Publications by authors named "Josif Nanobachvili"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Abdominal aortic aneurysm and virus infection: a potential causative role for cytomegalovirus infection?

J Med Virol 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a variety of genetic and environmental risk factors, but the exact mechanism of AAA formation and progression is still not well understood. The present study investigated the frequency of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and papillomavirus types 6 and 11 (HPV6 and HPV11), their impact on clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases, and their possible association with inflammation in patients with AAA and healthy volunteers. Genotyping of CMV UL75, EBV LMP-1, and HPV6 and HPV11 E6 was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while the viral DNA loads were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The CMV UL75 was detected more frequently in the blood of patients with AAA than in the blood of healthy volunteers (32.7% vs. 6.3%, p < 0.0001). Neither EBV LMP-1 nor HPV6 E6 was found in blood and aortic wall biopsies, while the HPV11 E6 was detected in 36.4% of AAA walls. The CMV infection in patients with AAA was associated with an increased risk of hypertension and coronary artery disease (CAD) (OR 9.057; 95% CI: 1.141 - 71.862, p = 0.037; OR 2.575; 95% CI: 1.002 - 6.615, p = 0.049, respectively). Additionally, CMV-infected patients with AAA had higher TNF-α levels compared with non-infected subjects (p = 0.017). Our findings suggest that CMV infection can stimulate local inflammation in the aorta but is not a direct cause of most abdominal aortic aneurysms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26901DOI Listing
February 2021

Polymorphisms in the IL-6 and TNF-α gene are associated with an increased risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Apr 6;329:192-197. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex disease of the aging population that is associated with inflammation and the cellular immune response. To investigate the influence of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the risk of AAA formation and progression, the frequency of AAA and its associated risk factors were determined.

Method: Four SNPs in the IL-6 (-174G/C, rs1800795; -572G/C, rs1800796) and TNF-α (-238G/A, rs361525; -308G/A, rs1800629) genes were studied by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in patients with AAA and healthy volunteers. The mRNA expression and plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels were also determined.

Results: A mutation detected in at least one allele of the IL-6 -174G/C SNP was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of AAA occurrence (OR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.15-3.76; p = 0.014, in the dominant model). An increased risk of AAA incidence among heterozygous carriers of the TNF-α - 308G/A genotype was observed (OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.17-3.62; p = 0.011, in the overdominant model). The wild-type genotypes of the IL-6 -174G/C and the TNF-α -308G/A SNPs coexisted more frequently in healthy subjects than in AAA patients and was associated with decreased risk of AAA (p < 0.001). Moreover, elevated levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with an increased risk of hypertension (p < 0.001 and p = 0.022, respectively).

Conclusions: The IL-6 -174G/C and the TNF-α -238G/A gene polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.12.051DOI Listing
April 2021

Novel prefabricated bovine pericardial grafts as alternate conduit for septic aortoiliac reconstruction.

J Vasc Surg 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of General Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Objective: Infection of prosthetic aortic grafts represents a serious complication with high morbidity and mortality. Replacement with autologous material is recommended; however, in its absence, biological material should be favored. In the present retrospective cohort study, we evaluated the short- and mid-term results with the use of commercially available prefabricated bovine pericardium grafts (BPGs) used for the management of aortic graft infection or aortic reconstructive surgery in the presence of systemic infection.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients in whom BPGs had been used for aortic reconstruction at two vascular centers. Prefabricated vascular pericardium grafts were preferred over other biological reconstruction techniques for selected cases. Comorbidities, procedure-related details, perioperative morbidity, clinical outcomes, and mortality were analyzed.

Results: From 2014 to 2019, 21 patients had received BPGs at two Austrian vascular centers. Their median age was 63 years (interquartile range [IQR], 55-71 years), the patients were predominantly male (76%), and the median body mass index was 25.3 kg/m (IQR, 21.7-27.3 kg/m). The major comorbidities included arterial hypertension, peripheral artery disease, smoking, and chronic pulmonary disease. The indications for surgery were vascular graft or endograft infection in 62% and aortic reconstruction in the presence of systemic infection in 38%. Three patients (14%) had aortoenteric fistulas. Surgery was technically successful in all cases. The median follow-up was 21.6 months (IQR, 6.0-34.6 months). The 30-day mortality was 9.5%. The 1- and 2-year overall survival was 84% and 75%, respectively. Of the 21 patients, 89% had remained free of recurrent infection. One of the two reinfections had resolved after treatment of the underlying focus. At 2 years, the primary and assisted primary patency rates were 86% and 94%, respectively. No limbs were lost during follow-up.

Conclusions: Prefabricated BPGs represent a promising alternative for the management of aortic graft infections and aortoiliac reconstruction in the presence of systemic infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.11.028DOI Listing
December 2020

Inverse probability of treatment analysis of open vs endovascular repair in ruptured infrarenal aortic aneurysm - Cohort study.

Int J Surg 2020 Aug 15;80:218-224. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: To compare open repair (OR) with EVAR for the management of ruptured infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAA) in a cohort study over a time period of 15 years with inverse probability of treatment weights.

Material And Methods: From 2000/01 through 2015/12 136 patients were treated for RAAA, 98 (72.1%) underwent OR, 38 (27.9%) were treated with EVAR. Thirty-day and long-term mortality (survival) were analyzed in this IRB-approved retrospective cohort study. Treatment modalities were compared using inverse probability of treatment weights to adjust for imbalances in demographic data and risk factors.

Results: EVAR patients were older (75.11 ± 7.17 vs 69.79 ± 10.24; p=0.001). There was no statistical difference in gender, hypertension, COPD, CAD, or diabetes. GFR was significantly higher in OR patients (71.4 ± 31.09 vs. 53.68 ± 25.73). Postoperative dialysis was required more frequently in EVAR patients: 11% vs. 2% (p = 0.099). In the OR group, adjusted cumulative survival was 70.4% (61.1, 81.1) at 30 days, 47.0% (37.1, 59.6) at one year and 38.3% (28.6, 51.3) at 5 years. In the EVAR group the corresponding numbers were 77.0% (67.7, 87.5), 67.5% (57.0, 80.0) and 41.7% (30.4, 57.4), respectively.

Conclusion: There is evidence for EVAR patients exhibiting a benefit in one-year survival, while patients treated with OR may have more favorable long-term survival given they survive for at least one year. Herein we provide a statistically rigorous comparison of OR and EVAR in short and long-term outcomes with up to 15 years of follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.05.090DOI Listing
August 2020

2029C/T and 1377C/T and -7C/A Polymorphisms Are Associated with the Occurrence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

J Immunol 2020 06 13;204(11):2900-2909. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.

TLRs are a family of signaling sensors that play a crucial role in the host immune response and are involved in the modulation of inflammatory processes. To study their contribution to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation and development, we determined the frequency of , , , and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and investigated the association between polymorphisms and the risk of AAA incidence. A total of 104 patients with AAAs and 112 healthy, unrelated volunteers were screened for the presence of (2029C/T and 2258G/A), (1377C/T, 1234C/T, and -7C/A), (896A/G, 1196C/T, and 3266G/A), and (-1237T/C, -1486T/C, 1174G/A, and 2848C/T) SNPs by using PCR-RFLP analysis. The heterozygous genotype of the 2029C/T SNP was more common in patients with AAA than in healthy subjects ( < 0.0001) and was associated with at least an 8-fold increased risk of AAA incidence ( < 0.001). The wild-type genotype of the -7C/A SNP was associated with a 3-fold increased risk of hypertension ( = 0.026). The heterozygous genotype 1377C/T and -7C/A SNPs were less common in patients with AAA than in healthy subjects ( < 0.0001 and = 0.0004, respectively) and were associated with a decreased risk of AAA occurrence ( < 0.001 and = 0.0012, respectively). No relation to AAA risk was found for SNPs. Heterozygous genotypes of the 2029C/T and 1377C/T and -7C/A SNPs may serve as genetic biomarkers of AAA incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1901014DOI Listing
June 2020

Insight into the expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Apr 7;47(4):2685-2692. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, Austria.

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a relatively common, life-threatening disease prevalent in persons over the age of 65. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have suggested that pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), may serve as important regulators in the development of AAAs. In this study, we evaluated the TLR2 and TLR4 expression in the aortic wall and blood of patients with AAA. The TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression were significantly higher in the blood of patients with AAA than in the blood of healthy volunteers (p = 0.009 and p = 0.010, respectively). The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 transcripts was also higher in the blood compared with the aortic wall tissue of AAA patients (p = 0.001 for both). Higher TLR2 protein expression was observed in the aortic wall of AAA patients compared with the blood (p = 0.026). A significantly higher concentration of TNF-α and IL-4 in patients with AAA than in healthy volunteers (p < 0.001 for both) was noticed. This study suggests that TLR2 may play a role in the inflammatory response in the aorta, both locally and systemically, in patients with AAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05366-xDOI Listing
April 2020

Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) for Identification of Unstable Plaques in Patients with Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2019 Jun 1;57(6):768-777. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Objective: Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9/NGAL complex were investigated in asymptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis including gender specific differences aiming at vulnerable plaques prone to embolisation.

Methods: Serum NGAL and MMP-9/NGAL levels were analysed in 83 patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Pre-operative ultrasound and post-endarterectomy histology of carotid atherosclerotic lesions were evaluated.

Results: Patients with vulnerable plaques, as determined by ultrasound (plaques with decreased echogenicity) and histological analysis (type VI according to the classification of the American Heart Association), displayed the highest levels of NGAL and MMP-9/NGAL complex (p = .0003 and p = .0078, respectively). Grade VI plaques were primarily detected in patients with "soft" plaques (12 type VI plaques in 25 patients), but also in patients with mixed (four of 19) and calcified (three of 39) plaques according to ultrasound. Higher grade carotid artery stenosis (≥90%) was not associated with elevated NGAL levels. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis detecting grade VI lesions yields an area under the curve (AUC) = 0.85, with respect to soft plaque on ultrasound the AUC = 0.86. There were no gender specific differences in levels of NGAL 80.9 (37.7) ng/mL in women vs. 76.7 (36.3) ng/mL in men, p = .607) nor of MMP-9/NGAL 33.0 (18.2-55.5) ng/mL in women vs. 36.7 (20.2-54.0) ng/mL in men, p = .969. Likewise, there were no gender associated differences in vulnerable plaque characteristics: either for grade VI plaques (17.9% vs. 27.3%, p = .582) or for the presence of soft plaques as evaluated by ultrasound (35.9% vs. 25%, p = .503).

Conclusion: Circulating NGAL and MMP-9/NGAL are significantly increased in asymptomatic patients with vulnerable carotid atherosclerotic plaques independent of gender. Accordingly, serum NGAL may be proposed as a valuable biomarker for the detection of unstable carotid plaques in asymptomatic patients, who can then be selected for early carotid endarterectomy or stenting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2018.12.029DOI Listing
June 2019

Analysis of host Toll-like receptor 3 and RIG-I-like receptor gene expression in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.

J Vasc Surg 2018 12 19;68(6S):39S-46S. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Objective: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease relatively common in the elderly population. Although some events that contribute to the development and progression of AAA are known, there are limited data examining the association of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and RIG-I-like receptor expression with the pathogenesis of AAAs. In this study, we investigated the gene and protein expression of TLR3 and RIG-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA5) in aortic wall and blood of AAA patients and examined the relationship between their expression and immune response.

Methods: Total RNA was extracted from aortic wall tissues and blood samples collected from 20 patients with AAA and blood samples of 17 healthy volunteers without aortic aneurysm. To evaluate the DDX58 (RIG-I), IFIH1 (MDA5), and TLR3 gene expression level, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used. Extracellular cytokine and pattern recognition receptor levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

Results: TLR3, RIG-I, and MDA5 were constitutively expressed in both aortic tissues and blood samples from AAA patients and healthy volunteers. In patients with AAA, higher TLR3 expression in aortic tissues than in blood was found (P = .004). The DDX58 messenger RNA expression was higher in blood of patients with AAA compared with healthy subjects (P = .021). A significantly higher level of plasma interleukin 4 was noticed in patients with AAA than in healthy individuals (P = .008).

Conclusions: This study suggests that RIG-I and TLR3 seem to be important factors in the pathogenesis of AAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2017.10.087DOI Listing
December 2018

A Rare Case of Guyon's Canal Syndrome Caused by Cystic Adventitia Degeneration: High-Resolution Ultrasound Findings.

Ultraschall Med 2017 10 25;38(5):556-557. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

Abteilung für Muskuloskeletale Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Medizinische Universität Wien, Austria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-124611DOI Listing
October 2017

NGAL and MMP-9/NGAL as biomarkers of plaque vulnerability and targets of statins in patients with carotid atherosclerosis.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2017 Nov;56(1):147-156

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Background: Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is expressed in atherosclerotic lesions and was recently implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular pathologies. Statins are known to exert stabilizing effects on atherosclerotic plaque. The aims of our study were (1) to investigate the association of serum NGAL and metalloproteinase (MMP)-9/NGAL complex with the vulnerability of the atherosclerotic plaque, and (2) to reveal the effects of statin treatment on circulating NGAL and MMP-9/NGAL levels in patients with carotid artery stenosis.

Methods: We examined the levels of NGAL and MMP-9/NGAL in blood samples from 136 patients with carotid artery stenosis by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

Results: Patients with vulnerable plaques, as determined by ultrasound (plaques with decreased echogenicity) and histological analysis (type VI according to the classification of American Heart Association [AHA]), displayed the highest levels of NGAL (both p<0.0001) and MMP-9/NGAL complex (p=0.0004 and p=0.004, respectively). Moreover, patients with symptomatic carotid atherosclerosis had significantly higher NGAL levels compared to asymptomatic patients (p=0.0007). The statin-treated group (n=108) demonstrated lower NGAL (73.9 vs. 128.0 μg/L, p<0.0001) and MMP-9/NGAL (28.9 vs. 40.6 μg/L, p=0.046) as compared to the non-statin group (n=28). Furthermore, in multivariate regression analysis NGAL, but not MMP-9/NGAL levels, were independently associated with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. In addition, statin treatment was independently associated with lower NGAL levels.

Conclusions: Circulating NGAL and MMP-9/NGAL are associated with plaque vulnerability in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Statin treatment could contribute to plaque stabilization by reducing circulating NGAL and MMP-9/NGAL levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2017-0156DOI Listing
November 2017

Repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: the benefits of offering both endovascular and open surgical techniques.

Perspect Vasc Surg Endovasc Ther 2006 Sep;18(3):238-46

Department of Vascular Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

Two treatment options are available for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs): open surgical technique with graft replacement and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) as a minimally invasive procedure. The intention of this review is to highlight the advantages of both procedures and to demonstrate that offering both procedures is beneficial for the patient when he or she makes the important decision regarding which treatment to select. A comparative evaluation of both treatment options is offered as well as a short description of the risk of rupture and its consequences. The authors discuss the latest literature as well as their own experiences. An innovative statistical approach-the propensity score-based Cox model-is presented to evaluate the 2 treatment options. The benefits of offering both EVAR and open surgery permit optimal management of AAA for the individual patient and tailor the treatment to his or her organ dysfunctions and impaired physical status. In addition, EVAR offers a treatment option for otherwise incurable high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1531003506296861DOI Listing
September 2006