Publications by authors named "Joshua P Loh"

61 Publications

An Asian Perspective on Gender Differences in In-Hospital and Long-Term Outcome of Cardiac Mortality and Ischemic Stroke after Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Nov 20;31(1):106215. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, National University Health System, Singapore.

Objectives: Gender differences historically exist in cardiovascular disease, with women experiencing higher rates of major adverse cardiovascular events. We investigated these trends in a contemporary Asian cohort, examining the impact of gender differences on cardiac mortality and ischemic stroke after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Materials And Methods: We analysed 3971 consecutive patients who underwent primary PCI for STEMI retrospectively. The primary outcome was cardiac mortality and ischemic stroke in-hospital, at one year and on longer-term follow up (median follow up 3.62 years, interquartile range 1.03-6.03 years).

Results: There were 580 (14.6%) female patients and 3391 (85.4%) male patients. Female patients were older and had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, previous strokes, and chronic kidney disease. Cardiac mortality was higher in female patients during in-hospital (15.5% vs. 6.2%), 1-year (17.4% vs. 7.0%) and longer term follow up (19.9% vs. 8.1%, log-rank test: p < 0.001). Similarly, females had higher incidence of ischemic stroke at in-hospital (2.6% vs. 1.0%), 1-year (3.6% vs. 1.4%) and in the longer-term (6.7% vs. 3.1%) as well (log-rank test: p < 0.001). Female gender remained an independent predictor of in-hospital cardiac mortality (HR 1.395, 95%CI 1.061-1.833, p=0.017) and on longer-term follow-up (HR 1.932 95%CI 1.212-3.080, p=0.006) even after adjusting for confounders.

Conclusions: Females were at higher risk of in-hospital and long-term cardiac mortality and ischemic stroke after PPCI for STEMI. Future studies are warranted to investigate the role of aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors and follow-up to improve outcomes in the females with STEMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106215DOI Listing
November 2021

Long-term clinical outcomes of biodegradable polymer drug eluting stents versus second-generation durable polymer drug eluting stents for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

National University Heart Center, Singapore; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background: Biodegradable polymer drug eluting stents (BP-DES) may offer the advantage of vascular healing in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Long-term outcome data comparing BP-DES and second-generation durable polymer drug eluting stents (DP-DES) in STEMI is lacking. This study aims to compare the long-term clinical outcomes of BP-DES versus second-generation DP-DES in STEMI.

Methods: This is an observational study of consecutive patients with STEMI who received either BP-DES (n = 854) or DP-DES (n = 708) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from 1st February 2007 to 31st December 2016. The primary outcome was target lesion failure (TLF), a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction (MI), and target lesion revascularization with follow up till 30th November 2019.

Results: The baseline demographics, lesion and procedural characteristic were similar between the two groups except for more prior MI and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the BP-DES group. At a median follow up of 4.2 years (interquartile range: 2.6-6.2 years), the incidence of TLF was similar between BP-DES and DP-DES (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-1.26). Likewise, incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: all-cause death, any MI or target vessel revascularization) and definite stent thrombosis were similar in both groups (MACE: adjusted HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.82-1.32; definite stent thrombosis: adjusted HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.31-3.64).

Conclusion: Among patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI, BP-DES and DP-DES implantation was associated with similar long-term clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2021.04.014DOI Listing
April 2021

Characteristics and outcomes of young patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: retrospective analysis in a multiethnic Asian population.

Open Heart 2021 01;8(1)

Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, Singapore.

Objective: ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with significant mortality leading to loss of productive life years, especially in younger patients. This study aims to compare the characteristics and outcomes of young versus older patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) to help focus public health efforts in STEMI prevention.

Methods: Data from the Coronary Care Unit database of the National University Hospital, Singapore from July 2015 to June 2019 were reviewed. Patients were divided into young (<50 years old) or older (≥50 years old) groups.

Results: Of the 1818 consecutive patients with STEMI who underwent PPCI, 465 (25.6%) were <50 years old. Young compared with older patients were more likely to be male, current smokers, of Indian ethnicity, have family history of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and had lower 1 year mortality (3.4% vs 10.4%, p<0.0001). Although diabetes, hypertension or dyslipidaemia was less common among young patients, the prevalence of having any one of these risk factors was high in the range of 28% to 38%. Age was an independent predictor of mortality in the older but not younger patients with STEMI, and diabetes showed a trend towards mortality in both groups.

Conclusion: Young patients with STEMI are more often smokers, of Indian ethnicity and had family history of IHD, although cardiometabolic risk factors are also prevalent. Mortality is lower, but not negligible, among the young patients with STEMI. Public health efforts are needed to reduce the prevalence of these risk factors among the constitutionally susceptible population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2020-001437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812097PMC
January 2021

Optimal vortex formation time index in mitral valve stenosis.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 May 12;37(5):1595-1600. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, 1E Kent Ridge Rd, NUHS Tower Block, Level 9, Singapore, 119228, Singapore.

Left ventricular vortex formation time (VFT) is a novel dimensionless index of flow propagation during left ventricular diastole, which has been demonstrated to be useful in heart failure and cardiomyopathy. In mitral stenosis (MS), flow propagation in the LV may be suboptimal. We studied VFT in varying degrees of MS. Echocardiography was performed on 20 healthy controls and 50 cases of rheumatic MS. Patients with atrial fibrillation, LV ejection fraction < 50% and other valvular heart diseases were excluded. VFT was obtained using the length-to-diameter ratio (L/D), where L is the continuous-wave Doppler velocity time integral stroke distance, divided by D, the mitral leaflet separation index. This was correlated against varying degrees of MS severity, left atrial (LA) volume and function. In controls, VFT was 3.92 ± 2.00 (optimal range) and was higher (suboptimal) with increasing severity of mitral stenosis (4.98 ± 2.43 in mild MS; 7.22 ± 2.98 in moderate MS; 11.55 ± 2.67 in severe MS, p < 0.001). VFT negatively correlated with mitral valve area (R = 0.463, p < 0.001) and total LA emptying fraction (R = 0.348, p < 0.001), and positively correlated with LA volume index (R = 0.440, p < 0.001) and mean transmitral pressure gradient (R = 0.336, p < 0.001). More severe MS correlated with suboptimal (higher) VFT. The restricted mitral valve opening may disrupt vortex formation and optimal fluid propagation in the LV. Despite the compensatory increase in LA size with increasingly severe MS, reduced LA function also contributed to the suboptimal LV vortex formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-020-02140-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Remote Postdischarge Treatment of Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction by Allied Health Care Practitioners vs Standard Care: The IMMACULATE Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Jul;6(7):830-835

Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yong Loo-Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Importance: There are few data on remote postdischarge treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction.

Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of allied health care practitioner-led remote intensive management (RIM) with cardiologist-led standard care (SC).

Design, Setting, And Participants: This intention-to-treat feasibility trial randomized patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing early revascularization and with N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentration more than 300 pg/mL to RIM or SC across 3 hospitals in Singapore from July 8, 2015, to March 29, 2019. RIM participants underwent 6 months of remote consultations that included β-blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ACE-I/ARB) dose adjustment by a centralized nurse practitioner team while SC participants were treated face-to-face by their cardiologists.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary safety end point was a composite of hypotension, bradycardia, hyperkalemia, or acute kidney injury requiring hospitalization. To assess the efficacy of RIM in dose adjustment of β-blockers and ACE-I/ARBs compared with SC, dose intensity scores were derived by converting comparable doses of different β-blockers and ACE-I/ARBs to a scale from 0 to 5. The primary efficacy end point was the 6-month indexed left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) adjusted for baseline LVESV.

Results: Of 301 participants, 149 (49.5%) were randomized to RIM and 152 (50.5%) to SC. RIM and SC participants had similar mean (SD) age (55.3 [8.5] vs 54.7 [9.1] years), median (interquartile range) N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentration (807 [524-1360] vs 819 [485-1320] pg/mL), mean (SD) baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (57.4% [11.1%] vs 58.1% [10.3%]), and mean (SD) indexed LVESV (32.4 [14.1] vs 30.6 [11.7] mL/m2); 15 patients [5.9%] had a left ventricular ejection fraction <40%. The primary safety end point occurred in 0 RIM vs 2 SC participants (1.4%) (P = .50). The mean β-blocker and ACE-I/ARB dose intensity score at 6 months was 3.03 vs 2.91 (adjusted mean difference, 0.12 [95% CI, -0.02 to 0.26; P = .10]) and 2.96 vs 2.77 (adjusted mean difference, 0.19 [95% CI, -0.02 to 0.40; P = .07]), respectively. The 6-month indexed LVESV was 28.9 vs 29.7 mL/m2 (adjusted mean difference, -0.80 mL/m2 [95% CI, -3.20 to 1.60; P = .51]).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among low-risk patients with revascularization after myocardial infarction, RIM by allied health care professionals was feasible and safe. There were no differences in achieved medication doses or indices of left ventricular remodeling. Further studies of RIM in higher-risk cohorts are warranted.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02468349.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.6721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774042PMC
July 2021

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: clinical implications and diagnostic challenges. Overlooked and underappreciated in Asia?

Clin Cardiol 2020 Nov 20;43(11):1240-1247. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

National University Heart Centre, Singapore, Singapore.

Over the last decade, spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has garnered much attention as a significant cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and sudden cardiac death in women without classic cardiovascular risk factors. SCAD has been mostly studied in the West, with little recognition in Asia leading to under-diagnosis and under-representation. In this review, we highlight two distinct cases occurring at our center in Singapore, affecting two Singaporean women of Malay and Chinese descent. These 2 cases highlight that pregnancy-associated SCAD is neither the most common nor only manifestation of SCAD. Through review of the literature, we emphasize the heterogeneity in case presentation paying particular attention to SCAD and its association with connective tissue disorders such as fibromuscular dysplasia. SCAD remains a diagnostic challenge for many cardiologists, here we shed light and dispel myths surrounding coronary angiography and review the use of intracoronary imaging. The successful treatment of this unique group of patients requires a high index of suspicion, and management within a multidisciplinary team. The development of a recovery program with access to support groups, allied health, and cardiac rehabilitation is paramount in improving outcomes for these patients in the long term. Further research and studies in our Asian population will help to enhance our understanding of this disease and develop practices to best manage our patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661643PMC
November 2020

Prioritizing Candidates of Post-Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Using Plasma Proteomics and Single-Cell Transcriptomics.

Circulation 2020 10 4;142(15):1408-1421. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Medicine, Yong Loo-Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (M.Y.C., M.E., S.H.T., C.L.D., L.H.L., W.-M.S., J.P.L., C.-H.L., R.S.Y.F., M.A.A.-J., A.M.R.).

Background: Heart failure (HF) is the most common long-term complication of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Understanding plasma proteins associated with post-MI HF and their gene expression may identify new candidates for biomarker and drug target discovery.

Methods: We used aptamer-based affinity-capture plasma proteomics to measure 1305 plasma proteins at 1 month post-MI in a New Zealand cohort (CDCS [Coronary Disease Cohort Study]) including 181 patients post-MI who were subsequently hospitalized for HF in comparison with 250 patients post-MI who remained event free over a median follow-up of 4.9 years. We then correlated plasma proteins with left ventricular ejection fraction measured at 4 months post-MI and identified proteins potentially coregulated in post-MI HF using weighted gene co-expression network analysis. A Singapore cohort (IMMACULATE [Improving Outcomes in Myocardial Infarction through Reversal of Cardiac Remodelling]) of 223 patients post-MI, of which 33 patients were hospitalized for HF (median follow-up, 2.0 years), was used for further candidate enrichment of plasma proteins by using Fisher meta-analysis, resampling-based statistical testing, and machine learning. We then cross-referenced differentially expressed proteins with their differentially expressed genes from single-cell transcriptomes of nonmyocyte cardiac cells isolated from a murine MI model, and single-cell and single-nucleus transcriptomes of cardiac myocytes from murine HF models and human patients with HF.

Results: In the CDCS cohort, 212 differentially expressed plasma proteins were significantly associated with subsequent HF events. Of these, 96 correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction measured at 4 months post-MI. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis prioritized 63 of the 212 proteins that demonstrated significantly higher correlations among patients who developed post-MI HF in comparison with event-free controls (data set 1). Cross-cohort meta-analysis of the IMMACULATE cohort identified 36 plasma proteins associated with post-MI HF (data set 2), whereas single-cell transcriptomes identified 15 gene-protein candidates (data set 3). The majority of prioritized proteins were of matricellular origin. The 6 most highly enriched proteins that were common to all 3 data sets included well-established biomarkers of post-MI HF: N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide and troponin T, and newly emergent biomarkers, angiopoietin-2, thrombospondin-2, latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein-4, and follistatin-related protein-3, as well.

Conclusions: Large-scale human plasma proteomics, cross-referenced to unbiased cardiac transcriptomics at single-cell resolution, prioritized protein candidates associated with post-MI HF for further mechanistic and clinical validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.045158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7547904PMC
October 2020

Treating Very Long Coronary Artery Lesions in the Contemporary Drug-Eluting-Stent Era: Single Long 48 mm Stent Versus Two Overlapping Stents Showed Comparable Clinical Outcomes.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2020 09 13;21(9):1115-1118. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Center, Singapore; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background/purpose: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of diffuse coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with higher adverse clinical events. This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of patients treated with single long 48 mm contemporary drug eluting stents (SL-DES) versus two overlapping contemporary drug eluting stents (OL-DES) for very-long CAD.

Methods/materials: We analyzed the clinical outcome of 117 patients with SL-DES and 101 patients with OL-DES who underwent PCI between 1st July 2013 to 31st December 2016. The primary endpoint was target lesion failure (TLF) at two years, defined as a composite of cardiac mortality, target vessel myocardial infarction and target lesion revascularization.

Results: Mean age was 60.8 ± 10.5 years for SL-DES group and 60.5 ± 11.9 years in the OL-DES group. SL-DES has longer mean lesion length as compared to OL-DES (43.1 ± 3.7 mm vs. 41.83 ± 2.3 mm p = 0.003). There was no difference in TLF at two years between SL-DES and OL-DES (5.3% vs. 6.4%, adjusted odds ratio 1.43, 95% CI 0.50-4.11). There was one case of probable ST in each group. Contrast volume usage was lower for SL-DES than OL-DES in patients who underwent single vessel PCI.

Conclusions: Treatment of very-long CAD showed comparable TLF at two years for SL-DES versus OL-DES. Our results suggest that both strategies are reasonable treatment options for patients with diffuse CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2020.02.005DOI Listing
September 2020

Rotational Atherectomy for Underexpanded Undilatable Stents: Is Ablating Away Stent Regret the Best Option?

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2019 11 7;20(11):939-940. Epub 2019 Sep 7.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2019.09.005DOI Listing
November 2019

Sirolimus nanoparticles: (Delivering) a new hope in stentless percutaneous coronary intervention?

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2019 03 6;20(3):179-180. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, Singapore, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2019.01.004DOI Listing
March 2019

Clinical Outcomes One Year and Beyond After Combination Sirolimus-Eluting Endothelial Progenitor Cell Capture Stenting During Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2019 09 7;20(9):739-743. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Center, Singapore, 1E Kent Ridge Road, NUHS Tower Block, Level 9, 119228, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background/purpose: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) represents a thrombotic milieu and is associated with delayed healing after stenting. The pro-healing combination sirolimus eluting endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) capture stents encourage early endothelialization after stenting and may be beneficial in the STEMI population. We aim to evaluate the clinical outcomes one year and beyond for patients with STEMI who received the combination sirolimus eluting EPC capture stents during primary PCI.

Methods/material: All STEMI patients implanted with combination sirolimus eluting EPC capture stents during primary PCI from November 2013 to December 2016 were enrolled. The primary outcome was target lesion failure (TLF) at in-hospital, one-month, one-year and beyond one year.

Results: A total of 260 consecutive STEMI patients (283 lesions) were implanted with 313 combination sirolimus eluting EPC capture stents during primary PCI. Mean age was 56.1 ± 11.2 years and 88.8% were male. One in ten patients (10.9%) had cardiogenic shock on presentation, 7.3% needed mechanical ventilation and 7.7% had intra-aortic balloon pump inserted. A total of 97.9% of lesions achieve final TIMI 3 flow. Device success was seen in all patients. At extended follow up period (median 23.4 months), the clinical outcomes were TLF 8.8%, major adverse cardiovascular events 10.8%, cardiac mortality 4.2%, target vessel myocardial infarction 3.4%, target lesion revascularization 3.8%, and definite stent thrombosis 1.9%.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated acceptable clinical outcomes for an all-comers STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI with the use of combination sirolimus eluting EPC cell capture stents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2018.11.004DOI Listing
September 2019

First Medical Contact-to-Device Time and Heart Failure Outcomes Among Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2018 08;11(8):e004699

National University Heart Centre Singapore (J.P.L., L.-L.T., H-C.T., A.M.R., M.Y.C.).

Background Expediting reperfusion during primary percutaneous coronary intervention is aimed at salvaging myocardium in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Few studies have examined the relation between reperfusion time and heart failure (HF) events. Methods and Results: We studied 7597 patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention from 2007 to 2013 in the Singapore Myocardial Infarct Registry, which captures HF at admission, postadmission in-hospital HF, and HF rehospitalization. We studied the relation of first medical contact to deployment of first device to achieve reperfusion (FTD) time with in-hospital HF events and HF rehospitalization, with mortality modeled as a competing risk. At the population level, median FTD time decreased from 91 minutes (interquartile range, 69-114) in 2007 to 58 minutes (45-75) in 2013 ( P=0.001), whereas mortality remained unchanged (in-hospital: range 5.3%-7.3%; P=0.190 and 1-year: range 7.8%-10.9%; P=0.505). HF at admission increased from 12.2% in 2007 to 18.4% in 2013, P=0.020, whereas postadmission in-hospital HF decreased from 12.8% in 2007 to 7.1% in 2013, P=0.030. HF rehospitalization increased from 1.2% in 2007 to 2.6% in 2013 ( P=0.003), for 30-day HF rehospitalization, and 3.8% in 2007 to 5.6% in 2013 ( P=0.037), for 1-year HF rehospitalization. At the individual level, among patients with HF at admission (N=1191), longer FTD time was associated with more 30-day HF rehospitalization (compared with ≤60 minutes, adjusted hazard ratio, 1.68 [0.73-3.86] for 60-90 minutes, 2.88 [1.19-6.92], for 90-120 minutes, and 2.84 [1.08-7.44] for >120 minutes). Longer FTD time was associated with a greater risk of postadmission in-hospital HF (compared with ≤60 minutes, adjusted hazard ratio, 1.18 [0.96-1.44] for 60-90 minutes, 1.59 [1.25-2.03] for 90-120 minutes, and 1.67 [1.26-2.21] for >120 minutes). Conclusions: Temporal reductions in FTD time were associated with decrease in postadmission in-hospital HF. Among patients presenting with HF at admission, delays in FTD beyond 90 minutes were associated with more 30-day HF rehospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.118.004699DOI Listing
August 2018

Cost-effectiveness analysis of biodegradable polymer versus durable polymer drug-eluting stents incorporating real-world evidence.

Cardiovasc Ther 2018 Oct 28;36(5):e12442. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, Singapore, Singapore.

Aim: Compared with second-generation durable polymer drug-eluting stents (DP-DES), the cost-effectiveness of biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents (BP-DES) remains unclear in the real-world setting. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of BP-DES in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: We developed a decision-analytic model to compare the cost-effectiveness of BP-DES to DP-DES over 1 year and 5 years from healthcare payer perspective. Relative treatment effects during the first year post-PCI were obtained from a real-world population analysis while clinical event risks in the subsequent 4 years were derived from a meta-analysis of published studies.

Results: At 1 year, based on the clinical data analysis of 497 propensity-score matched pairs of patients, BP-DES were associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of USD20 503 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. At 5 years, BP-DES yielded an ICER of USD4062 per QALY gained. At the willingness-to-pay threshold of USD50 400 (one gross domestic product per capita in Singapore in 2015), BP-DES were cost-effective. Sensitivity analysis showed that the cost of stents had a significant impact on the cost-effectiveness of BP-DES. Threshold analysis demonstrated that if the cost difference between BP-DES and DP-DES exceeded USD493, BP-DES would not be cost-effective in patients with 1 year of follow-up.

Conclusions: Biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents were cost-effective compared with DP-DES in patients with coronary artery disease at 1 year and 5 years after PCI. It is worth noting that the cost of stents had a significant impact on the findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-5922.12442DOI Listing
October 2018

Treatment of Very Small De Novo Coronary Artery Disease With 2.0 mm Drug-Coated Balloons Showed 1-Year Clinical Outcome Comparable With 2.0 mm Drug-Eluting Stents.

J Invasive Cardiol 2018 07 15;30(7):256-261. Epub 2018 Apr 15.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, 1E Kent Ridge Road, NUHS Tower Block, Level 9, Singapore 119228.

Objective: To evaluate the 1-year clinical outcomes of patients treated with 2.0 mm drug-coated balloon (DCB) vs 2.0 mm drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in small-caliber vessel de novo coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: All patients treated with 2.0 mm DCB or 2.0 mm DES for very small vessel de novo CAD from July 2014 to June 2016 were included in this study. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of target-lesion failure (TLF) and time to TLF, defined as a combination of cardiac mortality, target-vessel myocardial infarction, and target-lesion revascularization (TLR).

Results: A total of 87 patients (96 lesions) were implanted with 2.0 mm DCBs and 200 patients (223 lesions) were implanted with 2.0 mm DESs during the study period. Mean reference vessel diameter was similar between the DCB and DES groups (1.88 ± 0.38 mm vs 1.95 ± 0.21 mm, respectively; P=.11). The 1-year TLF rates were 7.0% in the DCB group and 8.2% in the DES group (P=.73). TLF was driven by TLR in both groups. Bailout stenting was performed in 7 patients (8 lesions) who received a DCB. Stent thrombosis was seen in 4 patients (2.0%) who underwent DES implantation. There was no vessel thrombosis noted in the DCB group. Cardiogenic shock was identified as a direct and significant predictor for both the occurrence of TLF and time to TLF.

Conclusions: In this first report, treatment of very small vessel CAD with 2.0 mm DCB vs 2.0 mm DES was associated with similar 1-year TLF rates.
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July 2018

Incidence and predictors of target lesion failure in a multiethnic Asian population receiving the SYNERGY coronary stent: A prospective all-comers registry.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2018 11 7;92(6):1097-1103. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, Singapore.

Objectives: To evaluate the target lesion failure (TLF) rate of the SYNERGY stent in all-comers, multiethnic Asian population.

Background: Currently, most drug eluting stents deliver anti-proliferative drugs from a durable polymer which is associated with a risk of late stent thrombosis. The novel everolimus-eluting, platinum chromium SYNERGY stent is coated with a bioabsorbable abluminal polymer that resolves within 4 months.

Methods: This was a prospective, single center registry of consecutive patients treated with the SYNERGY stent between December 2012 and April 2015. The primary outcome was the incidence of TLF, defined as the combination of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 1 year.

Results: A total of 807 patients received the SYNERGY stent during the study period. One-year clinical outcome data was available for 765 patients (94.8%) and were considered for statistical analysis. The mean age was 60.7 ± 10.8 years, and 83.4% were males. Patients with acute myocardial infarction consisted of 50.3% (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 23.0%, Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 27.3%) of the study population. The treated lesions were complex (ACC/AHA type B2/C: 72.7%). The primary end point of TLF at 1 year was 5.8%. Rates of cardiac mortality, target vessel myocardial infarction, and TLR were 4.2, 1.0, and 1.3%, respectively, at 1 year. Predictors of the incidence and time to early TLF were female gender, Malay ethnicity, diabetes mellitus, acute myocardial infarction at presentation, a prior history of coronary artery bypass surgery and the presence of lesion calcification. The incidence of definite stent thrombosis was 0.4% at 1 year.

Conclusions: In this registry, the use of the SYNERGY stent was associated with low rates of TLF at 1 year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.27577DOI Listing
November 2018

A propensity score-matched comparison of biodegradable polymer vs second-generation durable polymer drug-eluting stents in a real-world population.

Cardiovasc Ther 2018 Apr 30;36(2). Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, Singapore City, Singapore.

Aims: The safety and efficacy of BP-DES compared to second-generation DP-DES remain unclear in the real-world setting. We compared the clinical outcomes of biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents (BP-DES) with second-generation durable polymer drug-eluting stents (DP-DES) in an all-comer percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) registry.

Methods/results: The study included a cohort of 1065 patients treated with either BP-DES or DP-DES from January 2009 through October 2015. Propensity score matching was performed to account for potential confounders and produced 497 matched pairs of patients. The primary endpoint was target lesion failure (TLF) at one-year follow-up. The rates of TLF were comparable between BP-DES and DP-DES (8.7% vs 9.1%, P = .823) at 1 year. The rates of stent thrombosis at 30 days (0.4% vs 0.4%, P = 1.00) and 1 year (0.8% vs 0.8%, P = 1.00) did not differ between BP-DES and DP-DES. There were no significant differences in other clinical outcomes including target vessel failure (8.9% vs 9.5%, P = .741), in-stent restenosis (1.8% vs 1.0%, P = .282), and cardiac death (6.4% vs 7.4%, P = .533) at 1 year. Multivariate cox regression analysis showed that the risk of TLF at one-year did not differ significantly between BP-DES and DP-DES (hazard ratio 0.94, P = .763).

Conclusions: Efficacy and safety of BP-DES were not better than DP-DES at one-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-5922.12319DOI Listing
April 2018

Mechanisms of Very Late Bioresorbable Scaffold Thrombosis: The INVEST Registry.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2017 Nov;70(19):2330-2344

Swiss Cardiovascular Center Bern, Department of Cardiology, Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Very late scaffold thrombosis (VLScT) occurs more frequently after bioresorbable scaffold (Absorb BVS 1.1, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California) implantation than with metallic everolimus-eluting stents.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to elucidate mechanisms underlying VLScT as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Methods: The INVEST (Independent OCT Registry on Very Late Bioresorbable Scaffold Thrombosis) registry is an international consortium of investigators who used OCT to examine patients with VLScT.

Results: Between June 2013 and May 2017, 36 patients with 38 lesions who had VLScT underwent OCT at 19 centers. VLScT occurred at a median of 20 months (interquartile range: 16 to 27 months) after implantation. At the time of VLScT, 83% of patients received aspirin monotherapy and 17% received dual-antiplatelet therapy. The mechanisms underlying VLScT were (in descending order) scaffold discontinuity (42.1%), malapposition (18.4%), neoatherosclerosis (18.4%), underexpansion or scaffold recoil (10.5%), uncovered struts (5.3%), and edge-related disease progression (2.6%). Discontinuity (odds ratio [OR]: 110; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 73.5 to 173; p < 0.001), malapposed struts (OR: 17.0; 95% CI: 14.8 to 19.7; p < 0.001), and uncovered struts (OR: 7.3; 95% CI: 6.2 to 8.8; p < 0.001) were more frequent in the thrombosed than the nonthrombosed scaffold regions. In 2 of 16 patients with scaffold discontinuity, intercurrent OCT before VLScT provided evidence of circularly apposed scaffold struts with minimal tissue coverage.

Conclusions: The leading mechanism underlying VLScT was scaffold discontinuity, which suggests an unfavorable resorption-related process, followed by malapposition and neoatherosclerosis. It remains to be determined whether modifications in scaffold design and optimized implantation can mitigate the risk of VLScT. (Independent OCT Registry on Very Late Bioresorbable Scaffold Thrombosis [INVEST]; NCT03180931).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.09.014DOI Listing
November 2017

The Challenge of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Small Vessels.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2017 Jan - Feb;18(1):2-3

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2016.12.015DOI Listing
April 2017

Effectiveness of early cardiology undergraduate learning using simulation on retention, application of learning and level of confidence during clinical clerkships.

Singapore Med J 2015 Feb;56(2):98-102

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, 1E Kent Ridge Road, NUHS Tower Block, Level 9, Singapore 119228.

Introduction: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the use of a cardiopulmonary patient simulator in the teaching of second-year medical students. Effectiveness was measured in terms of the extent of knowledge retention and students' ability to apply the skills learned in subsequent real-life patient contact.

Methods: In this study, ten third-year medical students who had previously undergone simulator training as part of their second-year curriculum underwent an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and a multiple-choice question (MCQ) test to assess their ability to apply the knowledge gained during the simulator training when dealing with real patients. The performance of this group of students was compared with that of a group of ten fourth-year medical students who did not undergo simulation training.

Results: Although the third-year medical students performed well in the OSCE, they were outperformed by the group of fourth-year medical students, who had an extra year of clinical exposure. The MCQ scores of the two groups of students were similar. Post-simulation training survey revealed that students were generally in favour of incorporating cardiopulmonary simulator training in the preclinical curriculum.

Conclusion: Cardiopulmonary simulator training is a useful tool for the education of preclinical medical students. It aids the translation of preclinical knowledge into real-life clinical skills.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4350465PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2015023DOI Listing
February 2015

Clinical presentation and outcomes of coronary in-stent restenosis across 3-stent generations.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2014 Dec 2;7(6):768-76. Epub 2014 Dec 2.

From the Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, DC.

Background: Clinical presentation of bare metal stent in-stent restenosis (ISR) in patients undergoing target lesion revascularization is well characterized and negatively affects on outcomes, whereas the presentation and outcomes of first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DESs) remains under-reported.

Methods And Results: The study included 909 patients (1077 ISR lesions) distributed as follows: bare metal stent (n=388), first-generation DES (n=425), and second-generation DES (n=96), categorized into acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or non-ACS presentation mode at the time of first target lesion revascularization. ACS was further classified as myocardial infarction (MI) and unstable angina. For bare metal stent, first-generation DES and second-generation DES, ACS was the clinical presentation in 67.8%, 71.0%, and 66.7% of patients, respectively (P=0.470), whereas MI occurred in 10.6%, 10.1%, and 5.2% of patients, respectively (P=0.273). The correlates for MI as ISR presentation were current smokers (odds ratio, 3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-5.13; P<0.001), and chronic renal failure (odds ratio, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.60-4.70; P<0.001), with a protective trend for the second-generation DES ISR (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.12-1.03; P=0.060). ACS presentations had an independent effect on major adverse cardiac events (death, MI, and re-target lesion revascularization) at 6 months (MI versus non-ACS: adjusted hazard ratio, 4.06; 95% CI, 1.84-8.94; P<0.001; unstable angina versus non-ACS: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.01-3.87; P=0.046).

Conclusions: ISR clinical presentation is similar irrespective of stent type. MI as ISR presentation seems to be associated with patient and not device-related factors. ACS as ISR presentation has an independent effect on major adverse cardiac events, suggesting that ISR remains a hazard and should be minimized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.114.001341DOI Listing
December 2014

Does baseline hematocrit influence the assays of on-treatment platelet reactivity to clopidogrel?

Am Heart J 2014 Oct 11;168(4):545-51. Epub 2014 Jul 11.

Division of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC. Electronic address:

Background: High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) has been shown to be associated with adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, but the effect of baseline hematologic parameters upon platelet reactivity remains controversial.

Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the impact of hematocrit on 2 different assay methods used to assess on-treatment platelet reactivity to clopidogrel.

Methods: We tested clopidogrel on-treatment platelet reactivity in 466 consecutive patients using VerifyNow P2Y12 (VN) and light transmission aggregometry (LTA) with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) 5 and 20 μM assays 6 to 24 hours after percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were categorized into 4 groups according to baseline hematocrit. One-year major adverse cardiac events, including death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and definite stent thrombosis, were collected.

Results: Lower hematocrit was associated with higher P2Y12 reaction unit (PRU) and a higher rate of HTPR (P < .001) as measured by VN assay. No differences were seen among the 4 groups in platelet reactivity measured by LTA using ADP 5 μM (P = .23) and ADP 20 μM (P = .21). In a multivariable logistic regression model, baseline hematocrit was independently associated with PRU ≥208 (odds ratio [OR] 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.97, P = .005) but had no correlation with LTA ADP 5 μM ≥46% (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.95-1.06, P = .88) or LTA ADP 20 μM ≥59% (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.09, P = .39). In a logistic regression model, the addition of VN assay results, hematocrit, and interaction between the hematocrit and assay results had shown a significant influence on the area under curve for prediction of 1-year major adverse cardiac events compared with baseline clinical variables only for PRU (0.63 vs 0.76, P = .006) but not with LTA (0.64 vs 0.74, P = .13).

Conclusion: Baseline hematocrit has a differential influence on results of the ex vivo platelet functional assays. Lower baseline hematocrit was independently associated with HTPR by VN but not LTA. This may affect the interpretation of platelet function testing in patients with significant anemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2014.06.029DOI Listing
October 2014

Transfer distance effect on reperfusion: timeline of ST-elevation patients transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2014 Nov-Dec;15(8):369-74. Epub 2014 Aug 15.

MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aims to establish if transfer distance impacts the outcome of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients transferred to a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: Regional emergency care systems were designed to decrease delays in reperfusion of patients but the effect of transfer distance on outcome is less established.

Methods: We compare the characteristics and outcomes of STEMI patients transferred from a distance >25 miles (GT25) to those transferred from distances ≤25 miles (LT25) by utilizing data from a regional STEMI care network in the greater Washington DC area.

Results: Within the transferred patients (n=1065), 609 patients (57%) were transferred from GT25 (median distance 36 miles), while 456 (43%) were transferred from LT25 (median distance 13 miles). Most of the baseline characteristics between the groups were similar. Door-to-balloon (DTB) was defined as the time elapsed from the presentation to the center without PCI capability to flow restoration in the culprit artery. No differences were noted in the median DTB (GT25: 158min [122-213] vs. 149 [118-219]; p=0.5) or in in-hospital mortality (8% vs. 7.2%; p=0.617). By implementing the regional STEMI care network, a constant decrease in DTB was noted throughout its years of operation.

Conclusions: For STEMI patients presenting to a non-PCI capable center, a network care system for PCI mitigates the distance factor on DTB time. This is turn translates into comparable outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2014.08.003DOI Listing
September 2015

Real-time, two-way interaction during ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction management improves door-to-balloon times.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2014 Jul-Aug;15(5):263-8. Epub 2014 May 22.

Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC. Electronic address:

Objectives: The study aimed to determine if utilization of the CodeHeart application (CHap) reduces door-to-balloon (DTB) times of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients.

Background: A pre-hospital electrocardiogram improves the management of patients with STEMI. Current telecommunication systems do not permit real-time interaction with the initial care providers. Our institution developed a novel telecommunications system based on a software application that permits real-time, two-way video and voice interaction over a secured network.

Methods: All STEMI system activations after implementation of the CHap were prospectively entered into a database. Consecutive CHap activations were compared to routine activations as controls, during the same time period.

Results: A total of 470 STEMI system activations occurred; CHap was used in 83 cases (17.7%). DTB time was reduced by the use of CHap when compared to controls (CHap 103 minutes, 95% CI [87.0-118.3] vs. standard 149 minutes, 95% CI [134.0-164.8], p<0.0001), as was first call-to-balloon time (CHap 70 minutes, 95% CI [60.8-79.5] vs. standard 92 minutes, 95% CI [85.8-98.9], p=0.0002). The percentage of 'true positive' catheterization laboratory activations was nominally higher with the use of CHap, although this did not reach statistical significance [CHap 47/83 (56.6%) vs. routine 178/387 (45.9%), p=0.103].

Conclusion: The implementation of a two-way telecommunications system allowing real-time interactions between interventional cardiologists and referring practitioners improves overall DTB time. In addition, it has the potential to decrease the frequency of false activations, thereby improving the cost efficiency of a network's STEMI system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2014.05.005DOI Listing
June 2015

Incidence and correlates of major bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention across different clinical presentations.

Am Heart J 2014 Sep 11;168(3):248-55. Epub 2014 Jun 11.

Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC. Electronic address:

Background: Bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is identified as a strong predictor for adverse events, including mortality. This study aims to compare the incidence and correlates of post-PCI bleeding across different clinical presentations.

Methods: The study included 23,943 consecutive PCI patients categorized according to their clinical presentation: stable angina pectoris (n = 6,741), unstable angina pectoris (UAP) (n = 5,215), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (n = 8,418), ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (n = 2,721), and cardiogenic shock (CGS) (n = 848).

Results: Severity of clinical presentation was associated with a greater use of preprocedural anticoagulation, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, and intraaortic balloon pump (IABP). TIMI-defined major bleeding increased with increasing severity of clinical presentation: stable angina pectoris, 0.7%; UAP, 1.0%; NSTEMI, 1.6%; STEMI, 4.6%; and CGS, 13.5% (P < .001). On multivariable analysis, CGS (odds ratio [OR], 4.67; 95% CI [2.62-8.34]), STEMI (OR, 3.39; 95% CI [2.07-5.55]), and NSTEMI (OR, 2.00; 95% CI [1.29-3.10]) remained correlated with major bleeding even after adjusting for baseline and procedural differences, whereas UAP did not. The multivariable model also identified the use of IABP, female gender, congestive heart failure, no prior PCI, increased baseline hematocrit, and increased procedure time as correlates for major bleeding.

Conclusions: In patients undergoing PCI, the worsening severity of clinical presentation corresponds to an increase in incidence of post-PCI major bleeding. The increased risk with CGS, STEMI, and NSTEMI persisted despite adjusting for more aggressive pharmacotherapy and use of IABP. Careful attention to antithrombotic pharmacotherapy is warranted in this high-risk population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2014.05.018DOI Listing
September 2014

The impact of diabetes mellitus on long-term clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary saphenous vein graft interventions in the drug-eluting stent era.

J Interv Cardiol 2014 Aug;27(4):391-8

Division of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia.

Objectives: We aimed to compare early and late clinical outcomes in diabetic and nondiabetic patients who underwent saphenous vein graft (SVG) percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with the use of drug-eluting stents (DES).

Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus are shown to have less favorable outcomes after SVG intervention with the use of bare metal stents. In the DES era, the impact of diabetes mellitus on restenosis and clinical outcomes post-SVG intervention is not clearly defined.

Methods: From our institutional PCI registry database, we retrospectively analyzed 477 consecutive patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery undergoing SVG PCI with the implantation of DES stratified by the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus. The primary end-point was 1-year major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rate, defined as death, Q wave myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization.

Results: Baseline clinical characteristics, including mean graft age (120 ± 77 vs. 131 ± 86 months, P = 0.14), were similar between groups, save for a higher prevalence of systemic hypertension and chronic renal insufficiency, and higher body mass index in the diabetic group. Among the 604 SVG lesions treated with DES, the angiographic and procedural characteristics were well matched between groups except for the higher rate of distal protection device use (32% vs. 29%, P = 0.007) in the diabetic group. The rates of 1-year MACE (21% vs. 15%, P = 0.12) and all-cause mortality (7.6% vs. 6.7%, P = 0.86) were similar between groups. After adjustment for the relevant clinical co-variables, diabetic status was not associated with the composite end-point.

Conclusion: In conclusion, DES, when used for the treatment of vein graft lesions, equate the short- and long-term outcomes between diabetic and nondiabetic patients, suggesting that DES should be considered the default stent in diabetic populations undergoing PCI for the treatment of SVG lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joic.12136DOI Listing
August 2014

Use of emergency medical services expedites in-hospital care processes in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2014 Jun 26;15(4):219-25. Epub 2014 Mar 26.

Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC. Electronic address:

To determine whether door-to-balloon (DTB) times of patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were reduced in patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) compared to those who were self-transported. DTB time is an important measure of hospital care processes in STEMI. Use of EMS may expedite in-hospital processing and reduce DTB times. A total of 309 consecutive STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention in our institution were analyzed. Excluded were patients who received fibrinolytics, presented in cardiac arrest, were intubated, or were transferred from another hospital. EMS-transported patients (n=83) were compared to self-transported patients (n=226). The primary outcome measure was DTB time and its component time intervals. Secondary end points included symptom-to-door and symptom-to-balloon times, and correlates for DTB >90 minutes. A higher percentage of EMS-transported patients reached the time goal of DTB <90 minutes compared to self-transported patients (83.1 versus 54.3%; p<0.001). EMS-transported patients had shorter DTB times [median (IQR) minutes, 65 (50-86) versus 85 (61-126); p<0.001] due to a reduction of emergency department processing (door-to-call) time, whereas catheterization laboratory processing (call-to-balloon) times were similar in both groups. EMS-transported patients had shorter symptom-to-door [median (IQR) hours, 1.2 (0.8-3.5) versus 2.3 (1.2-7.5); p<0.001] and symptom-to-balloon [median (IQR) hours, 2.5 (1.9-4.7) versus 4.3 (2.6-9.1); p<0.001]. Independent correlates of DTB times >90 minutes were self-transport (odds ratio 5.32, 95% CI 2.65-10.70; p<0.001) and off-hours presentation (odds ratio 2.89, 95% CI 1.60-5.22; p<0.001). Use of EMS transport in STEMI patients significantly shortens time to reperfusion, primarily by expediting emergency department processes. Community education efforts should focus not only on the importance of recognizing symptoms of myocardial infarction, but also taking early action by calling the EMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2014.03.011DOI Listing
June 2014

Comparison of outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention among different coronary subsets (stable and unstable angina pectoris and ST-segment and non-ST-segment myocardial infarction).

Am J Cardiol 2014 Jun 15;113(11):1794-801. Epub 2014 Mar 15.

Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC. Electronic address:

Percutaneous coronary intervention in the setting of acute myocardial infarction is known to predict stent thrombosis (ST). This study aims to compare the ST rates across different coronary subsets. This was an observational cohort study from a large, single-center registry. Included were 12,198 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting. Patients were categorized according to their clinical presentation: stable angina pectoris (SAP, n = 3,700), unstable angina pectoris (UAP, n = 2,845), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI, n = 4,083), and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, n = 1,570). The study end points were ST rates at 1 year. Patients with STEMI were younger with a lower prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, except for smoking. More type C lesions were treated in STEMI, whereas drug-eluting stents were used less frequently in patients with STEMI compared with the other groups. Definite ST at 1 year was highest in patients with STEMI (1.4%; vs SAP, 0.4%; UAP, 0.5%; NSTEMI, 0.5%; p <0.001). One-year definite/probable ST rates were SAP, 0.8%; UAP, 1.1%; NSTEMI, 1.4%; and STEMI, 3.2% (p <0.001). On multivariable analysis, STEMI independently predicts definite ST (hazards ratio [HR] 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32 to 7.10), whereas both STEMI (HR 3.36, 95% CI 1.84 to 6.12) and NSTEMI (HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.07) were independent predictors of definite/probable ST. Clopidogrel cessation was the strongest predictor of ST (definite ST, HR 17.00, 95% CI 7.54 to 38.31; definite/probable ST, HR 4.69, 95% CI 2.39 to 9.20). In conclusion, in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, the acuity of clinical presentation corresponds to an increase in ST incidence. Adherence to clopidogrel is critical to prevent ST in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, especially in STEMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.03.007DOI Listing
June 2014

Impact of early versus late clopidogrel discontinuation on stent thrombosis following percutaneous coronary intervention with first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents.

Am J Cardiol 2014 Jun 1;113(12):1968-76. Epub 2014 Apr 1.

Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC. Electronic address:

Premature antiplatelet therapy discontinuation (ATD) after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is known to predict stent thrombosis (ST). However, recent data suggest that a shorter antiplatelet therapy duration is safe with newer generation DESs. The study aimed to compare the impact of early and late clopidogrel ATDs on ST in a real-world registry of first- and second-generation DES use. A total of 6,236 patients who underwent DES implantation were analyzed retrospectively: 4,217 received first-generation DESs (sirolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stents) and 2,019 received second-generation DESs (everolimus-eluting stents). Within each DES cohort, patients were categorized into timing of clopidogrel discontinuation within 1 year: early (<3 months), late (3 to 12 months), and continued. ST rates and clinical outcomes at 1 year were analyzed. There were 341 patients (8.1%) in the first-generation DES group and 126 patients (6.2%) in the second-generation DES group who discontinued clopidogrel within the first year. Definite and probable ST rates were 3.8% for early ATD, 2.5% for late ATD, and 0.5% for continued (p = 0.001) in the first-generation DES cohort, whereas there were no definite or probable ST events in early and late ATDs and 0.5% for continued in the second-generation DES cohort. Major adverse cardiac event rates were 9.9% for early ATD, 5.6% for late ATD, and 0.9% for continued (p <0.001) in the first-generation DES cohort and 5.5% for early ATD, 7.4% for late ATD, and 1.5% for continued (p <0.001) in the second-generation DES cohort. In conclusion, ATD within the first year is associated with increased ST events with first-generation DESs, whereas ATD appears safe with second-generation DESs with regard to ST. However, ATD is associated with greater mortality and major adverse cardiac events in both first- and second-generation DESs. Thus, this study supports ATD if required based on physician discretion with the use of second-generation DESs but cannot rule out potential benefit for longer duration of dual antiplatelet therapy even when second-generation DESs are used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.03.041DOI Listing
June 2014

Intra-stent tissue evaluation within bare metal and drug-eluting stents > 3 years since implantation in patients with mild to moderate neointimal proliferation using optical coherence tomography and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2014 Apr 20;15(3):149-55. Epub 2014 Jan 20.

Division of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC. Electronic address:

Objective: We aimed to compare neointimal tissue characteristics between bare-metal stents (BMS) and drug-eluting stents (DES) at long-term follow-up using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS).

Background: Neoatherosclerosis in neointima has been reported in BMS and in DES.

Methods: Thirty patients with 36 stented lesions [BMS (n=17) or DES (n=19)] >3years after implantation were prospectively enrolled. OCT and VH-IVUS were performed and analyzed independently. Stents with ≥70% diameter stenosis were excluded.

Results: The median duration from implantation was 126.0months in the BMS group and 60.0months in the DES group (p <0.001). Lipid-laden intima (58.8% vs. 42.1%, p=0.317), thrombus (17.6% vs. 5.3%, p=0.326), and calcification (35.3% vs. 26.3%, p=0.559) did not show significant differences between BMS and DES. When divided into 3 time periods, the cumulative incidence of lipid-laden neointima from >3years to <9years was similar between BMS and DES (42.9% vs. 42.1%, p=1.000). Furthermore, it continued to gradually increase over time in both groups. OCT-derived thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) was observed in 17.6% of BMS- and 5.3% of DES-treated lesions (p=0.326). No stents had evidence of intimal disruption. The percentage volume of necrotic core (16.1% [9.7, 20.3] vs. 9.7% [7.0, 16.5], p=0.062) and dense calcium (9.5% [3.8, 13.6] vs. 2.7% [0.4, 4.9], p=0.080) in neointima tended to be greater in BMS-treated lesions. Intra-stent VH-TCFA (BMS vs. DES 45.5% vs. 18.2%, p=0.361) did not differ significantly.

Conclusion: At long-term follow-up beyond 3 years after implantation, the intra-stent neointimal tissue characteristics appeared similar for both BMS and DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2014.01.009DOI Listing
April 2014
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