Publications by authors named "Joseph Riss"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Dominant B-cell epitopes from cancer/stem cell antigen SOX2 recognized by serum samples from cancer patients.

Am J Clin Exp Immunol 2014 15;3(2):84-90. Epub 2014 Aug 15.

Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Human sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) is an important transcriptional factor involved in the pluripotency and stemness of human embryonic stem cells. SOX2 plays important roles in maintaining cancer stem cell activities of melanoma and cancers of the brain, prostate, breast, and lung. SOX2 is also a lineage survival oncogene for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and esophagus. Spontaneous cellular and humoral immune responses against SOX2 present in cancer patients classify it as a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) shared by lung cancer, glioblastoma, and prostate cancer among others. In this study, B-cell epitopes were predicted using computer-assisted algorithms. Synthetic peptides based on the prediction were screened for recognition by serum samples from cancer patients using ELISA. Two dominant B-cell epitopes, SOX2:52-87 and SOX2:98-124 were identified. Prostate cancer, glioblastoma and lung cancer serum samples that recognized the above SOX2 epitopes also recognized the full-length protein based on Western blot. These B-cell epitopes may be used in assessing humoral immune responses against SOX2 in cancer immunotherapy and stem cell-related transplantation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4138131PMC
August 2014

Salvage-targeted kidney cancer therapy in patients progressing on high-dose interleukin-2 immunotherapy: the UCLA experience.

Cancer J 2013 May-Jun;19(3):189-96

Institute of Urologic Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA.

Purpose: To analyze the outcomes of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with salvage-targeted therapy after progressing on high-dose interleukin (IL)-2 immunotherapy in a tertiary referral center.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective nonrandomized cohort consisting of 286 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated from 2003 to 2010 was analyzed from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Kidney Cancer database. All patients underwent cytoreductive nephrectomy, and 21 patients received salvage-targeted therapy after progression on high-dose IL-2, whereas 111 patients received targeted therapy alone. The remaining 154 patients had other treatment combinations or experimental targeted therapy agents only. Since 2003, selection of patients for high-dose IL-2 was increasingly based on clinical, pathologic, and molecular criteria (UCLA CPM criteria). Disease-specific survival was calculated from diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

Results: Patients selected according to UCLA CPM criteria and treated with salvage-targeted therapy after progressing on high-dose IL-2 experienced a significantly greater disease-specific survival (median not reached) than those treated with targeted therapy alone (30 months; P = 0.004). Since 2006, all high-dose IL-2 patients met the UCLA CPM criteria and were able to receive salvage-targeted therapy upon progression. Disease-specific survival calculated from initiation of targeted therapy was comparable for patients treated with salvage-targeted therapy after progression on high-dose IL-2 (34 months) versus first-line targeted therapy (26 months; P = 0.175).

Discussion: Patients selected for high-dose IL-2 based on UCLA CPM criteria and treated with salvage-targeted therapy upon progression have achieved outstanding disease-specific survival. Our data suggest a new algorithm for carefully selected patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma based on UCLA CPM criteria to receive first-line high-dose IL-2 while reserving their option for salvage-targeted therapy with uncompromised efficacy upon progression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PPO.0b013e318292e8a4DOI Listing
December 2013

Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy in prevention and treatment of renal cell carcinoma: efficacy, safety, and activity of Ad-GM·CAIX in immunocompetent mouse models.

J Immunother 2013 Feb;36(2):102-11

Institute of Urologic Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA.

The dendritic cell vaccine DC-Ad-GM·CAIX is an active, specific immunotherapy with the potential of providing a safe and effective therapy against renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Using immunocompetent Balb/c mouse models we tested the efficacy and mechanism of the vaccine to prevent and treat the growth of a syngeneic RCC (RENCA) engineered to overexpress the human TAA carbonic anhydrase IX (NPR-IX). In a prevention model, NPR-IX tumor development was specifically and significantly delayed by 13 days in DC-Ad-GM·CAIX-treated mice (P < 0.001), tumor volumes were 79% smaller (day 24, P < 0.007), and body weight was maintained at study termination compared with the controls. Six of these mice remained tumor-free for > 1 year. In a treatment model, NPR-IX tumors remained smaller in DC-Ad-GM·CAIX-treated mice for 8 days (P < 0.002), achieving a 60% growth inhibition at termination. No vaccine-related organ toxicity was observed in either model. The critical mechanistic parameter separating responsive from nonresponsive tumors was hCAIX protein expression, demonstrated by aggressive growth of tumors that did not express hCAIX protein and in sham-treated mice (DC-Ad-Null). No murine serum anti-hCAIX antibodies were detected. Moreover, altered mechanisms of immunoediting as a means for immune evasion were suggested by differential gene expression (Ccl1, Hmgb1, Fgl2, Cd209a, and Klra2) and therapy evasion miRNAs (miR-1186, miR-98, miR-5097, miR-1942, and miR-708) in tumors that evaded DC-Ad-GM·CAIX immunotherapy. This is the first study in immunocompetent mice that provides a proof of concept for the specificity, efficacy, safety, and activity of the DC-Ad-GM·CAIX immunotherapy, forming the basis for a first-in-human phase I trial in RCC patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CJI.0b013e31827bec97DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410717PMC
February 2013

Deletions of chromosomes 3p and 14q molecularly subclassify clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Cancer 2013 Apr 18;119(8):1547-54. Epub 2013 Jan 18.

Institute of Urologic Oncology, Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: The short arm of chromosome 3 (3p) harbors the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene, and the long arm of chromosome 14 (14q) harbors the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) gene. The objective of this study was to evaluate the significance of 3p loss (loss VHL gene) and 14q loss (loss HIF-1α gene) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).

Methods: In total, 288 ccRCC tumors underwent a prospective cytogenetic analysis for alterations in chromosomes 3p and 14q. Tumors were assigned to 1 of 4 possible chromosomal alterations: VHL +3p/+14q (VHL wild type [VHL-WT]), VHL +3p/-14q (VHL-WT plus HIF2α [WT/H2]), -3p/+14q (HIF1α and HIF2α [H1H2]), and -3p/-14q (HIF2α [H2]).

Results: Among patients who had loss of 3p, tumors with -3p/-14q (H2) alterations were larger (P = .002), had higher grade (P = .002) and stage (P = .001), and more often were metastatic (P = .029) than tumors that retained 14q (H1H2). All patients who had tumors with -3p/-14q (H2) had worse cancer-specific survival (P = .014), and patients who had localized disease (P = .012) and primary T1 (pT1) tumors (P = .008) had worse recurrence-free survival. In patients who had pT1 tumors, combined 3p/14q loss was an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio, 11.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.91-65.63) and cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio, 15.93; 95% confidence interval, 3.09-82.16). The current investigation was limited by its retrospective design, single-center experience, and a lack of confirmatory protein analyses.

Conclusions: Loss of chromosome 3p (the VHL gene) was associated with improved survival in patients with ccRCC, whereas loss of chromosome 14q (the HIF-1α gene) was associated with worse outcomes. The results of the current study support the hypothesis that HIF-1α functions as an important tumor suppressor gene in ccRCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.27947DOI Listing
April 2013

Gain of chromosome 8q is associated with metastases and poor survival of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Cancer 2012 Dec 17;118(23):5777-82. Epub 2012 May 17.

Department of Urology, Institute of Urologic Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095-7384, USA.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of chromosome 8q gain in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and to correlate the findings with tumor phenotype and disease-specific survival (DSS).

Methods: The tumor karyotypes of 336 consecutive patients with CCRCC were prospectively evaluated with classical cytogenetic analysis. Chromosome 8q status was correlated with clinicopathological variables, and its impact on DSS was evaluated.

Results: Gain of 8q occurred in 28 tumors (8.3%). Gain of 8q was associated with a higher risk of regional lymph node (21.4% vs 6.2%, P = .011) and distant metastases (50.0% vs 24.4%, P = .006), and greater tumor sizes (P = .030). Patients with gain of 8q had a 3.22-fold increased risk of death from CCRCC (P < .001). In multivariable analysis, gain of 8q was identified as an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 2.37; P = .006). The concordance index of a multivariable base model increased significantly following inclusion of 8q gain (P = .0015).

Conclusions: Gain of chromosome 8q occurs in a subset of CCRCCs and is associated with an increased risk of metastases and death from CCRCC. Because the proto-oncogene c-MYC is among the list of candidate genes located on 8q, our data suggest that these tumors may have unique pathways activated, which are associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype. If confirmed, defining tumors with gain of 8q may assist in identifying patients who would benefit for specific c-MYC inhibitors or agents that target the MAPK/ERK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.27607DOI Listing
December 2012

Cancers as wounds that do not heal: differences and similarities between renal regeneration/repair and renal cell carcinoma.

Cancer Res 2006 Jul;66(14):7216-24

Laboratory of Biosystems and Cancer, Comparative Oncology Program, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Cancers have been described as wounds that do not heal, suggesting that the two share common features. By comparing microarray data from a model of renal regeneration and repair (RRR) with reported gene expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we asked whether those two processes do, in fact, share molecular features and regulatory mechanisms. The majority (77%) of the genes expressed in RRR and RCC were concordantly regulated, whereas only 23% were discordant (i.e., changed in opposite directions). The orchestrated processes of regeneration, involving cell proliferation and immune response, were reflected in the concordant genes. The discordant gene signature revealed processes (e.g., morphogenesis and glycolysis) and pathways (e.g., hypoxia-inducible factor and insulin-like growth factor-I) that reflect the intrinsic pathologic nature of RCC. This is the first study that compares gene expression patterns in RCC and RRR. It does so, in particular, with relation to the hypothesis that RCC resembles the wound healing processes seen in RRR. However, careful attention to the genes that are regulated in the discordant direction provides new insights into the critical differences between renal carcinogenesis and wound healing. The observations reported here provide a conceptual framework for further efforts to understand the biology and to develop more effective diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for renal tumors and renal ischemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-0040DOI Listing
July 2006

Mistaken identifiers: gene name errors can be introduced inadvertently when using Excel in bioinformatics.

BMC Bioinformatics 2004 Jun 23;5:80. Epub 2004 Jun 23.

Genomics & Bioinformatics Group, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research (CCR), National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.

Background: When processing microarray data sets, we recently noticed that some gene names were being changed inadvertently to non-gene names.

Results: A little detective work traced the problem to default date format conversions and floating-point format conversions in the very useful Excel program package. The date conversions affect at least 30 gene names; the floating-point conversions affect at least 2,000 if Riken identifiers are included. These conversions are irreversible; the original gene names cannot be recovered.

Conclusions: Users of Excel for analyses involving gene names should be aware of this problem, which can cause genes, including medically important ones, to be lost from view and which has contaminated even carefully curated public databases. We provide work-arounds and scripts for circumventing the problem.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-5-80DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC459209PMC
June 2004

Regulation of HIF prolyl hydroxylases by hypoxia-inducible factors.

J Cell Biochem 2004 Jun;92(3):491-501

Laboratory of Biosystems and Cancer, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Hypoxia and induction of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha) is a hallmark of many tumors. Under normal oxygen tension HIF-alpha subunits are rapidly degraded through prolyl hydroxylase dependent interaction with the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein, a component of E3 ubuiquitin ligase complex. Using microarray analysis of VHL mutated and re-introduced cells, we found that one of the prolyl hydroxylases (PHD3) is coordinately expressed with known HIF target genes, while the other two family members (PHD1 and 2) did not respond to VHL. We further tested the regulation of these genes by HIF-1 and HIF-2 and found that siRNA targeted degradation of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha results in decreased hypoxia-induced PHD3 expression. Ectopic overexpression of HIF-2alpha in two different cell lines provided a much better induction of PHD3 gene than HIF-1alpha. In contrast, we demonstrate that PHD2 is not affected by overexpression or downregulation of HIF-2alpha. However, induction of PHD2 by hypoxia has HIF-1-independent and -dependent components. Short-term hypoxia (4 h) results in induction of PHD2 independent of HIF-1, while PHD2 accumulation by prolonged hypoxia (16 h) was decreased by siRNA-mediated degradation of HIF-1alpha subunit. These data further advance our understanding of the differential role of HIF factors and putative feedback loop in HIF regulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.20067DOI Listing
June 2004

Properties of switch-like bioregulatory networks studied by simulation of the hypoxia response control system.

Mol Biol Cell 2004 Jul 23;15(7):3042-52. Epub 2004 Apr 23.

Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

A complex bioregulatory network could be more easily comprehended if its essential function could be described by a small "core" subsystem, and if its response characteristics were switch-like. We tested this proposition by simulation studies of the hypoxia response control network. We hypothesized that a small subsystem governs the basics of the cellular response to hypoxia and that this response has a sharp oxygen-dependent transition. A molecular interaction map of the network was prepared, and an evolutionarily conserved core subsystem was extracted that could control the activity of hypoxia response promoter elements on the basis of oxygen concentration. The core subsystem included the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIFalpha:ARNT heterodimer), proline hydroxylase, and the von Hippel-Lindau protein. Simulation studies showed that the same core subsystem can exhibit switch-like responses both to oxygen level and to HIFalpha synthesis rate, thus suggesting a mechanism for hypoxia response promoter element-dependent responses common to both hypoxia and growth factor signaling. The studies disclosed the mechanism responsible for the sharp transitions. We show how parameter sets giving switch-like behavior can be found and how this type of behavior provides a foundation for quantitative studies in cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e03-12-0897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC452562PMC
July 2004

Solid renal tumor severity in von Hippel Lindau disease is related to germline deletion length and location.

Hum Mutat 2004 Jan;23(1):40-6

Urologic Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

von Hippel Lindau disease (VHL) is an autosomal dominant familial cancer syndrome linked to alteration of the VHL tumor suppressor gene. Affected patients are predisposed to develop pheochromocytomas and cystic and solid tumors of the kidney, CNS, pancreas, retina, and epididymis. However, organ involvement varies considerably among families and has been shown to correlate with the underlying germline alteration. Clinically, we observed a paradoxically lower prevalence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients with complete germline deletion of VHL. To determine if a relationship existed between the type of VHL deletion and disease, we retrospectively evaluated 123 patients from 55 families with large germline VHL deletions, including 42 intragenic partial deletions and 13 complete VHL deletions, by history and radiographic imaging. Each individual and family was scored for cystic or solid involvement of CNS, pancreas, and kidney, and for pheochromocytoma. Germline deletions were mapped using a combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative Southern and Southern blot analysis. An age-adjusted comparison demonstrated a higher prevalence of RCC in patients with partial germline VHL deletions relative to complete deletions (48.9 vs. 22.6%, p=0.007). This striking phenotypic dichotomy was not seen for cystic renal lesions or for CNS (p=0.22), pancreas (p=0.72), or pheochromocytoma (p=0.34). Deletion mapping revealed that development of RCC had an even greater correlation with retention of HSPC300 (C3orf10), located within the 30-kb region of chromosome 3p, immediately telomeric to VHL (52.3 vs. 18.9%, p <0.001), suggesting the presence of a neighboring gene or genes critical to the development and maintenance of RCC. Careful correlation of genotypic data with objective phenotypic measures will provide further insight into the mechanisms of tumor formation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.10302DOI Listing
January 2004

Predicting survival in patients with metastatic kidney cancer by gene-expression profiling in the primary tumor.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003 Jun 30;100(12):6958-63. Epub 2003 May 30.

Urologic Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

To identify potential molecular determinants of tumor biology and possible clinical outcomes, global gene-expression patterns were analyzed in the primary tumors of patients with metastatic renal cell cancer by using cDNA microarrays. We used grossly dissected tumor masses that included tumor, blood vessels, connective tissue, and infiltrating immune cells to obtain a gene-expression "profile" from each primary tumor. Two patterns of gene expression were found within this uniformly staged patient population, which correlated with a significant difference in overall survival between the two patient groups. Subsets of genes most significantly associated with survival were defined, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was the gene most predictive for survival. Therefore, despite the complex biological nature of metastatic cancer, basic clinical behavior as defined by survival may be determined by the gene-expression patterns expressed within the compilation of primary gross tumor cells. We conclude that survival in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer can be correlated with the expression of various genes based solely on the expression profile in the primary kidney tumor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1131754100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC165812PMC
June 2003

GoMiner: a resource for biological interpretation of genomic and proteomic data.

Genome Biol 2003 25;4(4):R28. Epub 2003 Mar 25.

Genomics and Bioinformatics Group, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

We have developed GoMiner, a program package that organizes lists of 'interesting' genes (for example, under- and overexpressed genes from a microarray experiment) for biological interpretation in the context of the Gene Ontology. GoMiner provides quantitative and statistical output files and two useful visualizations. The first is a tree-like structure analogous to that in the AmiGO browser and the second is a compact, dynamically interactive 'directed acyclic graph'. Genes displayed in GoMiner are linked to major public bioinformatics resources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC154579PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gb-2003-4-4-r28DOI Listing
May 2003

The contribution of VHL substrate binding and HIF1-alpha to the phenotype of VHL loss in renal cell carcinoma.

Cancer Cell 2002 Apr;1(3):247-55

Urologic Oncology Branch, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Clear-cell renal carcinoma is associated with inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. VHL is the substrate recognition subunit of an E3 ligase, known to target the alpha subunits of the HIF heterodimeric transcription factor for ubiquitin-mediated degradation under normoxic conditions. We demonstrate that competitive inhibition of the VHL substrate recognition site with a peptide derived from the oxygen degradation domain of HIF1alpha recapitulates the tumorigenic phenotype of VHL-deficient tumor cells. These studies prove that VHL substrate recognition is essential to the tumor suppressor function of VHL. We further demonstrate that normoxic stabilization of HIF1alpha alone, while capable of mimicking some aspects of VHL loss, is not sufficient to reproduce tumorigenesis, indicating that it is not the critical oncogenic substrate of VHL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1535-6108(02)00044-2DOI Listing
April 2002