Publications by authors named "Josiah F Hanson"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Timing of cranioplasty: a 10.75-year single-center analysis of 754 patients.

J Neurosurg 2018 06 11;128(6):1648-1652. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

Departments of1Neurological Surgery.

OBJECTIVE Despite their technical simplicity, cranioplasty procedures carry high reported morbidity rates. The authors here present the largest study to date on complications after cranioplasty, focusing specifically on the relationship between complications and timing of the operation. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed all cranioplasty cases performed at Harborview Medical Center over the past 10.75 years. In addition to relevant clinical and demographic characteristics, patient morbidity and mortality data were abstracted from the electronic medical record. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to analyze variables potentially associated with the risk of infection, hydrocephalus, seizure, hematoma, and bone flap resorption. RESULTS Over the course of 10.75 years, 754 cranioplasties were performed at a single institution. Sixty percent of the patients who underwent these cranioplasties were male, and the median follow-up overall was 233 days. The 30-day mortality rate was 0.26% (2 cases, both due to postoperative epidural hematoma). Overall, 24.6% percent of the patients experienced at least 1 complication including infection necessitating explantation of the flap (6.6%), postoperative hydrocephalus requiring a shunt (9.0%), resorption of the flap requiring synthetic cranioplasty (6.3%), seizure (4.1%), postoperative hematoma requiring evacuation (2.3%), and other (1.6%). The rate of infection was significantly higher if the cranioplasty had been performed < 14 days after the initial craniectomy (p = 0.007, Holm-Bonferroni-adjusted p = 0.028). Hydrocephalus was significantly correlated with time to cranioplasty (OR 0.92 per 10-day increase, p < 0.001) and was most common in patients whose cranioplasty had been performed < 90 days after initial craniectomy. New-onset seizure, however, only occurred in patients who had undergone their cranioplasty > 90 days after initial craniectomy. Bone flap resorption was the least likely complication for patients whose cranioplasty had been performed between 15 and 30 days after initial craniectomy. Resorption was also correlated with patient age, with a hazard ratio of 0.67 per increase of 10 years of age (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Cranioplasty performed between 15 and 30 days after initial craniectomy may minimize infection, seizure, and bone flap resorption, whereas waiting > 90 days may minimize hydrocephalus but may increase the risk of seizure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2016.11.JNS161917DOI Listing
June 2018

Predictors of infection after 754 cranioplasty operations and the value of intraoperative cultures for cryopreserved bone flaps.

J Neurosurg 2016 09 15;125(3):766-70. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

Departments of 1 Neurological Surgery and.

OBJECTIVE The authors' aim was to report the largest study on predictors of infection after cranioplasty and to assess the predictive value of intraoperative bone flap cultures before cryopreservation. METHODS They retrospectively examined all cranioplasties performed between March 2004 and November 2014. Throughout this study period, the standard protocol during initial craniectomy was to obtain a culture swab of the extracted autologous bone flap (ABF)-prior to its placement in cytostorage-to screen for microbial contamination. Two consecutive protocols were employed for the use and interpretation of the intraoperative swab culture results: A) From March 2004 through June 2013, any culture-positive ABF (+ABF) was discarded and a custom synthetic prosthesis was implanted at the time of cranioplasty. B) From July 2013 through November 2014, any ABF with a skin flora organism was not discarded. Instead, cryopreservation was maintained and the +ABF was reimplanted after a 10-minute soak in bacitracin irrigation as well as a 3-minute soak in betadine. RESULTS Over the 10.75-year period, 754 cranioplasty procedures were performed. The median time from craniectomy to cranioplasty was 123 days. Median follow-up after cranioplasty was 237 days for protocol A and 225 days for protocol B. The overall infection rate after cranioplasty was 6.6% (50 cases) occurring at a median postoperative Day 31. Staphylococcus spp. were involved as the causative organisms in 60% of cases. Culture swabs taken at the time of initial craniectomy were available for 640 ABFs as 114 ABFs were not salvageable. One hundred twenty-six (20%) were culture positive. Eighty-nine +ABFs occurred during protocol A and were discarded in favor of a synthetic prosthesis at the time of cranioplasty, whereas 37 +ABFs occurred under protocol B and were reimplanted at the time of cranioplasty. Cranioplasty material did not affect the postcranioplasty infection rate. There was no significant difference in the infection rate among sterile ABFs (7%), +ABFs (8%), and synthetic prostheses (5.5%; p = 0.425). All 3 +ABF infections under protocol B were caused by organisms that differed from those in the original intraoperative bone culture from the initial craniectomy. A cranioplasty procedure ≤ 14 days after initial craniectomy was the only significant predictor of postcranioplasty infection (p = 0.007, HR 3.62). CONCLUSIONS Cranioplasty procedures should be performed at least 14 days after initial craniectomy to minimize infection risk. Obtaining intraoperative bone cultures at the time of craniectomy in the absence of clinical infection should be discontinued as the culture results were not a useful predictor of postcranioplasty infection and led to the unnecessary use of synthetic prostheses and increased health care costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2015.8.JNS151390DOI Listing
September 2016

IgM-Dependent Phagocytosis in Microglia Is Mediated by Complement Receptor 3, Not Fcα/μ Receptor.

J Immunol 2015 Dec 23;195(11):5309-17. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195;

Microglia play an important role in receptor-mediated phagocytosis in the CNS. In brain abscess and other CNS infections, invading bacteria undergo opsonization with Igs or complement. Microglia recognize these opsonized pathogens by Fc or complement receptors triggering phagocytosis. In this study, we investigated the role of Fcα/μR, the less-studied receptor for IgM and IgA, in microglial phagocytosis. We showed that primary microglia, as well as N9 microglial cells, express Fcα/μR. We also showed that anti-Staphylococcus aureus IgM markedly increased the rate of microglial S. aureus phagocytosis. To unequivocally test the role of Fcα/μR in IgM-mediated phagocytosis, we performed experiments in microglia from Fcα/μR(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, we found that IgM-dependent phagocytosis of S. aureus was similar in microglia derived from wild-type or Fcα/μR(-/-) mice. We hypothesized that IgM-dependent activation of complement receptors might contribute to the IgM-mediated increase in phagocytosis. To test this, we used immunologic and genetic inactivation of complement receptor 3 components (CD11b and CD18) as well as C3. IgM-, but not IgG-mediated phagocytosis of S. aureus was reduced in wild-type microglia and macrophages following preincubation with an anti-CD11b blocking Ab. IgM-dependent phagocytosis of S. aureus was also reduced in microglia derived from CD18(-/-) and C3(-/-) mice. Taken together, our findings implicate complement receptor 3 and C3, but not Fcα/μR, in IgM-mediated phagocytosis of S. aureus by microglia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1401195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4655136PMC
December 2015

CYR61 (CCN1) overexpression induces lung injury in mice.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2015 Apr 20;308(8):L759-65. Epub 2015 Feb 20.

Center for Lung Biology, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Healthcare System, Seattle, Washington.

Cysteine-rich protein-61 (CYR61), also known as connective tissue growth factor, CYR61, and nephroblastoma overexpressed gene 1 (CCN1), is a heparin-binding protein member of the CCN family of matricellular proteins. Gene expression profiles showed that Cyr61 is upregulated in human acute lung injury (ALI), but its functional role is unclear. We hypothesized that CYR61 contributes to ALI in mice. First, we demonstrated that CYR61 expression increases after bleomycin-induced lung injury. We then used adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to determine whether CYR61 overexpression in the lungs was sufficient to cause ALI. Mice instilled with CYR61 adenovirus showed greater weight loss, increased bronchoalveolar lavage total neutrophil counts, increased protein concentrations, and increased mortality compared with mice instilled with empty-vector adenovirus. Immunohistochemical studies in lungs from humans with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis revealed CYR61 expression on the luminal membrane of alveolar epithelial cells in areas of injury. We conclude that CYR61 is upregulated in ALI and that CYR61 overexpression exacerbates ALI in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00190.2014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4398872PMC
April 2015

Fas activation in alveolar epithelial cells induces KC (CXCL1) release by a MyD88-dependent mechanism.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2011 Sep 21;45(3):650-8. Epub 2011 Jan 21.

Center for Lung Biology, Division of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Activation of the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system is associated with activation of apoptotic and proinflammatory pathways that lead to the development of acute lung injury. Previous studies in chimeric mice and macrophage-depleted mice suggested that the main effector cell in Fas-mediated lung injury is not a myeloid cell, but likely an epithelial cell. The goal of this study was to determine whether epithelial cells release proinflammatory cytokines after Fas activation, and to identify the relevant pathways. Incubation of the murine alveolar epithelial cell line, MLE-12, with the Fas-activating monoclonal antibody, Jo2, resulted in release of the CXC chemokine, KC, in a dose-dependent manner. KC release was not prevented by the pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk. Silencing of the adaptor protein, MyD88, with small interfering (si)RNA resulted in attenuation of KC release in response to Jo2. Fas activation resulted in phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), and pharmacologic inhibition of ERK and JNK attenuated KC release in a dose-response manner. Similarly, primary human small airways epithelial cells released IL-8 in response to soluble FasL, and this was abrogated by inhibition of JNK and ERK. In vivo confirmatory studies showed that MyD88-null mice are protected from Fas-induced acute lung injury. In summary, we conclude that Fas induces KC release in MLE-12 cells by a mechanism requiring MyD88, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and likely activator protein-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2010-0153OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3175574PMC
September 2011