide inhibitors in constitutive nitric oxide synthases.

Biochemistry 2005 Nov;44(46):15222-9

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-3900, USA.

A series of L-nitroarginine-based dipeptide inhibitors are highly selective for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) over the endothelial isoform (eNOS). Crystal structures of these dipeptides bound to both isoforms revealed two different conformations, curled in nNOS and extended in eNOS, corresponding to higher and lower binding affinity to the two isoforms, respectively. In previous studies we found that the primary reason for selectivity is that Asp597 in nNOS, which is Asn368 in eNOS, provides greater electrostatic stabilization in the inhibitor complex. While this is the case for smaller dipeptide inhibitors, electrostatic stabilization may no longer be the sole determinant for isoform selectivity with bulkier dipeptide inhibitors. Another residue farther away from the active site, Met336 in nNOS (Val106 in eNOS), is in contact with bulkier dipeptide inhibitors. Double mutants were made to exchange the D597/M336 pair in nNOS with N368/V106 in eNOS. Here we report crystal structures and inhibition constants for bulkier dipeptide inhibitors bound to nNOS and eNOS that illustrate the important role played by residues near the entry to the active site in isoform selective inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi0513610DOI Listing
November 2005

Spectroscopic characterization of the isolated heme-bound PAS-B domain of neuronal PAS domain protein 2 associated with circadian rhythms.

FEBS J 2005 Aug;272(16):4153-62

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) is an important transcription factor associated with circadian rhythms. This protein forms a heterodimer with BMAL1, which binds to the E-box sequence to mediate circadian rhythm-regulated transcription. NPAS2 has two PAS domains with heme-binding sites in the N-terminal portion. In this study, we overexpressed wild-type and His mutants of the PAS-B domain (residues 241-416) of mouse NPAS2 and then purified and characterized the isolated heme-bound proteins. Optical absorption spectra of the wild-type protein showed that the Fe(III), Fe(II) and Fe(II)-CO complexes are 6-co-ordinated low-spin complexes. On the other hand, resonance Raman spectra indicated that both the Fe(III) and Fe(II) complexes contain mixtures of 5-co-ordinated high-spin and 6-co-ordinated low-spin complexes. Based on inverse correlation between nu(Fe-CO) and nu(C-O) of the resonance Raman spectra, it appeared that the axial ligand trans to CO of the heme-bound PAS-B is His. Six His mutants (His266Ala, His289Ala, His300Ala, His302Ala, His329Ala, and His335Ala) were generated, and their optical absorption spectra were compared. The spectrum of the His335Ala mutant indicated that its Fe(III) complex is the 5-co-ordinated high-spin complex, whereas, like the wild-type, the complexes for the five other His mutants were 6-co-ordinated low-spin complexes. Thus, our results suggest that one of the axial ligands of Fe(III) in PAS-B is His335. Also, binding kinetics suggest that heme binding to the PAS-B domain of NPAS2 is relatively weak compared with that of sperm whale myoglobin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2005.04828.xDOI Listing
August 2005

SOUL in mouse eyes is a new hexameric heme-binding protein with characteristic optical absorption, resonance Raman spectral, and heme-binding properties.

Biochemistry 2004 Nov;43(44):14189-98

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

SOUL is specifically expressed in the retina and pineal gland and displays more than 40% sequence homology with p22HBP, a heme protein ubiquitously expressed in numerous tissues. SOUL was purified as a dimer in the absence of heme from the Escherichia coli expression system but displayed a hexameric structure upon heme binding. Heme-bound SOUL displayed optical absorption and resonance Raman spectra typical of 6-coordinate low-spin heme protein, with one heme per monomeric unit for both the Fe(III) and Fe(II) complexes. Spectral data additionally suggest that one of the axial ligands of the Fe(III) heme complex is His. Mutation of His42 (the only His of SOUL) to Ala resulted in loss of heme binding, confirming that this residue is an axial ligand of SOUL. The K(d) value of heme for SOUL was estimated as 4.8 x 10(-9) M from the association and dissociation rate constants, suggesting high binding affinity. On the other hand, p22HBP was obtained as a monomer containing one heme per subunit, with a K(d) value of 2.1 x 10(-11) M. Spectra of heme-bound p22HBP were different from those of SOUL but similar to those of heme-bound bovine serum albumin in which heme bound to a hydrophobic cavity with no specific axial ligand coordination. Therefore, the heme-binding properties and coordination structure of SOUL are distinct from those of p22HBP, despite high sequence homology. The physiological role of the new heme-binding protein, SOUL, is further discussed in this report.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi048742iDOI Listing
November 2004

Analysis of the kinetics of CO binding to neuronal nitric oxide synthase by flash photolysis: dual effects of substrates, inhibitors, and tetrahydrobiopterin.

J Inorg Biochem 2004 Jul;98(7):1210-6

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

The effects of substrates, inhibitors and tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B) on CO rebinding to the isolated heme-bound oxygenase domain (nNOSox) of neuronal nitric oxide synthase were examined by laser flash photolysis. The rate constant of CO recombination with substrate and inhibitor-free nNOSox in the absence of H4B was 1.0 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). The addition of H4B led to a marked decrease in the rate to 0.59 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). Interestingly, the substrates, L-Arg and N-hydroxy-L-Arg (NHA), altered CO binding behavior in that the binding rate was modified to CO concentration-independent, both with and without H4B. In the absence of H4B, agmatine, NG-monomethyl-L-Arg (NMMA) and NG-nitro-L-Arg methyl ester (NAME) decreased the CO concentration-dependent rate constants of rebinding by half (0.43 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) for the NMMA-bound complex), whereas N6-(l-iminoethyl)-L-Lys (NIL) and 7-nitro-1H-indazole (7-NI) increased the rate constants by more than 70% (up to 2.1 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) for the NIL-bound complex). In the presence of H4B, the binding rate was independent of CO concentration for the agmatine-bound complex. The differential effects of the inhibitors on the CO concentration-dependent rate constants were significantly diminished for the H4B-bound system. Interestingly, these variable effects of inhibitors on the CO binding rate were more pronounced in the absence of H4B. Accordingly, we suggest that H4B significantly influences CO binding by altering the CO access channel, and further reduces the divergent effects of different inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2004.04.009DOI Listing
July 2004

Activation of heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase by nitric oxide is induced by the formation of a five-coordinate NO-heme complex: optical absorption, electron spin resonance, and resonance raman spectral studies.

J Biol Chem 2004 Apr 29;279(16):15752-62. Epub 2004 Jan 29.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase (HRI) regulates the synthesis of hemoglobin in reticulocytes in response to heme availability. HRI contains a tightly bound heme at the N-terminal domain. Earlier reports show that nitric oxide (NO) regulates HRI catalysis. However, the mechanism of this process remains unclear. In the present study, we utilize in vitro kinase assays, optical absorption, electron spin resonance (ESR), and resonance Raman spectra of purified full-length HRI for the first time to elucidate the regulation mechanism of NO. HRI was activated via heme upon NO binding, and the Fe(II)-HRI(NO) complex displayed 5-fold greater eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase activity than the Fe(III)-HRI complex. The Fe(III)-HRI complex exhibited a Soret peak at 418 nm and a rhombic ESR signal with g values of 2.49, 2.28, and 1.87, suggesting coordination with Cys as an axial ligand. Interestingly, optical absorption, ESR, and resonance Raman spectra of the Fe(II)-NO complex were characteristic of five-coordinate NO-heme. Spectral findings on the coordination structure of full-length HRI were distinct from those obtained for the isolated N-terminal heme-binding domain. Specifically, six-coordinate NO-Fe(II)-His was observed but not Cys-Fe(III) coordination. It is suggested that significant conformational change(s) in the protein induced by NO binding to the heme lead to HRI activation. We discuss the role of NO and heme in catalysis by HRI, focusing on heme-based sensor proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M310273200DOI Listing
April 2004

Binding of oxygen and carbon monoxide to a heme-regulated phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli. Kinetics and infrared spectra of the full-length wild-type enzyme, isolated PAS domain, and Met-95 mutants.

J Biol Chem 2004 Jan 11;279(5):3340-7. Epub 2003 Nov 11.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

The heme-regulated phosphodiesterase, Ec DOS, is a redox sensor that uses the heme in its PAS domain to regulate catalysis. The rate of O(2) association (k(on)) with full-length Ec DOS is extremely slow at 0.0019 microM(-1) s(-1), compared with >9.5 microM(-1) s(-1) for 6-coordinated globin-type hemoproteins, as determined by the stopped-flow method. This rate is dramatically increased (up to 16-fold) in the isolated heme-bound PAS domain. Dissociation constants (K(d)) calculated from the kinetic parameters are 340 and 20 microm for the full-length wild-type enzyme and its isolated PAS domain, respectively. Mutations at Met-95 in the isolated PAS domain, which may be a heme axial ligand in the Fe(II) complex, lead to a further increase in the k(on) value by more than 30-fold, and consequently, a decrease in the K(d) value to less than 1 microM. The k(on) value for CO binding to the full-length wild-type enzyme is also very low (0.00081 microM(-1) s(-1)). The kinetics of CO binding to the isolated PAS domain and its mutants are similar to those observed for O(2). However, the K(d) values for CO are considerably lower than those for O(2).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M301013200DOI Listing
January 2004
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