Publications by authors named "Joshua Busken"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of Nutritional Epigenetics in Essential Hypertension: Targeting microRNAs in the Gut-Liver Axis.

Curr Hypertens Rep 2021 05 7;23(5):28. Epub 2021 May 7.

Microbiome Consortium, Center for Hypertension and Precision Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Block Health Science Bldg, 3000 Arlington Ave, Toledo, OH, 43614, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review the current knowledge on interactions between dietary factors and microRNAs (miRNAs) in essential hypertension (EH) pathogenesis.

Recent Findings: There exists an integration of maintenance signals generated by genetic, epigenetic, immune, and environmental (e.g., dietary) factors that work to sustain balance in the gut-liver axis. It is well established that an imbalance in this complex, intertwined system substantially increases the risk for EH. As such, pertinent research has been taken to decipher how each signal operates in isolation and together in EH progression. Recent literature indicates that both macro- and micronutrients interrupt regulatory miRNA expressions and thus, alter multiple cellular processes that contribute to EH and its comorbidities. We highlight how carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, salt, and potassium modify miRNA signatures during EH. The disruption in miRNA expression can negatively impact communication systems such as over activating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, modulating the vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype, and promoting angiogenesis to favor EH. We also delineate the prognostic value of miRNAs in EH and discuss the pros and cons of surgical vs dietary prophylactic approaches in EH prevention. We propose that dietary-dependent perturbation of the miRNA profile is one mechanism within the gut-liver axis that dictates EH development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11906-021-01142-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105193PMC
May 2021

Growth Hormone Deficiency and Excess Alter the Gut Microbiome in Adult Male Mice.

Endocrinology 2020 04;161(4)

Translational Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, Graduate College, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.

The gut microbiome has been implicated in host metabolism, endocrinology, and pathophysiology. Furthermore, several studies have shown that gut bacteria impact host growth, partially mediated through the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis. Yet, no study to date has examined the specific role of GH on the gut microbiome. Our study thus characterized the adult gut microbial profile and intestinal phenotype in GH gene-disrupted (GH-/-) mice (a model of GH deficiency) and bovine GH transgenic (bGH) mice (a model of chronic, excess GH action) at 6 months of age. Both the GH-/- and bGH mice had altered microbial signatures, in opposing directions at the phylum and genus levels. For example, GH-/- mice had significantly reduced abundance in the Proteobacteria, Campylobacterota, and Actinobacteria phyla, whereas bGH mice exhibited a trending increase in those phyla compared with respective controls. Analysis of maturity of the microbial community demonstrated that lack of GH results in a significantly more immature microbiome while excess GH increases microbial maturity. Several common bacterial genera were shared, although in opposing directions, between the 2 mouse lines (e.g., decreased in GH-/- mice and increased in bGH mice), suggesting an association with GH. Similarly, metabolic pathways like acetate, butyrate, heme B, and folate biosynthesis were predicted to be impacted by GH. This study is the first to characterize the gut microbiome in mouse lines with altered GH action and indicates that GH may play a role in the growth of certain microbiota thus impacting microbial maturation and metabolic function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/endocr/bqaa026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341558PMC
April 2020

Heterogeneity spacers in 16S rDNA primers improve analysis of mouse gut microbiomes via greater nucleotide diversity.

Biotechniques 2019 08 10;67(2):55-62. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Ohio University Genomics Facility, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA.

Illumina-based amplicon sequencing suffers from the deleterious effects of highly homogenous nucleotide composition, limiting the number of high-quality reads generated per run. We attempted to alleviate this limitation by comparing the results obtained from 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) sequencing of mouse gut microbiomes using Illumina V3-V4 primers (Run 1) and custom primers that incorporate a heterogeneity spacer (0-7 nucleotides) upstream of the 16S priming region (Run 2). Overall, Run 2 had higher quality sequences, a more diverse microbial profile, and higher precision within, and variation between, experimental groups than Run 1. Our primer design offers a simple way to increase the quality of 16S rDNA sequencing and increases the number of useable reads generated per Illumina run.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2144/btn-2019-0025DOI Listing
August 2019