Publications by authors named "Joseph Rosentel"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel (Broadline(®)) against naturally acquired infections with cestodes of the genus Joyeuxiella in cats.

Parasitol Res 2016 Jul 30;115(7):2679-84. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Merial GmbH, Kathrinenhof Research Center, 83101, Rohrdorf, Germany.

Cats are host to dipylidiid cestodes of the genera Diplopylidium, Dipylidium and Joyeuxiella. Broadline(®), a topical broad-spectrum combination parasiticide containing fipronil (8.3 % w/v), (S)-methoprene (10 % w/v), eprinomectin (0.4 % w/v) and the cestocide praziquantel (8.3 % w/v), has previously been shown to be efficacious against Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. in cats. To evaluate its efficacy against Joyeuxiella species, a blinded clinical efficacy study was conducted according to GCP. All cats had evidence for naturally acquired dipylidiid cestode infection as confirmed by pre-treatment examination. Cats were allocated randomly to two groups of 13 cats each based on bodyweight: Control (untreated) and Broadline(®) at 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight administered once topically. Based on the comparison of helminth counts in the treated and untreated cats seven days post treatment, Broadline(®) demonstrated >99 % efficacy (p < 0.01) against mature J. fuhrmanni and J. pasqualei, with 11 and 13 of the untreated cats harbouring 1 to 102 or 2 to 95 cestodes, respectively. In addition, parasite counts indicated 95.9 % efficacy (p = 0.006) against the rictularoid nematode Pterygodermatites cahirensis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-016-5016-3DOI Listing
July 2016

Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against larval and adult stages of the cat lungworm, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus.

Vet Parasitol 2014 Apr;202(1-2):64-8

Merial GmbH, Kathrinenhof Research Center, 83101 Rohrdorf, Germany.

The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 8.3% w/v, (S)-methoprene 10% w/v, eprinomectin 0.4% w/v, and praziquantel 8.3% w/v (BROADLINE(®),(1) Merial) against larval and adult Aelurostrongylus abstrusus lungworms in cats was assessed in a controlled laboratory study. The study included 48 purpose-bred, short-haired cats which were each inoculated with 225 infective A. abstrusus larvae. The cats were formed into eight blocks based on pre-treatment bodyweight and were then, within each block, randomly allocated to one of six treatment groups: untreated control; treated once when A. abstrusus were expected to be third-stage larvae (4 days post inoculation [dpi]), fourth-stage larvae (7 dpi), immature adults (14 dpi) or adult nematodes (32 dpi), or treated twice, once when A. abstrusus were expected to be third-stage larval and once again when A. abstrusus were expected to be adult nematodes (4 dpi+32 dpi). Cats weighing ≥ 0.8-2.5 kg received one 0.3 mL applicator and cats weighing >2.5-7.5 kg received one 0.9 mL applicator. For determination of the efficacy of treatments, lungworm larval counts were established on faecal samples collected from all cats 32, 39, 46, 53 and 60 dpi. At each occasion from 46 dpi on, cats treated with fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel had significantly lower A. abstrusus larval counts than the untreated controls with percentage reductions of 91.6% (cats treated 14dpi; P=0.012), ≥ 98.9% (cats treated either 4 dpi, 7 dpi or 32 dpi; P<0.001) or >99.9% (cats treated 4 dpi+32 dpi; P<0.001) at 60 dpi. Thus, the novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was highly effective in the prevention and treatment of A. abstrusus lungworm infection in cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.042DOI Listing
April 2014

Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against adult and immature stages of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) on cats.

Vet Parasitol 2014 Apr;202(1-2):54-8

Merial Limited, 3239 Satellite Boulevard, Duluth, GA 30096, USA.

The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v) and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v) (BROADLINE(®)) was tested against adult and immature stages of Ctenocephalides felis fleas in six studies. For that purpose, fleas from different colonies from North America, Germany and South Africa were used to induce infestations in cats under laboratory conditions. In each study, between 12 and 16 cats were allocated randomly to 2 groups. Cats in Group 1 were not treated and served as controls. Cats in Group 2 were treated once on Day 0 with BROADLINE(®) at the minimum recommended dosage of 0.12 mg/kg body weight. In 4 studies, all animals were infested experimentally with unfed C. felis (100 ± 5) on Days 2 (or 1), 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Live fleas were counted 24h post-treatment or infestation. In 2 additional studies, animals were infested at the same frequency with gravid C. felis fleas (100 ± 5) that were fed previously on an untreated host. Forty-eight hours post-infestation, flea eggs were collected, counted and incubated for the evaluation of the reduction of emergence of adults. The combined curative efficacy against adult fleas at 24h after treatment was 94.3% and the combined preventive efficacy values remained greater than 95.9% at 24h after 5 subsequent weekly infestations. In addition, the product reduced dramatically the emergence of new adult fleas for at least 5 weeks (>98.1% for one month and 93.2% at 5 weeks after infestation), demonstrating its efficiency in preventing environmental contamination by immature stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.040DOI Listing
April 2014

Efficacy of a single dose of a novel topical combination product containing eprinomectin to prevent heartworm infection in cats.

Vet Parasitol 2014 Apr;202(1-2):49-53

Merial Ltd., Duluth, GA 30096, USA.

Cats may be infected by heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, through mosquito bites. They can develop severe heartworm disease when infective D. immitis larvae migrate and develop into adults in the pulmonary vasculature or other tissues. As there is no curative treatment for feline heartworm infection, the monthly administration of preventative treatment is recommended in endemic areas. Three controlled, blinded laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the preventative efficacy of BROADLINE(®), a novel combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel against D. immitis in cats. In each study, 28 cats were inoculated with approximately 100 (studies 1 and 2) or 40 (study 3) infective third stage D. immitis larvae by subcutaneous injection, thirty days prior to treatment. The larvae were from recent field isolates from naturally infected dogs from three distinct geographic areas (two in the USA and one in Europe). In each study, the cats were allocated randomly to two study groups of 14 cats each. The control group remained untreated. On Day 0, each cat in the treated group received one topical application of the novel topical formulation, delivering the minimum intended dose of 0.5mg of eprinomectin per kilogram of body weight. At 6 months after infection, all cats were humanely euthanized and examined for adult D. immitis. Across all three studies, 28 (68%) of the 41 untreated cats harbored one or more heartworms, while 100% of the 42 treated cats remained free of heartworm infection, demonstrating the 100% preventive efficacy of BROADLINE(®) against D. immitis in cats. The treatment was well tolerated and no health abnormality was observed in any treated cat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.039DOI Listing
April 2014

Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against feline urinary bladder worm (Capillaria plica) infection.

Vet Parasitol 2014 Apr;202(1-2):45-8

Merial GmbH, Kathrinenhof Research Center, 83101 Rohrdorf, Germany.

Infection with urinary capillarid bladder worms has been observed in cats worldwide. Although considered as generally causing no or little harm, infection with urinary capillarids may be associated with clinical disease which requires an appropriate treatment including the use of anthelmintics. Therefore, the efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v), and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) was evaluated against urinary capillarids in naturally infected cats. Sixteen European Short Hair cats (5 male, 11 female) with capillarid eggs in their urine pre-treatment were included in the study. At the time of treatment, the cats were approximately ten months to eight years old and weighed 1.6-3.6 kg. Cats were ranked based on decreasing bodyweight and then randomly allocated within replicates of two animals to one of the treatment groups. Each cat in the treated group received one topical application of the combination product at the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.12 mL/kg body weight delivering 10mg fipronil+12 mg (S)-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kilogram of body weight while the cats allocated to the control group remained untreated. For parasite recovery, identification and count, cats were euthanized humanely 14 days after treatment. All untreated cats harboured Capillaria plica in their urinary bladders (range 4-12), while no capillarids were recovered from the eight treated cats. Thus, the efficacy of the novel topical combination against C. plica was 100%. All cats accepted the treatment well based on post-treatment observations and daily observations thereafter. No adverse events or other health problems were observed during the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.038DOI Listing
April 2014

Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against experimental infections of Toxascaris leonina in cats.

Vet Parasitol 2014 Apr;202(1-2):40-4

Merial GmbH, Kathrinenhof Research Center, 83101 Rohrdorf, Germany.

The efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination product (BROADLINE(®), Merial) was evaluated against adult Toxascaris leonina ascarids in experimentally infected cats in two controlled studies under an identical protocol. For each study, 30 nematode-naive, purpose-bred European Short Hair cats were inoculated orally with approximately 300 larvated T. leonina eggs. Twenty-two and 24 cats, respectively, that were shown to be positive for Toxascaris eggs by pre-treatment faecal examination were subsequently included in the two studies. In each study, the animals were allocated randomly to an untreated (control) group or to a treatment group. The treatment was a novel topical combination: fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4% w/v) and praziquantel (8.3% w/v). Treatment was applied on Day 0 at 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely seven days after treatment and necropsied. All untreated cats harboured adult T. leonina (range, 1-31 nematodes). The treatment provided a high level of efficacy against adult T. leonina in both studies (95.8% and 98.1%, respectively p<0.001). All cats accepted the treatment well based on hourly post-treatment observations for 4h and daily observations thereafter. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. Thus the data indicate that this novel combination product will provide a safe and effective treatment against T. leonina in cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.037DOI Listing
April 2014

Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against adult and larval stages of Toxocara cati in cats.

Vet Parasitol 2014 Apr;202(1-2):34-9

Merial GmbH, Kathrinenhof Research Center, 83101 Rohrdorf, Germany.

The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v), and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) was evaluated against adult and larval Toxocara cati in four controlled studies. All studies included experimentally infected, purpose-bred, short-haired cats. In two studies, 22 or 20 cats harbouring patent infections as confirmed by pre-treatment faecal examination, were included. Within each study, cats were allocated to one of two groups: control or treated. In a further two studies, 30 cats were included in each; cats were allocated to one of three groups: control, treated when T. cati were expected to be either migrating third and/or fourth-stage larvae, or treated when T. cati were expected to be fourth-stage larvae. Cats allocated to the treated groups received a single topical application of the combination product at 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight (10mg fipronil+12 mg (S)-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg). For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely at different intervals after treatment. In the studies targeting adult T. cati, ascarids were recovered from all controls (range 1-150) while only two worms were isolated from one treated cat. Thus, the efficacy of the novel combination was 99.4% and 100% against adult T. cati. For studies targeting larval T. cati, up to 21 worms were recovered from each of seven or eight of the control cats per study. No T. cati were recovered from the treated cats in two studies, corresponding to 100% efficacy against both, migrating third and/or fourth-stage larvae and luminal fourth-stage larvae. All cats accepted the treatment well and no adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.036DOI Listing
April 2014

Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against induced infections of Ancylostoma spp. nematodes of cats.

Vet Parasitol 2014 Apr;202(1-2):30-3

Merial Ltd., Duluth, GA 30096, USA.

Four studies were conducted to examine the efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel (BROADLINE(®), Merial) against Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Ancylostoma braziliense hookworms of cats. In each study, purpose-bred cats were randomly assigned to treatment groups of 10 or 12 cats per group. In three studies the cats were inoculated with A. tubaeforme and in one study with A. braziliense. The inoculations were undertaken on a schedule which resulted in the hookworms reaching the fourth larval stage in two of the studies, or the adult stage in four of the studies, by the day of treatment. In each study there was also an untreated control and 1 or 2 groups treated with the novel combination. In the two studies where efficacy against the fourth larval stage of A. tubaeforme was tested, the efficacy recorded was 100%. In the three studies where efficacy against the adult stage of A. tubaeforme was tested, efficacy of 100% was also confirmed. In the study where efficacy against the adult stage of A. braziliense was tested efficacy was 99.5%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.035DOI Listing
April 2014

Efficacy in cats of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, praziquantel, against induced infestations of Echinococcus multilocularis.

Vet Parasitol 2014 Apr;202(1-2):26-9

Merial Limited, Duluth, GA 30096, USA.

Although foxes are the main reservoir of Echinococcus multilocularis, it is recognized that dogs and cats also may become infected. In cats the infection and egg production rates are usually low. Nevertheless, cats are a potential source of transmission of E. multilocularis. Due to the high human medical significance of E. multilocularis infection, it is important in endemic areas that owned cats are dewormed regularly. This paper presents the efficacy results of a new topical formulation, Broadline(®) (Merial) tested against E. multilocularis infection in cats. Two blinded laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate this novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel against E. multilocularis. In each study, purpose-bred cats were assigned randomly to two treatment groups of 10 cats each: one untreated control group and one group treated at the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight to deliver 10mg fipronil, 12 mg (S)-methoprene, 0.5mg eprinomectin and 10mg praziquantel/kg bodyweight. The cats were inoculated orally with E. multilocularis protoscolices, 22 or 23 days before treatment. Based on necropsy and intestinal worm count, 8 or 11 days after treatment, the two studies confirmed 100% efficacy of Broadline(®) against adult E. multilocularis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.034DOI Listing
April 2014

Efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats.

Vet Parasitol 2014 Apr;202(1-2):18-25

Merial GmbH, Kathrinenhof Research Center, 83101 Rohrdorf, Germany.

The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats were selected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection with at least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (two studies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, cats were assigned randomly to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups of six to 12 cats: untreated (control) or treated with topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) at 0.12 mL/kg body weight (providing a minimum of 10mg fipronil+12 mg S-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg body weight). The topical treatment was administered directly on the skin in the midline of the neck in a single spot once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or ten days after treatment. A single treatment with the novel topical combination product provided 91% efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, ≥ 99% efficacy against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and >97% efficacy against Toxocara cati. Similarly, excellent efficacy was established against Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. as demonstrated by >97% and up to 100% reductions of cestode counts in the treated cats when compared to the untreated controls (P<0.01). All cats accepted the treatment well based on health observations post-treatment and daily health observations. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability of the novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against a broad range of feline intestinal nematode and cestode infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.033DOI Listing
April 2014

Efficacy against nematode and cestode infections and safety of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination product in domestic cats under field conditions in Europe.

Vet Parasitol 2014 Apr;202(1-2):10-7

Merial GmbH, Kathrinenhof Research Center, 83101 Rohrdorf, Germany.

A novel topical combination product (BROADLINE(®), Merial) composed of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was evaluated for safety and efficacy against nematode and cestode infections in domestic cats. The study comprised a multi-centre, positive control, blinded, field study, using a randomized block design based on order of presentation for allocation. In total 196 client-owned cats, confirmed as positive for naturally acquired infections of nematodes and/or cestodes by pre-treatment faecal examination, were studied in seven countries in Europe. Pre-treatment faecal examination revealed the presence of Toxocara, hookworm, Capillaria and/or spirurid nematode infections in 129, 73, 33 or 1 cat(s), respectively; infections with taeniid and Dipylidium cestodes were demonstrated in 39 and 17 cats, respectively. Cats were allocated randomly to one of two treatments in a ratio of 2, topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial; 130 cats); and 1, topical PROFENDER(®) Spot-On (Bayer; 66 cats) and treated once on Day 0. For evaluation of efficacy, two faecal samples were collected, one prior to treatment (Day -4 ± 4 days) and one at the end of the study (Day 14 ± 5 days). These were examined for fecal forms of nematode and cestode parasites. For evaluation of safety, cats were examined by a veterinarian before treatment and at the end of the study, and cat owners recorded the health status of their cats daily until the end of the study. For cats treated with Broadline(®), the efficacy was >99.9%, 100%, and 99.6% for Toxocara, hookworms, and Capillaria, respectively; and the efficacy was >99.9%, >99.9%, and 98.5%, respectively, for the cats treated with Profender(®) (p<0.001 for all nematodes and both treatments). Efficacy was 100% for both cestodes for both treatments (p<0.001). No treatment related adverse experiences were observed throughout the study. For both treatments, every cat that completed the study was given a safety score of 'excellent' for both local and systemic evaluations. The topical combination product of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was shown to have an excellent safety profile and demonstrated high levels of efficacy when administered once as topical solution to cats infected with nematodes and cestodes under field conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.032DOI Listing
April 2014

Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of eprinomectin in cats when administered in a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel.

Vet Parasitol 2014 Apr;202(1-2):2-9

Merial Limited, Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Duluth, GA 30096, USA.

Four studies were conducted to determine the pharmacokinetic characteristics and in vitro metabolism of eprinomectin, a semi-synthetic avermectin, in cats. Pharmacokinetic parameters including bioavailability of eprinomectin were determined in a parallel study design comprised of one group of eight cats which were treated once topically at 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight with BROADLINE(®), a novel combination product (fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v) and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v)), delivering a dose of 0.5mg eprinomectin per kg body weight, and a group of six cats which received 0.4% (w/v) eprinomectin at 0.4 mg/kg bodyweight once by intravenous injection. For cats treated by topical application, the average eprinomectin (B1a component) maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 20 ng/mL. The maximum concentrations were reached 24h after dosing in the majority of the animals (six of eight cats). The average terminal half-life was 114 h due to slow absorption ('flip-flop' kinetics). Following intravenous administration the average Cmax was 503 ng/mL at 5 min post-dose, and the mean elimination half-life was 23 h. Eprinomectin was widely distributed with a mean volume of distribution of 2,390 mL/kg, and the clearance rate was 81 mL/h/kg. Mean areas under the plasma concentration versus time curves extrapolated to infinity were 2,100 ngh/mL and 5,160 ngh/mL for the topical and intravenous doses, respectively. Topical eprinomectin was absorbed with an average absolute bioavailability of 31%. In a second parallel design study, the dose proportionality of eprinomectin after single topical administration of BROADLINE(®) was studied. Four groups of eight cats each were treated once topically with 0.5, 1, 2 or 5 times the minimum recommended dose of the combination, 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight. Based on comparison of areas under the plasma concentration versus time curves from the time of dosing to the last time point at which eprinomectin B1a was quantified, and Cmax, dose proportionality was established. In addition, the metabolic pathway of eprinomectin using cat liver microsomes, and plasma protein binding using cat, rat, and dog plasma were studied in vitro. Results of the analyses of eprinomectin B1a described here showed that it is metabolically stable and highly protein bound (>99%), and thus likely to be, as with other species, excreted mainly as unchanged parent drug in the feces of cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.031DOI Listing
April 2014

Efficacy and safety of firocoxib for the treatment of pain associated with soft tissue surgery in dogs under field conditions in Japan.

J Vet Med Sci 2012 Oct 31;74(10):1283-9. Epub 2012 May 31.

Merial Japan, Tokyo Opera City Tower, 3-20-2 Nishi Shinjuku, Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan.

Use of firocoxib in dogs for postoperative pain control has not been published in any of the journals in Japan. A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of firocoxib in dogs in controlling pain associated with soft tissue surgery in Japan. The study followed a negative control, double-blind, multicenter clinical efficacy study using a randomized block design. A total of 131 client-owned dogs presented to the clinical practices for soft tissue surgery were enrolled. Sixty-nine dogs were allocated to the firocoxib-treated group and received 5 mg/kg of firocoxib orally on Day 0 before the surgery and once daily through Day 2, while 62 dogs were allocated to the non-treated group handled in a similar manner only without the firocoxib administration. Pain assessment took place on Day 0 before the surgery through Day 2. The primary efficacy variable was a success/failure variable based on whether the dog needed rescue medication (based on pain assessment after the surgery or Investigator's judgment) and a significant difference between firocoxib-treated group (16.4%) and non-treated group (50.0%) (P=0.0031) was observed. There was no adverse event during the study that was considered to be related to the administration of firocoxib. This study indicated the clinical efficacy and safety profile of firocoxib administered to control pain associated with soft tissue surgery under field condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.11-0306DOI Listing
October 2012
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