Publications by authors named "Joseph R Schneider"

55 Publications

Clinical impact of sex on carotid revascularization.

J Vasc Surg 2020 05 1;71(5):1587-1594.e2. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Background: The impact of sex in the management of carotid disease is unclear in the current literature. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of sex on perioperative outcomes following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS).

Methods: We included patients who underwent CEA or CAS between 2012 and 2017 in the Vascular Quality Initiative database. Our primary outcome was perioperative stroke/death. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital stroke, 30-day mortality, and in-hospital MI. We compared perioperative outcomes between female and male patients, stratified by treatment modality and symptom status, and used multivariable regression to account for differences in baseline characteristics.

Results: A total of 83,436 patients underwent either a CEA (71,383) or CAS (12,053). Asymptomatic and symptomatic CEA females were less likely to be on a preoperative antiplatelet agent, when compared to males. Females overall, were less likely to be on a preoperative statin and more likely to have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Within the CAS cohort, females were more likely to have a previous ipsilateral CEA. There were no differences between males and females in major adverse events following CEA for asymptomatic disease. Following CEA for symptomatic disease, there was no difference in stroke/death rate or in-hospital stroke. However, females experienced a higher 30-mortality after adjustment (univariate: 1.0% vs 0.7%, P = .04; adjusted: odds ratio [OR], 1.4:1.02-1.94). Following CAS for asymptomatic disease, females experienced a higher rate of perioperative stroke/death (2.9% vs 1.9% P = .02; OR, 1.5: 1.05-2.03) and in-hospital stroke (2.1% vs 1.2% P = .01; OR, 1.8: 1.20-2.60). There were no differences in outcomes for symptomatic females vs males undergoing CAS.

Conclusions: Females with carotid disease less frequently receive optimal medical treatment with antiplatelet agents and statins. This is an important target area for quality improvement issue in both females and males. Furthermore, among symptomatic CEA patients the female sex is associated with higher mortality and among asymptomatic CAS patients, females experience higher rates of stroke/death. These findings suggest that careful patient selection is necessary in the treatment of female patients. Quality improvement projects should be created to further investigate and eliminate the disparities of optimal medical management between the sexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.07.088DOI Listing
May 2020

Quality of life after pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis for proximal deep venous thrombosis.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2020 01;8(1):8-23.e18

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Mo.

Background: After deep venous thrombosis (DVT), many patients have impaired quality of life (QOL). We aimed to assess whether pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis (PCDT) improves short-term or long-term QOL in patients with proximal DVT and whether QOL is related to extent of DVT.

Methods: The Acute Venous Thrombosis: Thrombus Removal with Adjunctive Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis (ATTRACT) trial was an assessor-blinded randomized trial that compared PCDT with no PCDT in patients with DVT of the femoral, common femoral, or iliac veins. QOL was assessed at baseline and 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 24 months using the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study on Quality of Life/Symptoms (VEINES-QOL/Sym) disease-specific QOL measure and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary general QOL measures. Change in QOL scores from baseline to assessment time were compared in the PCDT and no PCDT treatment groups overall and in the iliofemoral DVT and femoral-popliteal DVT subgroups.

Results: Of 692 ATTRACT patients, 691 were analyzed (mean age, 53 years; 62% male; 57% iliofemoral DVT). VEINES-QOL change scores were greater (ie, better) in PCDT vs no PCDT from baseline to 1 month (difference, 5.7; P = .0006) and from baseline to 6 months (5.1; P = .0029) but not for other intervals. SF-36 PCS change scores were greater in PCDT vs no PCDT from baseline to 1 month (difference, 2.4; P = .01) but not for other intervals. Among iliofemoral DVT patients, VEINES-QOL change scores from baseline to all assessments were greater in the PCDT vs no PCDT group; this was statistically significant in the intention-to-treat analysis at 1 month (difference, 10.0; P < .0001) and 6 months (8.8; P < .0001) and in the per-protocol analysis at 18 months (difference, 5.8; P = .0086) and 24 months (difference, 6.6; P = .0067). SF-36 PCS change scores were greater in PCDT vs no PCDT from baseline to 1 month (difference, 3.2; P = .0010) but not for other intervals. In contrast, in femoral-popliteal DVT patients, change scores from baseline to all assessments were similar in the PCDT and no PCDT groups.

Conclusions: Among patients with proximal DVT, PCDT leads to greater improvement in disease-specific QOL than no PCDT at 1 month and 6 months but not later. In patients with iliofemoral DVT, PCDT led to greater improvement in disease-specific QOL during 24 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2019.03.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7681916PMC
January 2020

Trans-Iliac Wing Bypass for Lower Extremity Arterial Reconstruction.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2019 12;58(6):936

Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2019.11.010DOI Listing
December 2019

Outcomes following Eversion versus Conventional Endarterectomy in the Vascular Quality Initiative Database.

Ann Vasc Surg 2020 May 15;65:1-9. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Surgery, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA. Electronic address:

Background: Although the majority of vascular surgeons perform conventional carotid endarterectomy (c-CEA), others prefer eversion CEA (e-CEA). Despite several randomized controlled trials and single center studies, the advantage of one technique over the other is still not clearly defined. The purpose of this study is to compare the postoperative outcomes and durability of c-CEA versus e-CEA in a nationally representative cohort.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the Vascular Quality Initiative database between 2003 and 2018. Patients with prior ipsilateral carotid intervention (CEA and carotid artery stenting) and those undergoing concomitant procedures were excluded. Multivariable logistic and Cox-regression analyses were used to compare risk-adjusted perioperative and 1-year outcomes (stroke, death, and high-grade restenosis [>70%]) between c-CEA (using direct closure or patch angioplasty) and e-CEA.

Results: A total of 95,726 CEA cases were included, of which 12,050 (12.6%) were e-CEA and the remaining (87.4%) were c-CEA. Patch angioplasty was used in 94.9% of c-CEA compared with 49.7% of e-CEA (P < 0.001). On univariable analysis, no difference in perioperative outcomes was noted between the 2 approaches except for higher rates of in-hospital dysrhythmia (1.5% vs. 1.3%) and postprocedural hemodynamic instability (27.3% vs. 24.3%) after c-CEA compared with e-CEA (all P < 0.05). On the other hand, e-CEA patients were more likely to return to the operating room for bleeding (1.3% vs. c-CEA: 0.9%, P < 0.001). The outcomes of e-CEA did not differ if the common carotid artery was closed primarily or with a patch. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying with respect to patch use, there was no significant difference in outcomes between e-CEA and c-CEA when a patch is used in both procedures. However, when no patching was performed, e-CEA was associated with lower stroke/death at 30 days (odds ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.95, P = 0.02) and at 1 year (hazard ratio 0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.97, P = 0.03).

Conclusions: Both e-CEA and c-CEA are safe and durable techniques with similar stroke/death and restenosis rates up to 1-year of follow up, as long as c-CEA is performed with patch angioplasty. However, e-CEA is superior to c-CEA without patch angioplasty and is associated with 28% and 25% reduction in 30-day and 1-year stroke/death, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2019.07.021DOI Listing
May 2020

Results of carotid endarterectomy in patients with contralateral internal carotid artery occlusion from the Mid-America Vascular Study Group and the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative.

J Vasc Surg 2020 03 21;71(3):832-841. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Ill; Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Ill.

Objective: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is among the most commonly performed vascular procedures. Some have suggested worse outcomes with contralateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. We compared patients with and patients without contralateral ICA occlusion using the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative database.

Methods: Deidentified data were obtained from the Vascular Quality Initiative. Patients with prior ipsilateral or contralateral CEA, carotid stenting, combined CEA and coronary artery bypass graft, or <1-year follow-up were excluded, yielding 1737 patients with and 45,179 patients without contralateral ICA occlusion. Groups were compared with univariate tests, and differences identified in univariate testing were entered into multivariate models to identify independent predictors of outcomes and in particular whether contralateral ICA occlusion is an independent predictor of outcomes.

Results: Patients with contralateral ICA occlusion were younger and more likely to be smokers; they were more likely to have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, preoperative neurologic symptoms (56% vs 47%), nonelective CEA (16% vs 13%), and shunt placement (75% vs 53%; all P < .001). The 30-day ipsilateral stroke risk was 1.3% with vs 0.7% without contralateral ICA occlusion (P = .004). The 30-day and 1-year survival estimates were 99.0% ± 0.5% and 94.1% ± 1.1% with vs 99.6% ± 0.1% and 96.0% ± 0.2% without contralateral ICA occlusion (log-rank, P < .001). Logistic regression analysis identified prior neurologic event (P = .046), nonelective surgery (P = .047), absence of coronary artery disease (P = .035), and preoperative angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use (P = .029) to be associated with 30-day ipsilateral stroke risk, but contralateral ICA occlusion remained an independent predictor in that model (odds ratio, 2.29; P = .026). However, after adjustment for other factors (Cox proportional hazards), risk of ipsilateral stroke (including perioperative) during follow-up was not significantly greater with contralateral ICA occlusion (hazard ratio, 1.21; P = .32). Results comparing propensity score-matched cohorts mirrored those from the larger data set.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates likely clinically insignificant differences in early stroke or death in comparing CEA patients with and those without contralateral ICA occlusion. After adjustment for other factors, contralateral ICA occlusion was not associated with a greater risk of ipsilateral stroke (including perioperative) in longer follow-up. Mortality was greater with contralateral ICA occlusion, and this difference was more pronounced at 1 year despite younger age of the contralateral ICA occlusion group. CEA risk remains low even in the presence of contralateral ICA occlusion and appears to be explained at least in part by other factors. CEA should still be considered appropriate in the face of contralateral ICA occlusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.05.040DOI Listing
March 2020

Invited commentary.

J Vasc Surg 2019 01;69(1):110-111

Winfield, Ill.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2018.04.042DOI Listing
January 2019

Regional variation in patient outcomes in carotid artery disease treatment in the Vascular Quality Initiative.

J Vasc Surg 2018 09 20;68(3):749-759. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Objective: Quality metrics were developed to improve outcomes after carotid artery revascularization; however, few studies have evaluated regional differences in perioperative outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate regional variation in mortality and perioperative outcomes after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS).

Methods: We identified all patients who underwent CEA or CAS from 2009 to 2016 in the Vascular Quality Initiative. Patients were analyzed on the basis of their symptom status. We assessed variation in perioperative outcomes using χ analysis, Fisher exact test, and t-test, where appropriate.

Results: A total of 78,467 carotid interventions were identified; 85% were CEAs, with 69% of those asymptomatic. Within CAS, 39% were asymptomatic. Perioperative stroke/death varied across regions within both CAS groups (asymptomatic, 0%-5.8% [P = .03]; symptomatic, 2.4%-8.1% [P = .1]), and several regions did not meet the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines of 3% for asymptomatic patients and 6% for symptomatic patients, which persisted after risk adjustment. For CEA, the stroke/death rates fell within the standards set by the AHA guidelines in all regions for both the unadjusted and risk-adjusted models; however, there was significant regional variation in the cohorts (asymptomatic, 0.9%-3.1% [P < .01]; symptomatic, 1.3%-4.9% [P < .01]). Variation in 30-day mortality was significant in symptomatic patients (asymptomatic: CEA, 0%-1.3% [P = .2], CAS, 0%-2.4% [P = .2]; symptomatic: CEA, 0%-1.8% [P < .01], CAS, 0%-4.6% [P = .01]). Rates of in-hospital stroke, postoperative myocardial infarction, prolonged length of stay (>2 days), and use of intravenous blood pressure medications all varied significantly across the regions. After CEA, there was significant variation in the rates of cranial nerve injuries (asymptomatic, 0.9%-4.9% [P < .01]; symptomatic, 1.5%-7.7% [P < .01]), return to the operating room (asymptomatic, 0.9%-3.4% [P < .01]; symptomatic, 0.6%-3.4% [P = .02]), and discharge on antiplatelet and statin (asymptomatic, 75%-87% [P < .01]; symptomatic, 78%-91% [P < .01]). After CAS, significant variation was found in the rates of access site complications (asymptomatic, 2.3%-18.2% [P < .01]; symptomatic, 1.4%-16.9% [P < .01]) and discharge on dual antiplatelet therapy (asymptomatic, 79%-94% [P < .01]; symptomatic, 83%-93% [P < .01]).

Conclusions: Unwarranted regional variation exists in outcomes after carotid artery revascularization across the regions of the VQI. Significant variation was seen in a number of outcomes for which quality metrics currently exist, such as length of stay and discharge medications. In addition, after CAS, several regions failed to meet the AHA guidelines for stroke and death. Given these results, quality improvement projects should be targeted to improve adherence to current guidelines to promote best practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2017.11.080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109605PMC
September 2018

Comparison of Direct and Less Invasive Techniques for the Treatment of Severe Aorto-Iliac Occlusive Disease.

Ann Vasc Surg 2018 Jan 21;46:226-233. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

Background: Severe aorto-iliac occlusive disease (AIOD) is traditionally treated with aorto-bifemoral bypass (ABF) or aorto-unifemoral bypass (AUF). However, cross-femoral bypass (CFB) and hybrid femoral endarterectomy and patch angioplasty with iliac stenting (EPS) have gained popularity as less invasive options. We sought to compare 1-year survival, primary patency, and major amputation rates between open surgical (ABF and AUF) and 2 less invasive reconstruction techniques (CFB and EPS) using a large, multicenter cohort.

Study Design: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent either ABF/AUF or CFB/EPS for AIOD between 2006 and 2013 in the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative registry. Baseline patient and periprocedural variables were compared. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to predict the likelihood of more invasive repair. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models were performed for 1-year survival, primary patency, and major amputation.

Results: 1872 patients underwent procedures for AIOD, including 1,133 ABF/AUF and 739 CFB/EPS, during the study period. Indication was critical limb ischemia in 47.3% (n = 886). Median follow-up time was 305 days (range, 10-406). After PSM, the matched cohort included 1,094 ABF/AUF and 711 CFB/EPS patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that patient factors and procedure indication were significant predictors of 1-year mortality and major amputation, but not procedure type. ABF/AUF was associated with improved primary patency over CFB/EPS at 1 year (94.1% ± 1.1% vs. 92.3% ± 1.5%, hazard ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.45-0.94; P = 0.02).

Conclusions: In a propensity-matched cohort from a multicenter vascular surgery registry, a direct approach to AIOD (ABF/AUF) demonstrated better 1-year primary patency than commonly used less invasive strategies. However, treatment approach was not a predictor of 1-year survival or limb salvage, suggesting that patient factors and procedure indication have a greater impact on outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2017.07.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5726928PMC
January 2018

Variation in hospital costs and reimbursement for endovascular aneurysm repair: A Vascular Quality Initiative pilot project.

J Vasc Surg 2017 10 11;66(4):1073-1082. Epub 2017 May 11.

Section of Vascular Surgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH.

Objective: Comparing costs between centers is difficult because of the heterogeneity of vascular procedures contained in broad diagnosis-related group (DRG) billing categories. The purpose of this pilot project was to develop a mechanism to merge Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) clinical data with hospital billing data to allow more accurate cost and reimbursement comparison for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) procedures across centers.

Methods: Eighteen VQI centers volunteered to submit UB04 billing data for 782 primary, elective infrarenal EVAR procedures performed by 108 surgeons in 2014. Procedures were categorized as standard or complex (with femoral-femoral bypass or additional arterial treatment) and without or with complications (arterial injury or embolectomy; bowel or leg ischemia; wound infection; reoperation; or cardiac, pulmonary, or renal complications), yielding four clinical groups for comparison. MedAssets, Inc, using cost to charge ratios, calculated total hospital costs and cost categories. Cost variation analyzed across centers was compared with DRG 237 (with major complication or comorbidity) and 238 (without major complication or comorbidity) coding. A multivariable model to predict DRG 237 coding was developed using VQI clinical data.

Results: Of the 782 EVAR procedures, 56% were standard and 15% had complications, with wide variation between centers. Mean total costs ranged from $31,100 for standard EVAR without complications to $47,400 for complex EVAR with complications and varied twofold to threefold among centers. Implant costs for standard EVAR without complications varied from $8100 to $28,200 across centers. Average Medicare reimbursement was less than total cost except for standard EVAR without complications. Only 9% of all procedures with complications in the VQI were reported in the higher reimbursed DRG 237 category (center range, 0%-21%). There was significant variation in hospitals' coding of DRG 237 compared with their expected rates. VQI clinical data accurately predict current DRG coding (C statistic, 0.87).

Conclusions: VQI data allow a more precise EVAR cost comparison by identifying comparable clinical groups compared with DRG-based calculations. Total costs exceeded Medicare reimbursement, especially for patients with complications, although this varied by center. Implant costs also varied more than expected between centers for comparable cases. Incorporation of VQI data elements documenting EVAR case complexity into billing data may allow centers to better align respective DRG reimbursement to total costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2017.02.039DOI Listing
October 2017

Regional variation in patient selection and treatment for carotid artery disease in the Vascular Quality Initiative.

J Vasc Surg 2017 07 27;66(1):112-121. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Objective: Previous studies involving large administrative data sets have revealed regional variation in the demographics of patients selected for carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) but lacked clinical granularity. This study aimed to evaluate regional variation in patient selection and operative technique for carotid artery revascularization using a detailed clinical registry.

Methods: All patients who underwent CEA or CAS from 2009 to 2015 were identified in the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI). Deidentified regional groups were used to evaluate variation in patient selection, operative technique, and perioperative management. χ analysis was used to identify significant variation across regions.

Results: A total of 57,555 carotid artery revascularization procedures were identified. Of these, 49,179 patients underwent CEA (asymptomatic: median, 56%; range, 46%-69%; P < .01) and 8376 patients underwent CAS (asymptomatic: median, 36%; range, 29%-51%; P < .01). There was significant regional variation in the proportion of asymptomatic patients being treated for carotid stenosis <70% in CEA (3%-9%; P < .01) vs CAS (3%-22%; P < .01). There was also significant variation in the rates of intervention for asymptomatic patients older than 80 years (CEA, 12%-27% [P < .01]; CAS, 8%-26% [P < .01]). Preoperative computed tomography angiography or magnetic resonance angiography in the CAS cohort also varied widely (31%-83%; P < .01), as did preoperative medical management with combined aspirin and statin (CEA, 53%-77% [P < .01]; CAS, 62%-80% [P < .01]). In the CEA group, the use of shunt (36%-83%; P < .01), protamine (32%-89%; P < .01), and patch (87%-99%; P < .01) varied widely. Similarly, there was regional variation in frequency of CAS done without a protection device (1%-8%; P < .01).

Conclusions: Despite clinical benchmarks aimed at guiding management of carotid disease, wide variation in clinical practice exists, including the proportion of asymptomatic patients being treated by CAS and preoperative medical management. Additional intraoperative variables, including the use of a patch and protamine during CEA and use of a protection device during CAS, displayed similar variation in spite of clear guidelines. Quality improvement projects could be directed toward improved adherence to benchmarks in these areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2017.01.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5483386PMC
July 2017

A comparison of results of carotid endarterectomy in octogenarians and nonagenarians to younger patients from the Mid-America Vascular Study Group and the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative.

J Vasc Surg 2017 06 1;65(6):1643-1652. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Northwestern Medicine West Region, Winfield, Ill, and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Ill.

Objective: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) reduces stroke risk in selected patients. However, CEA risk profile may be different in older patients. We compared characteristics and outcomes of octogenarians and nonagenarians with those of younger patients.

Methods: Deidentified data from CEA patients were obtained from the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) database. Prior CEA, carotid artery stent, or combined CEA and coronary artery bypass were excluded, yielding 7390 CEAs in octogenarians and nonagenarians (≥80 years of age) and 35,303 CEAs in younger patients (<80 years of age). We compared post-CEA outcomes, including periprocedural cerebral ischemic events and death, and details such as operative time, bleeding, and return to surgery.

Results: Octogenarians and nonagenarians were more likely to have pre-CEA neurologic symptoms (51.4% vs 45.6%; P < .001) and to have never smoked (37.8% vs 22.0%; P < .001), and they were slightly more likely to have required urgent CEA (16.1% vs 13.4%; P < .001). Stenosis ≥70% was similar (octogenarians and nonagenarians, 94.2%; younger patients, 94.4%; P = .45). Perioperative ipsilateral neurologic events and ipsilateral stroke were slightly more common among octogenarians and nonagenarians (1.6% vs 1.1% [P < .001] and 1.2% vs 0.8% [P = .002]). Multivariate modeling (logistic regression) showed that pre-CEA neurologic symptoms (odds ratios, 1.35 [P = .005] and 1.42 [P = .007]), pre-CEA ipsilateral cortical ischemic event (odds ratios, 1.18 [P < .001] and 1.20 [P < .001]), and urgency (odds ratios, 1.75 [P < .001] and 1.67 [P < .001]) remained strong predictors of any ipsilateral neurologic event and any ipsilateral stroke, respectively. However, age ≥80 years remained a significant predictor of these outcomes (odds ratios, 1.37 [P = .003] and 1.44 [P = .004]). Kaplan-Meier estimated survival was lower for octogenarians and nonagenarians at 30 days and 1 year (98.6% vs 99.4% and 93.7% vs 97.0%; log-rank, P < .001). Age ≥80 years was also associated with a greater rate of discharge to other than home after CEA, a difference that was only partially explained by comorbidities in multivariate modeling.

Conclusions: CEA was performed with low rates of perioperative neurologic events and mortality. Multivariate testing showed that the higher rate of neurologic complications in octogenarians and nonagenarians appeared partially related to symptomatic status and urgent surgery; but after adjusting for these factors, age ≥80 years still predicted a slightly higher rate. Periprocedural CEA outcomes appear similar in comparing older and younger patients, although longer term survival is lower for older patients, and older patients are at greater risk of discharge to other than home. CEA was associated with slightly higher risk of neurologic complications in older patients but may be considered appropriate for selected octogenarians and nonagenarians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2016.12.118DOI Listing
June 2017

Reply: To PMID 25925539.

J Vasc Surg 2015 Oct;62(4):1104-5

Division of Vascular Surgery, Northwestern University Fein berg School of Medicine, Chicago, Ill.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2015.06.001DOI Listing
October 2015

Ten year experience of using a novel metabolic protocol in 'off pump' coronary artery bypass revascularization.

Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 2015 Dec 2;9(6):336-41. Epub 2015 Jun 2.

Jacqmar, Inc., 10965 53rd Ave. No., Minneapolis, MN 55442, USA

Purpose: Assessment of both short- and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass using a perioperative metabolic protocol.

Methods: A total of 975 of 995 adult patients underwent coronary artery bypass 'off-pump' from 1997 through 2006. Patients presenting in cardiogenic shock were excluded from this assessment. A perioperative metabolic protocol, which included the implementation of allopurinol, insulin supplementation, magnesium sulfate, supplemental corticosteroids, milrinone, norepinephrine (prn), aspirin, clopidogrel, statins and β-blockers, was used in these patients.

Results: The mean age at the time of surgery was 70.5 years and the average number of bypass grafts was 4 per procedure; 18% (n = 176) of the cases had a preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump inserted for hemodynamic instability, tight left main coronary artery stenosis or angina. The 30-day mortality was 1.8% versus a Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) predicted mortality of 4.8%. Left main coronary artery disease was present in 38% (n = 371) of the patients. No strokes occurred intra-operatively and the postoperative incidence of stroke was 0.9% (n = 9). Incidence of renal failure requiring dialysis was 0.8% (n = 8). There was a single sternal infection. Mean follow up was 65 months with a survival rate of 90% (n = 955). Re-intervention, which commonly involved PTCA ± stent placement or re-do coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), was 4% at 1 year and 11.6% (n = 113) during the 65-month follow-up period.

Conclusions: Off-pump coronary artery bypass coupled with this novel metabolic protocol was associated with a low operative mortality and acceptable perioperative morbidities, including patients with left main coronary artery disease. These benefits are apparent at both short- and medium-term follow up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753944715587166DOI Listing
December 2015

A comparison of results with eversion versus conventional carotid endarterectomy from the Vascular Quality Initiative and the Mid-America Vascular Study Group.

J Vasc Surg 2015 May;61(5):1216-22

Division of Vascular Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Ill.

Objective: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is usually performed with eversion (ECEA) or conventional (CCEA) technique. Previous studies report conflicting results with respect to outcomes for ECEA and CCEA. We compared patient characteristics and outcomes for ECEA and CCEA.

Methods: Deidentified data for CEA patients were obtained from the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative (SVS VQI) database for years 2003 to 2013. Second (contralateral) CEA, reoperative CEA, CEA after previous carotid stenting, or CEA concurrent with cardiac surgery were excluded, leaving 2365 ECEA and 17,155 CCEA for comparison. Univariate analysis compared patients, procedures, and outcomes. Survival analysis was also performed for mortality. Multivariate analysis was used selectively to examine the possible independent predictive value of variables on outcomes.

Results: Groups were similar with respect to sex, demographics, comorbidities, and preoperative neurologic symptoms, except that ECEA patients tended to be older (71.3 vs 69.8 years; P < .001). CCEA was more often performed with general anesthesia (92% vs 80%; P < .001) and with a shunt (59% vs 24%; P < .001). Immediate perioperative ipsilateral neurologic events (ECEA, 1.3% vs CCEA, 1.2%; P = .86) and any ipsilateral stroke (ECEA, 0.8% vs CCEA, 0.9%; P = .84) were uncommon in both groups. ECEA tended to take less time (median 99 vs 114 minutes; P < .001). However, ECEA more often required a return to the operating room for bleeding (1.4% vs 0.8%; P = .002), a difference that logistic regression analysis showed was only partly explained by differential use of protamine. Life-table estimated 1-year freedom from any cortical neurologic event was similar (96.7% vs 96.7%). Estimated survival was similar comparing ECEA with CCEA at 1 year (96.7% vs 95.9%); however, estimated survival tended to decline more rapidly in ECEA patients after ∼2 years. Cox proportional hazards modeling confirmed that independent predictors of mortality included age, coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and smoking, but also demonstrated that CEA type was not an independent predictor of mortality. The 1-year freedom from recurrent stenosis >50% was lower for ECEA (88.8% vs 94.3%, P < .001). However, ECEA and CCEA both had a very high rate of freedom from reoperation at 1 year (99.5% vs 99.6%; P = .67).

Conclusions: ECEA and CCEA appear to provide similar freedom from neurologic morbidity, death, and reintervention. ECEA was associated with significantly shorter procedure times. Furthermore, ECEA obviates the expenses, including increased operative time, associated with use of a patch in CCEA, and a shunt, more often used in CCEA in this database. These potential benefits may be reduced by a slightly greater requirement for early return to the operating room for bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2015.01.049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4930669PMC
May 2015

Preemptive coil occlusion of major aberrant renal artery to allow endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm with crossed fused renal ectopia.

Ann Vasc Surg 2014 Jul 15;28(5):1318.e1-6. Epub 2014 Jan 15.

Vascular and Interventional Program of Cadence Health, Winfield, IL 60190.

Background: Crossed fused renal ectopia and other similar renal anomalies are nearly always associated with major renal arterial, venous, and collecting system anomalies. These complicate both open repair and endovascular repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). We present a case of successful EVAR of an AAA with crossed fused renal ectopia.

Patient Description: A 76-year-old man was followed with an AAA and was also noted to have crossed fused renal ectopia. The aneurysm increased in diameter to 5.5 cm, and repair was recommended. Anatomy appeared challenging for open repair but also for EVAR because of a highly angulated neck and the major renal artery to the ectopic segment originating from the upper part of the aneurysm. However, EVAR appeared feasible if this renal artery could be sacrificed. Coil embolization of this renal artery was performed before EVAR. The patient's renal function was stable, and he suffered only a few days of abdominal pain. EVAR was performed 25 days later and required adjunctive procedures to eliminate a type 1 endoleak as had been feared because of the highly angulated neck. The patient suffered no decline in renal function and remained well 6 months later with no evidence for endoleak or other complication.

Comment: Renal anomalies present major challenges in aortic aneurysm repair. Preemptive sacrifice of a portion of the renal mass may allow successful repair without apparent deleterious effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2013.10.023DOI Listing
July 2014

Persistent sciatic artery presenting with limb ischemia.

J Vasc Surg 2013 Jan;57(1):225-9

Vascular and Interventional Program, Cadence Physician Group, Central Dupage Hospital, Winfield, IL 60190, USA.

The persistent sciatic artery (PSA) is a rare but clinically significant congenital vascular anomaly. Clinical presentation varies and PSA can cause a number of complications, including limb loss. We describe the presenting features and treatments in two patients. The former was found to have thrombosis of a PSA with distal thromboemboli and was treated with a bypass graft. The latter was treated for an ischemic foot following successful ruptured aortic aneurysm repair and was found incidentally to have patent PSA with concomitant stenosis of the common iliac artery, which was successfully treated with stent grafting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2012.06.108DOI Listing
January 2013

Pasteurella multocida-infected expanded polytetrafluoroethylene hemodialysis access graft.

Ann Vasc Surg 2012 Nov 25;26(8):1128.e15-7. Epub 2012 Jul 25.

Vascular and Interventional Program of Cadence Healthcare, Winfield, IL 60190, USA.

Infections are among the risks related to prosthetic hemodialysis access grafts. However, dialysis access graft infections caused by Pasteurella multocida have not been reported previously. We report a case of a P. multocida-infected nonfunctioning expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft in the forearm after a cat bite. At surgery, the graft was completely unincorporated and was completely excised. Operative culture results were positive for P. multocida, a common oral flora found in cats and dogs. The patient was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone, and the wounds healed with local care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2012.03.007DOI Listing
November 2012

Invited commentary.

J Vasc Surg 2012 Apr;55(4):977

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2011.11.001DOI Listing
April 2012

Validation of Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) with other venous severity assessment tools from the American Venous Forum, National Venous Screening Program.

J Vasc Surg 2011 Dec 1;54(6 Suppl):2S-9S. Epub 2011 Oct 1.

Section of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0012, USA.

Background: Several standard venous assessment tools have been used as independent determinants of venous disease severity, but correlation between these instruments as a global venous screening tool has not been tested. The scope of this study is to assess the validity of Venous Clinical Severity Scoring (VCSS) and its integration with other venous assessment tools as a global venous screening instrument.

Methods: The American Venous Forum (AVF), National Venous Screening Program (NVSP) data registry from 2007 to 2009 was queried for participants with complete datasets, including CEAP clinical staging, VCSS, modified Chronic Venous Insufficiency Quality of Life (CIVIQ) assessment, and venous ultrasound results. Statistical correlation trends were analyzed using Spearman's rank coefficient as related to VCSS.

Results: Five thousand eight hundred fourteen limbs in 2,907 participants were screened and included CEAP clinical stage C0: 26%; C1: 33%; C2: 24%; C3: 9%; C4: 7%; C5: 0.5%; C6: 0.2% (mean, 1.41 ± 1.22). VCSS mean score distribution (range, 0-3) for the entire cohort included: pain 1.01 ± 0.80, varicose veins 0.61 ± 0.84, edema 0.61 ± 0.81, pigmentation 0.15 ± 0.47, inflammation 0.07 ± 0.33, induration 0.04 ± 0.27, ulcer number 0.004 ± 0.081, ulcer size 0.007 ± 0.112, ulcer duration 0.007 ± 0.134, and compression 0.30 ± 0.81. Overall correlation between CEAP and VCSS was moderately strong (r(s) = 0.49; P < .0001), with highest correlation for attributes reflecting more advanced disease, including varicose vein (r(s) = 0.51; P < .0001), pigmentation (r(s) = 0.39; P < .0001), inflammation (r(s) = 0.28; P < .0001), induration (r(s) = 0.22; P < .0001), and edema (r(s) = 0.21; P < .0001). Based on the modified CIVIQ assessment, overall mean score for each general category included: Quality of Life (QoL)-Pain 6.04 ± 3.12 (range, 3-15), QoL-Functional 9.90 ± 5.32 (range, 5-25), and QoL-Social 5.41 ± 3.09 (range, 3-15). Overall correlation between CIVIQ and VCSS was moderately strong (r(s) = 0.43; P < .0001), with the highest correlation noted for pain (r(s) = 0.55; P < .0001) and edema (r(s) = 0.30; P < .0001). Based on screening venous ultrasound results, 38.1% of limbs had reflux and 1.5% obstruction in the femoral, saphenous, or popliteal vein segments. Correlation between overall venous ultrasound findings (reflux + obstruction) and VCSS was slightly positive (r(s) = 0.23; P < .0001) but was highest for varicose vein (r(s) = 0.32; P < .0001) and showed no correlation to swelling (r(s) = 0.06; P < .0001) and pain (r(s) = 0.003; P = .7947).

Conclusions: While there is correlation between VCSS, CEAP, modified CIVIQ, and venous ultrasound findings, subgroup analysis indicates that this correlation is driven by different components of VCSS compared with the other venous assessment tools. This observation may reflect that VCSS has more global application in determining overall severity of venous disease, while at the same time highlighting the strengths of the other venous assessment tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2011.05.117DOI Listing
December 2011

A targeted metabolic protocol with D-ribose for off-pump coronary artery bypass procedures: a retrospective analysis.

Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 2011 Aug 21;5(4):185-92. Epub 2011 Jun 21.

Saddleback Memorial Medical Center, Laguna Hills, CA, USA.

Objectives: Coronary revascularization using cardiopulmonary bypass is an effective surgical procedure for ischemic coronary artery disease. Complications associated with cardiopulmonary bypass have included cerebral vascular accidents, neurocognitive disorders, renal dysfunction, and acute systemic inflammatory responses. Within the last two decades off-pump coronary artery bypass has emerged as an approach to reduce the incidence of these complications, as well as shorten hospital stays and recovery times. Many patients with coronary artery disease have insulin resistance and altered energy metabolism, which can exacerbate around the time of coronary revascularization. D-ribose has been shown to enhance the recovery of high-energy phosphates following myocardial ischemia. We hypothesized that patient outcomes could improve using a perioperative metabolic protocol with D-ribose.

Methods: A perioperative metabolic protocol was used in 366 patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass during 2004-2008. D-ribose was added in 308 of these 366 patients. Data were collected prospectively as part of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database and retrospectively analyzed.

Results: D-ribose patients were generally similar to those who did not receive D-ribose. There was one death, two patients suffered strokes and renal failure requiring dialysis occurred in two patients postoperatively among the entire group of patients. D-ribose patients enjoyed a greater improvement in cardiac index postrevascularization compared with non-D-ribose patients (37% vs. 17%, respectively, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: This metabolic protocol was associated with very low mortality and morbidity with a significant early postoperative improvement in cardiac index using D-ribose supplementation. These preliminary results support a prospective randomized trial using this protocol and D-ribose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753944711412421DOI Listing
August 2011

Results with Viabahn-assisted subintimal recanalization for TASC C and TASC D superficial femoral artery occlusive disease.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2011 Jul 12;45(5):391-7. Epub 2011 Jun 12.

Vascular and Interventional Program of Central DuPage Hospital, Winfield, IL 60190, USA.

Objectives: Many investigators including TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) recommend against primary endovascular treatment for severe (TASC C and D) superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease. Vein bypass is preferable but may not be appropriate due to comorbidities or lack of suitable vein. This study reviews our results with Viabahn stent graft-assisted subintimal recanalization (VASIR) for TASC C and D SFA atherosclerosis.

Methods: In all, 13 males and 14 females, mean age 72 ± 11 years underwent 28 VASIR for severe (TASC C 8 of 28, TASC D 20 of 28, and 5 of 28 no continuous infrapopliteal runoff artery) SFA disease. Indications were claudication (14 of 28 limbs), ischemic rest pain (6 of 28), and tissue loss (8 of 28). Viabahn stent graft-assisted subintimal recanalization was chosen instead of bypass due to comorbidities or lack of vein. Patients received aspirin and, if not already taking warfarin, they also received clopidogrel. Patients were examined with Ankle-brachial Index (ABI) and duplex scan at 1 month, then every 3 months after VASIR.

Results: Viabahn stent graft-assisted subintimal recanalization was technically successful in all. Ankle-brachial Index averaged 0.47 ± 0.17 preprocedure, 0.89 ± 0.20 postprocedure, and increased by 0.15 or more in every case. Median follow-up is 20 months. There were 3 perioperative (<30 days) and 7 later failures including revision prior to any thrombosis. One patient required amputation. Four have died, 2 with patent grafts, none from causes related to VASIR, all more than 30 days post-VASIR. Estimated 1-year primary and secondary patency were 70% ± 11% and 73% ± 10%. Failure was not significantly associated with indications, comorbidities, or runoff status. There was a clear distinction between patients with early failure and the rest of the patients. None of the 8 patients with failure in the first 8 months after surgery has a patent graft. However, of 17 grafts primarily patent at 8 months, only 2 have failed (1 thrombosed and 1 required preemptive balloon angioplasty). There was a strong trend toward better patency with 6 and 7 mm diameter compared to 5 mm diameter stent grafts. Furthermore, although warfarin was not prescribed as part of the protocol, no patient taking warfarin before and who resumed warfarin after VASIR (n=4) suffered failure.

Conclusions: Despite significant early failures, we found VASIR to be durable in those who did not have early failure. Viabahn stent graft-assisted subintimal recanalization is an acceptable alternative to vein bypass in selected patients with severe SFA disease. Smaller arterial or stent graft diameter may be associated with poorer results. Warfarin may be valuable to reduce the risk of failure after VASIR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1538574411405548DOI Listing
July 2011

BASIL and beyond: identifying the right candidates for endovascular and surgical revascularization.

Perspect Vasc Surg Endovasc Ther 2009 Dec 21;21(4):214-7. Epub 2010 Jan 21.

Central DuPage Hospital, Winfield, IL, USA.

Infrainguinal arterial bypass with autologous vein has proven effective and durable over nearly 60 years. Less invasive endovascular treatment has emerged as a formidable competitor to the vein bypass. In many, if not most cases, the choice of one modality over the other is clear. However, there are situations where the decision is not so obvious. It is in such cases that the careful consideration of all patient and anatomic factors by the experienced vascular specialist who can offer both open surgical bypass and endovascular treatment is likely to lead to better outcomes. This article and presentation will attempt to provide some guidelines that the reader may consider when making such choices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1531003509359312DOI Listing
December 2009

Physical activity during daily life and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in peripheral arterial disease.

Vasc Med 2009 Aug;14(3):193-201

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

We determined whether higher levels of physical activity in daily life are associated with better brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) among individuals with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Participants were 111 men and women with PAD (ankle-brachial index (ABI)
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1358863X08101018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2749502PMC
August 2009

Commentary on "techniques to enhance arteriovenous fistula maturation".

Perspect Vasc Surg Endovasc Ther 2009 Mar 12;21(1):46-7. Epub 2009 Apr 12.

Vascular and Interventional Program of Central DuPage Hospital and Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1531003509333232DOI Listing
March 2009

Treadmill exercise and resistance training in patients with peripheral arterial disease with and without intermittent claudication: a randomized controlled trial.

JAMA 2009 Jan;301(2):165-74

Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Context: Neither supervised treadmill exercise nor strength training for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) without intermittent claudication have been established as beneficial.

Objective: To determine whether supervised treadmill exercise or lower extremity resistance training improve functional performance of patients with PAD with or without claudication.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Randomized controlled clinical trial performed at an urban academic medical center between April 1, 2004, and August 8, 2008, involving 156 patients with PAD who were randomly assigned to supervised treadmill exercise, to lower extremity resistance training, or to a control group.

Main Outcome Measures: Six-minute walk performance and the short physical performance battery. Secondary outcomes were brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, treadmill walking performance, the Walking Impairment Questionnaire, and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey physical functioning (SF-36 PF) score.

Results: For the 6-minute walk, those in the supervised treadmill exercise group increased their distance walked by 35.9 m (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.3-56.5 m; P < .001) compared with the control group, whereas those in the resistance training group increased their distance walked by 12.4 m (95% CI, -8.42 to 33.3 m; P = .24) compared with the control group. Neither exercise group improved its short physical performance battery scores. For brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, those in the treadmill group had a mean improvement of 1.53% (95% CI, 0.35%-2.70%; P = .02) compared with the control group. The treadmill group had greater increases in maximal treadmill walking time (3.44 minutes; 95% CI, 2.05-4.84 minutes; P < .001); walking impairment distance score (10.7; 95% CI, 1.56-19.9; P = .02); and SF-36 PF score (7.5; 95% CI, 0.00-15.0; P = .02) than the control group. The resistance training group had greater increases in maximal treadmill walking time (1.90 minutes; 95% CI, 0.49-3.31 minutes; P = .009); walking impairment scores for distance (6.92; 95% CI, 1.07-12.8; P = .02) and stair climbing (10.4; 95% CI, 0.00-20.8; P = .03); and SF-36 PF score (7.5; 95% CI, 0.0-15.0; P = .04) than the control group.

Conclusions: Supervised treadmill training improved 6-minute walk performance, treadmill walking performance, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, and quality of life but did not improve the short physical performance battery scores of PAD participants with and without intermittent claudication. Lower extremity resistance training improved functional performance measured by treadmill walking, quality of life, and stair climbing ability.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00106327.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2008.962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3268032PMC
January 2009

Circulating blood markers and functional impairment in peripheral arterial disease.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2008 Aug 24;56(8):1504-10. Epub 2008 Jul 24.

Department of Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University Cicago, IL, USA.

Objectives: To determine whether higher levels of inflammatory blood markers, D-dimer, and homocysteine were associated with greater impairment in lower extremity functioning in persons with peripheral arterial disease (PAD).

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Three Chicago-area medical centers.

Participants: Four hundred twenty-three persons with PAD (ankle-brachial index (ABI) <0.90).

Measurements: Lower extremity performance was assessed using the 6-minute walk and with usual- and fast-paced 4-m walking speed. Blood markers were D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and homocysteine. Calf muscle area was measured using computed tomography.

Results: Adjusting for confounders, higher levels of D-dimer (P<.001), IL-6 (P<.001), sVCAM-1 (P=.006), CRP (P=.01), homocysteine (P=.004), and sICAM-1 (P=.046) were associated with poorer 6-minute walk performance. Higher levels of D-dimer (P<.001), IL-6 (P=.003), sVCAM-1 (P=.001), and homocysteine (P=.005) were associated with slower usual-paced 4-m walking speed. Higher levels of D-dimer, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, IL-6, and homocysteine were associated with slower fast-paced walking speed. Results were attenuated after additional adjustment for calf muscle area.

Conclusion: Higher levels of inflammation and D-dimer were associated with poorer lower extremity performance in participants with PAD, independent of confounders including ABI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.01797.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2658758PMC
August 2008

Combined replacement of infrarenal aorta and inferior vena cava after en bloc resection of retroperitoneal extraosseous osteosarcoma.

J Vasc Surg 2008 Aug;48(2):478-9

Vascular and Interventional Program of Central DuPage Hospital, Winfield, Ill, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2007.12.052DOI Listing
August 2008

Superficial femoral vein graft interposition in situ repair for femoral mycotic aneurysm.

Ann Vasc Surg 2009 Jan-Feb;23(1):147-9. Epub 2008 May 27.

Vascular and Interventional Program of Central DuPage Hospital, Winfield, IL; Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Femoral mycotic aneurysms require surgical treatment to prevent progressive sepsis and hemorrhage. Some surgeons recommend simple debridement and ligation of the femoral artery, whereas others recommend reconstruction in selected cases or all cases due to concerns about high risk of limb loss. In situ reconstruction has been discouraged due to concerns about anastomotic or graft disruption by persistent infection. However, the superficial femoral vein has been used successfully as an in situ replacement after removal of infected aortic prostheses. We present two patients with femoral mycotic aneurysms, both of whom were treated successfully with in situ reconstruction using autogenous superficial femoral vein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2007.12.023DOI Listing
March 2009

Asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease is associated with more adverse lower extremity characteristics than intermittent claudication.

Circulation 2008 May 5;117(19):2484-91. Epub 2008 May 5.

Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Ill, USA.

Background: This study assessed functional performance, calf muscle characteristics, peripheral nerve function, and quality of life in asymptomatic persons with peripheral arterial disease (PAD).

Methods And Results: PAD participants (n=465) had an ankle brachial index <0.90. Non-PAD participants (n=292) had an ankle brachial index of 0.90 to 1.30. PAD participants were categorized into leg symptom groups including intermittent claudication (n=215) and always asymptomatic (participants who never experienced exertional leg pain, even during the 6-minute walk; n=72). Calf muscle was measured with computed tomography. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, ankle brachial index, comorbidities, and other confounders. Compared with participants with intermittent claudication, always asymptomatic PAD participants had smaller calf muscle area (4935 versus 5592 mm(2); P<0.001), higher calf muscle percent fat (16.10% versus 9.45%; P<0.001), poorer 6-minute walk performance (966 versus 1129 ft; P=0.0002), slower usual-paced walking speed (P=0.0019), slower fast-paced walking speed (P<0.001), and a poorer Short-Form 36 Physical Functioning score (P=0.016). Compared with an age-matched, sedentary, non-PAD cohort, always asymptomatic PAD participants had smaller calf muscle area (5061 versus 5895 mm(2); P=0.009), poorer 6-minute walk performance (1126 versus 1452 ft; P<0.001), and poorer Walking Impairment Questionnaire speed scores (40.87 versus 57.78; P=0.001).

Conclusions: Persons with PAD who never experience exertional leg symptoms have poorer functional performance, poorer quality of life, and more adverse calf muscle characteristics compared with persons with intermittent claudication and a sedentary, asymptomatic, age-matched group of non-PAD persons.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5077147PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.736108DOI Listing
May 2008

Prognostic value of functional performance for mortality in patients with peripheral artery disease.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2008 Apr;51(15):1482-9

Department of Medicine, Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Objectives: Among persons with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD), we determined whether objective measures of walking performance predict mortality independently of the ankle brachial index (ABI).

Background: The ability of office-based functional performance measures to predict mortality in patients with PAD is unknown.

Methods: Participants were 444 persons with PAD followed prospectively for 4.8 years. The 6-min walk and 4-m walks at usual and fastest pace were measured at baseline. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess relations between baseline measures of lower extremity performance with mortality, adjusting for confounders.

Results: One hundred twenty-seven patients (28.6%) died during follow-up. Adjusting for age, gender, race, comorbidities, ABI, and other confounders, participants in the poorest baseline quartile of 6-min walk performance had significantly increased total mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.36 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33 to 4.18]) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 5.59 [95% CI 1.97 to 15.9]) compared with the best quartile of baseline performance. Participants in the poorest baseline quartile of normal-paced 4-m walking speed had significantly increased total mortality (HR 1.86 [95% CI 1.06 to 3.29]) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 2.55 [95% CI 1.01 to 6.46]) compared with the best quartile of baseline performance.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates for the first time that performance-based measures, which can be administered in an office setting, provide prognostic information regarding mortality in persons with PAD beyond that provided by the ABI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2007.12.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2459324PMC
April 2008