Publications by authors named "Joseph P McGuirk"

37 Publications

Autologous stem cell transplantation after anti-PD-1 therapy for multiply relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 Mar;5(6):1648-1659

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope, Duarte, CA.

Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) can be curative for patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Based on studies suggesting that anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can sensitize patients to subsequent chemotherapy, we hypothesized that anti-PD-1 therapy before ASCT would result in acceptable outcomes among high-risk patients who progressed on or responded insufficiently to ≥1 salvage regimen, including chemorefractory patients who are traditionally considered poor ASCT candidates. We retrospectively identified 78 HL patients who underwent ASCT after receiving an anti-PD-1 mAb (alone or in combination) as third-line or later therapy across 22 centers. Chemorefractory disease was common, including 42 patients (54%) refractory to ≥2 consecutive systemic therapies immediately before anti-PD-1 treatment. Fifty-eight (74%) patients underwent ASCT after anti-PD-1 treatment, while 20 patients (26%) received additional therapy after PD-1 blockade and before ASCT. Patients received a median of 4 systemic therapies (range, 3-7) before ASCT, and 31 patients (41%) had a positive pre-ASCT positron emission tomography (PET) result. After a median post-ASCT follow-up of 19.6 months, the 18-month progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 81% (95% CI, 69-89) and 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87-99), respectively. Favorable outcomes were observed for patients who were refractory to 2 consecutive therapies immediately before PD-1 blockade (18-month PFS, 78%), had a positive pre-ASCT PET (18-month PFS, 75%), or received ≥4 systemic therapies before ASCT (18-month PFS, 73%), while PD-1 nonresponders had inferior outcomes (18-month PFS, 51%). In this high-risk cohort, ASCT after anti-PD-1 therapy was associated with excellent outcomes, even among heavily pretreated, previously chemorefractory patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993097PMC
March 2021

Allogeneic transplantation after PD-1 blockade for classic Hodgkin lymphoma.

Leukemia 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, Rozzano-Milano, Italy.

Anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies yield high response rates in patients with relapsed/refractory classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), but most patients will eventually progress. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) after PD-1 blockade may be associated with increased toxicity, raising challenging questions about the role, timing, and optimal method of transplantation in this setting. To address these questions, we assembled a retrospective cohort of 209 cHL patients who underwent alloHCT after PD-1 blockade. With a median follow-up among survivors of 24 months, the 2-year cumulative incidences (CIs) of non-relapse mortality and relapse were 14 and 18%, respectively; the 2-year graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse-free survival (GRFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were 47%, 69%, and 82%, respectively. The 180-day CI of grade 3-4 acute GVHD was 15%, while the 2-year CI of chronic GVHD was 34%. In multivariable analyses, a longer interval from PD-1 to alloHCT was associated with less frequent severe acute GVHD, while additional treatment between PD-1 and alloHCT was associated with a higher risk of relapse. Notably, post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based GVHD prophylaxis was associated with significant improvements in PFS and GRFS. While awaiting prospective clinical trials, PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis may be considered the optimal transplantation strategy for this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01193-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Preclinical Evaluation of Gilteritinib on NPM1-ALK-Driven Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Cells.

Mol Cancer Res 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapeutics, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas.

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. More than three-fourths of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive ALCL cases express the () fusion gene as a result of t(2;5) chromosomal translocation. The homodimerization of NPM1-ALK fusion protein mediates constitutive activation of the chimeric tyrosine kinase activity and downstream signaling pathways responsible for lymphoma cell proliferation and survival. Gilteritinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of FMS-like tyrosine kinase mutation-positive acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time gilteritinib-mediated growth inhibitory effects on NPM1-ALK-driven ALCL cells. We utilized a total of five ALCL model cell lines, including both human and murine. Gilteritinib treatment inhibits NPM1-ALK fusion kinase phosphorylation and downstream signaling, resulting in induced apoptosis. Gilteritinib-mediated apoptosis was associated with caspase 3/9, PARP cleavage, the increased expression of proapoptotic protein BAD, and decreased expression of antiapoptotic proteins, survivin and MCL-1. We also found downregulation of fusion kinase activity resulted in decreased c-Myc protein levels. Furthermore, cell-cycle analysis indicated gilteritinib induced G-G-phase cell-cycle arrest and reduced CD30 expression. In summary, our preclinical studies explored the novel therapeutic potential of gilteritinib in the treatment of ALCL cells expressing NPM1-ALK and potentially in other ALK or ALK fusion-driven hematologic or solid malignancies. IMPLICATIONS: Our preclinical results explore the use of gilteritinib for the treatment of NPM1-ALK-driven ALCL cells and pave a path for developing future clinical trials. VISUAL OVERVIEW: http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/molcanres/00/0/000/F1.large.jpg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-20-0738DOI Listing
January 2021

Double unrelated umbilical cord blood vs HLA-haploidentical bone marrow transplantation: the BMT CTN 1101 trial.

Blood 2021 Jan;137(3):420-428

Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Results of 2 parallel phase 2 trials of transplantation of unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB) or bone marrow (BM) from HLA-haploidentical relatives provided equipoise for direct comparison of these donor sources. Between June 2012 and June 2018, 368 patients aged 18 to 70 years with chemotherapy-sensitive lymphoma or acute leukemia in remission were randomly assigned to undergo UCB (n = 186) or haploidentical (n = 182) transplant. Reduced-intensity conditioning comprised total-body irradiation with cyclophosphamide and fludarabine for both donor types. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis for UCB transplantation was cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and for haploidentical transplantation, posttransplant cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and MMF. The primary end point was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). Treatment groups had similar age, sex, self-reported ethnic origin, performance status, disease, and disease status at randomization. Two-year PFS was 35% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28% to 42%) compared with 41% (95% CI, 34% to 48%) after UCB and haploidentical transplants, respectively (P = .41). Prespecified analysis of secondary end points recorded higher 2-year nonrelapse mortality after UCB, 18% (95% CI, 13% to 24%), compared with haploidentical transplantation, 11% (95% CI, 6% to 16%), P = .04. This led to lower 2-year overall survival (OS) after UCB compared with haploidentical transplantation, 46% (95% CI, 38-53) and 57% (95% CI 49% to 64%), respectively (P = .04). The trial did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in the primary end point, 2-year PFS, between the donor sources. Although both donor sources extend access to reduced-intensity transplantation, analyses of secondary end points, including OS, favor haploidentical BM donors. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01597778.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020007535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819761PMC
January 2021

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 07 14;26(7):1239-1246. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Hematopoietic Cellular Therapy Program, Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted the delivery of cellular therapeutics, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. This impact has extended beyond patient care to include logistics, administration, and distribution of increasingly limited health care resources. Based on the collective experience of the CAR T-cell Consortium investigators, we review and address several questions and concerns regarding cellular therapy administration in the setting of COVID-19 and make general recommendations to address these issues. Specifically, we address (1) necessary resources for safe administration of cell therapies; (2) determinants of cell therapy utilization; (3) selection among patients with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas and B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia; (4) supportive measures during cell therapy administration; (5) use and prioritization of tocilizumab; and (6) collaborative care with referring physicians. These recommendations were carefully formulated with the understanding that resource allocation is of the utmost importance, and that the decision to proceed with CAR T cell therapy will require extensive discussion of potential risks and benefits. Although these recommendations are fluid, at this time it is our opinion that the COVID-19 pandemic should not serve as reason to defer CAR T cell therapy for patients truly in need of a potentially curative therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194685PMC
July 2020

CAR T cells: continuation in a revolution of immunotherapy.

Lancet Oncol 2020 03;21(3):e168-e178

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Westwood, KS, USA.

The recent clinical successes of immunotherapy, as a result of a broader and more profound understanding of cancer immunobiology, and the leverage of this knowledge to effectively eradicate malignant cells, has revolutionised the field of cancer therapeutics. Immunotherapy is now considered the fifth pillar of cancer care, alongside surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and targeted therapy. Recently, the success of genetically modified T cells that express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells) has generated considerable excitement. CAR T-cell therapy research and development has built on experience generated by laboratory research and clinical investigation of lymphokine-activated killer cells, tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes, and allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation for cancer treatment. This Review aims to provide a background on the field of adoptive T-cell therapy and the development of genetically modified T cells, most notably CAR T-cell therapy. Many challenges exist to optimise efficacy, minimise toxicity, and broaden the application of immunotherapies based on T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30823-XDOI Listing
March 2020

Myeloablative vs reduced intensity T-cell-replete haploidentical transplantation for hematologic malignancy.

Blood Adv 2019 10;3(19):2836-2844

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, and.

In the absence of prospective studies that examine the effect of conditioning regimen intensity after T-cell-replete haploidentical transplant for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a retrospective cohort analysis was performed. Of the 1325 eligible patients (AML, n = 818; ALL, n = 286; and MDS, n = 221), 526 patients received a myeloablative regimen and 799 received a reduced-intensity regimen. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis was uniform with posttransplant cyclophosphamide, a calcineurin inhibitor, and mycophenolate mofetil. The primary end point was disease-free survival. Cox regression models were built to study the effect of conditioning regimen intensity on transplant outcomes. For patients aged 18 to 54 years, disease-free survival was lower (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; 42% vs 51%; = .007) and relapse was higher (HR, 1.51; 44% vs 33%; = .001) with a reduced-intensity regimen compared with a myeloablative regimen. Nonrelapse mortality did not differ according to regimen intensity. For patients aged 55 to 70 years, disease-free survival (HR, 0.97; 37% vs 43%; = .83) and relapse (HR, 1.32; 42% vs 31%; = .11) did not differ according to regimen intensity. Nonrelapse mortality was lower with reduced-intensity regimens (HR, 0.64; 20% vs 31%; = .02). Myeloablative regimens are preferred for AML, ALL, and MDS; reduced-intensity regimens should be reserved for those unable to tolerate myeloablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6784523PMC
October 2019

Tisagenlecleucel in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients without measurable disease at infusion.

Blood Adv 2019 07;3(14):2230-2236

Lymphoma Program, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Tisagenlecleucel demonstrated high rates of durable responses in adult patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (r/r DLBCL) in the JULIET trial. Most patients (92%) received bridging therapies to control disease after study entry and before tisagenlecleucel infusion. Here, we examine the efficacy and safety of tisagenlecleucel in the subset of 7 patients who achieved complete response (CR) after bridging therapy and before tisagenlecleucel infusion. Tisagenlecleucel rapidly expanded in all 7 patients, and the transgene levels were measurable for up to 2 years after infusion. After infusion, all 7 patients were still in CR at the month 3 evaluation, and 5 of 7 patients remained progression-free >12 months. Adverse events were similar to the overall JULIET population. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) was reported in 4 of 7 patients (grade 2 = 2 and grade 3 = 2 using the Penn grading scale), and 1 patient experienced grade 1 neurotoxicity. No patient required tocilizumab or steroids for CRS management. These data provide preliminary evidence of tisagenlecleucel efficacy in patients with r/r DLBCL without detectable disease after bridging or salvage therapies and warrant further investigation of tisagenlecleucel as consolidative therapy in future trials. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02445248.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6650727PMC
July 2019

CDC37 as a novel target for the treatment of NPM1-ALK expressing anaplastic large cell lymphomas.

Blood Cancer J 2019 01 29;9(2):14. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapeutics, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-019-0171-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351628PMC
January 2019

Functional cooperativity of p97 and histone deacetylase 6 in mediating DNA repair in mantle cell lymphoma cells.

Leukemia 2019 07 21;33(7):1675-1686. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kanas City, KS, USA.

p97 is an ATPase that works in concert with histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), to facilitate the degradation of misfolded proteins by autophagosomes. p97 has also been implicated in DNA repair and maintaining genomic stability. In this study, we determined the effect of combined inhibition of p97 and HDAC6 activities in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells. We report that treatment with p97 inhibitors induces dose-dependent apoptosis in MCL cells. The p97 inhibitor CB-5083 induces ER stress markers GRP78 and CHOP and results in the accumulation of polyubiquitylated proteins. Co-treatment with CB-5083 and the HDAC6 inhibitor ACY-1215 result in marked downregulation of CDK4, Cyclin D1, and BRCA1 levels without inhibiting autophagic flux. Consequently, treatment with CB-5083 accentuates DNA damage in response to treatment with ACY-1215 resulting in enhanced accumulation of H2AX-γ and synergistic apoptosis. Furthermore, ATM loss severely impairs phosphorylation of 53BP1 following co-treatment with CB-5083 and ACY-1215 in response to gamma irradiation. Finally, co-treatment CB-5083 and ACY-1215 results in reduced tumor volumes and improves survival in Z138C and Jeko-1 xenografts in NSG mice. These observations suggest that combined inhibition of p97 and HDAC6 abrogates resolution of proteotoxic stress and impairs DNA repair mechanisms in MCL cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-018-0355-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6730676PMC
July 2019

Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of patients with isochromosome 17q (i17q) abnormality and myeloid neoplasms: A single center experience.

Leuk Res Rep 2018 20;10:55-56. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Division of Hematological Malignancies and Cellular Therapeutics, University of Kansas Health System, 2330 Shawnee Mission Parkway; Suite 210, Westwood, Kansas 66207, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lrr.2018.06.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6308020PMC
June 2018

Tisagenlecleucel in Adult Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

N Engl J Med 2019 01 1;380(1):45-56. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

From the Lymphoma Program, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.J.S.); the Hematopoietic Cellular Therapy Program, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago (M.R.B.); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St. Vincent's Hospital and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (C.S.T.), and the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney (P.J.H.) - both in Australia; Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplant Center, Atlanta (E.K.W.); the Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne (P.B.), and the Würzburg University Medical Center, Center for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Würzburg (S.M.) - both in Germany; the Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapeutics, University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City (J.P.M.); the Department of Medicine I, Division of Hematology and Hemostaseology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (U.J.); James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus (S.J.); the Department of Hematology and Blood and Marrow Transplant, University of California, San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco (C.A.); the Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, Division of Cancer Medicine, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (J.R.W.); Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, University of Montreal, Montreal (I.F.), and the Juravinski Hospital and Cancer Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (S.R.F.) - both in Canada; the Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (V.B.); Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Department of Laboratory Medicine/Department of Cell Therapy and Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Stockholm (S.M.); University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor (J.M.M.); the Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (H.H.); Novartis Pharma, Basel, Switzerland (S.P., O.A.); Novartis Pharmaceuticals (L.B.P., J.C.) and Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research (R.A.), East Hanover, NJ; the Department of Hematology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France (G.S.); and the Center for Hematologic Malignancies, Oregon Health and Science University Knight Cancer Institute, Portland (R.T.M.).

Background: Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that is refractory to primary and second-line therapies or that has relapsed after stem-cell transplantation have a poor prognosis. The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy tisagenlecleucel targets and eliminates CD19-expressing B cells and showed efficacy against B-cell lymphomas in a single-center, phase 2a study.

Methods: We conducted an international, phase 2, pivotal study of centrally manufactured tisagenlecleucel involving adult patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who were ineligible for or had disease progression after autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. The primary end point was the best overall response rate (i.e., the percentage of patients who had a complete or partial response), as judged by an independent review committee.

Results: A total of 93 patients received an infusion and were included in the evaluation of efficacy. The median time from infusion to data cutoff was 14 months (range, 0.1 to 26). The best overall response rate was 52% (95% confidence interval, 41 to 62); 40% of the patients had complete responses, and 12% had partial responses. Response rates were consistent across prognostic subgroups. At 12 months after the initial response, the rate of relapse-free survival was estimated to be 65% (79% among patients with a complete response). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events of special interest included cytokine release syndrome (22%), neurologic events (12%), cytopenias lasting more than 28 days (32%), infections (20%), and febrile neutropenia (14%). Three patients died from disease progression within 30 days after infusion. No deaths were attributed to tisagenlecleucel, cytokine release syndrome, or cerebral edema. No differences between response groups in tumor expression of CD19 or immune checkpoint-related proteins were found.

Conclusions: In this international study of CAR T-cell therapy in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in adults, high rates of durable responses were produced with the use of tisagenlecleucel. (Funded by Novartis; JULIET ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02445248 .).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1804980DOI Listing
January 2019

Targeted Therapy for EBV-Associated B-cell Neoplasms.

Mol Cancer Res 2019 04 28;17(4):839-844. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapeutics, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is directly implicated in several B-cell lymphoid malignancies. EBV-associated lymphomas are characterized by prominent activation of the NF-κB pathway and targeting this pathway establishes a rationale for a therapeutic approach. The ubiquitin/proteasome signaling plays an essential role in the regulation of the NF-κB pathway. Ixazomib is an FDA-approved, orally bioavailable proteasome inhibitor. Here we report the first preclinical evaluation of ixazomib-mediated growth-inhibitory effects on EBV-infected B-lymphoblastoid cell lines Raji and Daudi. Ixazomib induced apoptosis in these cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Cell-cycle analysis demonstrated ixazomib treatment induced cell-cycle arrest at the G-M phase with a concomitant decrease in G-G and S phases. The results further revealed an increase in p53, p21, and p27 levels and a decrease in survivin and c-Myc protein levels. Mechanistically, ixazomib treatment resulted in the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins, including phosphorylated IκBα with a significant reduction of p65 subunit nuclear translocation. Altogether, our preclinical data support the rationale for testing of ixazomib in EBV-associated B-cell neoplasms. IMPLICATIONS: This preclinical study supports the use of oral proteasome inhibitor ixazomib for targeting NF-κB signaling in the treatment of EBV-associated B-cell neoplasms. http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/molcanres/17/4/839/F1.large.jpg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-18-0924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7014964PMC
April 2019

Effect of Aging and Predonation Comorbidities on the Related Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Donor Experience: Report from the Related Donor Safety Study.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 04 10;25(4):699-711. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Minneapolis, Minnesota; National Marrow Donor Program/Be the Match, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

The development of reduced-intensity approaches for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation has resulted in growing numbers of older related donors (RDs) of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs). The effects of age on donation efficacy, toxicity, and long-term recovery in RDs are poorly understood. To address this we analyzed hematologic variables, pain, donation-related symptoms, and recovery in 1211 PBSC RDs aged 18 to 79 enrolled in the Related Donor Safety Study. RDs aged > 60 had a lower median CD34 level before apheresis compared with younger RDs (age > 60, 59 × 10/L; age 41 to 60, 81 × 10/L; age 18 to 40, 121 × 10/L; P < .001). This resulted in older donors undergoing more apheresis procedures (49% versus 30% ≥ 2 collections, P < .001) and higher collection volumes (52% versus 32% > 24 L, P < .001), leading to high percentages of donors aged > 60 with postcollection thrombocytopenia <50 × 10/L (26% and 57% after 2 and 3days of collection, respectively). RDs aged 18 to 40 had a higher risk of grades 2 to 4 pain and symptoms pericollection, but donors over age 40 had more persistent pain at 1, 6, and 12 months (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; P = 0.02) and a higher rate of nonrecovery to predonation levels (OR, 1.7; P = .01). Donors reporting comorbidities increased significantly with age, and those with comorbidities that would have led to deferral by National Marrow Donor Program unrelated donor standards had an increased risk for persistent grades 2 to 4 pain (OR, 2.41; P < .001) and failure to recover to predonation baseline for other symptoms (OR, 2.34; P = .004). This information should be used in counseling RDs regarding risk and can assist in developing practice approaches aimed at improving the RD experience for high-risk individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453753PMC
April 2019

Long-term results of a pilot study evaluating hyperbaric oxygen therapy to improve umbilical cord blood engraftment.

Ann Hematol 2019 Feb 31;98(2):481-489. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Hemagology/Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Program, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.

Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation is a promising option for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with hematologic malignancies who lack an HLA-matched sibling or well-matched unrelated donor; however, it has a higher incidence of delayed or failed engraftment because cell doses are low and bone marrow homing is inefficient. We have demonstrated that pre-treating irradiated immune-deficient mice with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) prior to UCB CD34+ cell transplantation lowered host systemic erythropoietin (EPO) and improved UCB CD34+ cell homing and engraftment. These findings suggested that EPO-EPO-R signaling plays a role in UCB CD34+ homing and engraftment. In a pilot clinical trial, we showed that recipients of HBO therapy prior to UCB cell infusion had reduced systemic EPO, which was associated with improved kinetics of blood count recovery. Although early clinical outcomes at day 100 were encouraging, with improved overall survival, the long-term effects of HBO therapy on UCB-transplanted patients were not evaluated. In this study, we examined the long-term outcome of patients in our pilot study, compared with a historic control group, and correlated their clinical outcomes to serum EPO response to HBO. While 50% of HBO-treated patients received single UCB units, ~ 90% of the control patients received double UCB units. Although HBO patients had much better rates of survival at 6 months, their 1-year survival did not significantly differ from the control group. HBO-treated patients had on average lower relapse and non-relapse mortality rates, and less chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD), but had increased acute GVHD. However, these differences were not statistically significant, probably because of the small sample size. In the HBO-treated cohort, immune reconstitution analysis showed significant improvement in early B cell recovery, with a trend toward improvement in early NK cell recovery. When we evaluated the ratio of 8 h to baseline EPO levels, we found a non-significant trend toward lower EPO values in those who neither relapsed nor died by 1 year, compared to those who died or relapsed. This result suggests that EPO response to HBO may be associated with better outcomes. Disease progression-free survival was also improved in those who had more than 80% reduction in EPO levels in response to HBO. Our study highlights the long-term safety of HBO therapy when used prior to UCB transplantation. Future UCB transplant patients who receive HBO should have their serum EPO response measured, as it may be a marker of relapse/mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-018-3532-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Related peripheral blood stem cell donors experience more severe symptoms and less complete recovery at one year compared to unrelated donors.

Haematologica 2019 04 31;104(4):844-854. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Unlike unrelated donor registries, transplant centers lack uniform approaches to related donor assessment and deferral. To test whether related donors are at increased risk for donation-related toxicities, we conducted a prospective observational trial of 11,942 related and unrelated donors aged 18-60 years. Bone marrow (BM) was collected at 37 transplant and 78 National Marrow Donor Program centers, and peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) were collected at 42 transplant and 87 unrelated donor centers in North America. Possible presence of medical comorbidities was verified prior to donation, and standardized pain and toxicity measures were assessed pre-donation, peri-donation, and one year following. Multivariate analyses showed similar experiences for BM collection in related and unrelated donors; however, related stem cell donors had increased risk of moderate [odds ratios (ORs) 1.42; <0.001] and severe (OR 8.91; <0.001) pain and toxicities (OR 1.84; <0.001) with collection. Related stem cell donors were at increased risk of persistent toxicities (OR 1.56; =0.021) and non-recovery from pain (OR 1.42; =0.001) at one year. Related donors with more significant comorbidities were at especially high risk for grade 2-4 pain (OR 3.43; <0.001) and non-recovery from toxicities (OR 3.71; <0.001) at one year. Related donors with more significant comorbidities were at especially high risk for grade 2-4 pain (OR 3.43; <0.001) and non-recovery from toxicities (OR 3.71; <0.001) at one year. Related donors reporting grade ≥2 pain had significant decreases in Health-Related Quality of Life (HR-QoL) scores at one month and one year post donation (=0.004). In conclusion, related PBSC donors with comorbidities are at increased risk for pain, toxicity, and non-recovery at one year after donation. Risk profiles described in this study should be used for donor education, planning studies to improve the related donor experience, and decisions regarding donor deferral. Registered at .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.200121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442962PMC
April 2019

Effect of Rituximab on Pulmonary Function in Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome due to Graft-Versus-Host-Disease.

Lung 2017 12 11;195(6):781-788. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.

Purpose: Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that is used to suppress B-cell function in graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). We sought to determine the effects of rituximab treatment on lung function in those patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) as a manifestation of GVHD.

Methods: Thirteen patients were treated with rituximab with a diagnosis of BOS and a significant reduction in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The changes in their pulmonary function for 12 months following treatment with rituximab were followed, along with other intervention performed and daily average dosing of prednisone.

Results: Following rituximab administration, there was an improvement in the slope of decline in lung function from -5.12 ml/month prior to rituximab infusion to -0.31 ml/month after 3 months and to +2.27 ml/month 12 months later. Seven of the 13 patients had an increase in their FEV1 after treatment with rituximab. Additionally, the mean daily dose of prednisone decreased from 27 mg prior to rituximab treatment to 11 mg 12 months after treatment. Nine out of 13 patients survived 12 months after rituximab treatment. All of the patients with improvement in FEV1 following rituximab treatment were receiving concomitant extracorporeal photopheresis.

Conclusion: Rituximab is safe with the potential to stabilize or improve lung function in patients with BOS after HSCT and should be considered as a treatment option in those patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00408-017-0051-0DOI Listing
December 2017

Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Historical and Scientific Overview.

Cancer Res 2016 11 26;76(22):6445-6451. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Westwood, Kansas.

The field of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) has made ground-breaking progress in the treatment of many malignant and nonmalignant conditions. It has also pioneered the concepts of stem cell therapy and immunotherapy as a tool against cancer. The success of transplant for hematologic malignancies derives both from the ability to treat patients with intensive chemoradiotherapy and from potent graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects mediated by donor immunity. Additionally, HSCT has been a curative therapy for several nonmalignant hematologic disorders through the provision of donor-derived hematopoiesis and immunity. Preclinical and clinical research in the field has contributed to an advanced understanding of histocompatibility, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), GVL effect, and immune reconstitution after transplant. Improved donor selection, tailored conditioning regimens, and better supportive care have helped reduce transplant-related morbidity and mortality and expanded access. The development of unrelated donor registries and increased utilization of cord blood and partially matched related donor transplants have ensured a donor for essentially everyone who needs a transplant. However, significant barriers still remain in the form of disease relapse, GVHD infectious complications, and regimen-related toxicities. Recent developments in the field of cellular therapy are expected to further improve the efficacy of transplant. In this review, we discuss the current science of HSCT from a historical perspective, highlighting major discoveries. We also speculate on future directions in this field. Cancer Res; 76(22); 6445-51. ©2016 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-1311DOI Listing
November 2016

Erythropoietin modulation is associated with improved homing and engraftment after umbilical cord blood transplantation.

Blood 2016 12 19;128(25):3000-3010. Epub 2016 Oct 19.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

Umbilical cord blood (UCB) engraftment is in part limited by graft cell dose, generally one log less than that of bone marrow (BM)/peripheral blood (PB) cell grafts. Strategies toward increasing hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) homing to BM have been assessed to improve UCB engraftment. Despite recent progress, a complete understanding of how HSPC homing and engraftment are regulated is still elusive. We provide evidence that blocking erythropoietin (EPO)-EPO receptor (R) signaling promotes homing to BM and early engraftment of UCB CD34 cells. A significant population of UCB CD34 HSPC expresses cell surface EPOR. Exposure of UCB CD34 HSPC to EPO inhibits their migration and enhances erythroid differentiation. This migratory inhibitory effect was reversed by depleting EPOR expression on HSPC. Moreover, systemic reduction in EPO levels by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) used in a preclinical mouse model and in a pilot clinical trial promoted homing of transplanted UCB CD34 HSPC to BM. Such a systemic reduction of EPO in the host enhanced myeloid differentiation and improved BM homing of UCB CD34 cells, an effect that was overcome with exogenous EPO administration. Of clinical relevance, HBO therapy before human UCB transplantation was well-tolerated and resulted in transient reduction in EPO with encouraging engraftment rates and kinetics. Our studies indicate that systemic reduction of EPO levels in the host or blocking EPO-EPOR signaling may be an effective strategy to improve BM homing and engraftment after allogeneic UCB transplantation. This clinical trial was registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (#NCT02099266).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-05-715292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5179334PMC
December 2016

Effect of extracorporeal photopheresis on lung function decline for severe bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

J Clin Apher 2016 Aug 29;31(4):347-52. Epub 2015 May 29.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas.

Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a commonly used treatment for severe graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). We sought to evaluate the effects of ECP over a prolonged period on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in patients with pulmonary GVHD. We identified eight patients who developed new airflow obstruction following allogeneic stem cell transplantation and a substantial decline in FEV1 despite receiving corticosteroids and standard therapy for pulmonary GVHD. Those eight patients were treated with ECP for a period of 1 year, with a primary endpoint of FEV1 change during this treatment period. Over the first 3 months of ECP, there was no further decline in FEV1 in seven of the eight patients. However, over the 1 year period, only two of the eight patients had stability in FEV1. The rate of FEV1 decline was substantially less once ECP was initiated, though the median FEV1 continued to decline over 1 year of therapy. All patients survived through the first year of ECP therapy. There was a significant decrease in the median dose of prednisone per patient throughout the 12 months of ECP treatment. ECP shows promise in slowing rate of decline of FEV1 in pulmonary GVHD, though the effects may not be long lived. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:347-352, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jca.21404DOI Listing
August 2016

Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as a Promising Cellular Therapeutic Strategy for the Management of Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2015 Apr 16;8(2):196-220. Epub 2015 Apr 16.

Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Kansas State University, 1600 Denison Ave., Coles Hall 228, Manhattan, KS 66506-5802, USA.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), a treatment option in hematologic malignancies and bone marrow failure syndromes, is frequently complicated by Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The primary treatment for GVHD involves immune suppression by glucocorticoids. However, patients are often refractory to the steroid therapy, and this results in a poor prognosis. Therefore alternative therapies are needed to treat GVHD. Here, we review data supporting the clinical investigation of a novel cellular therapy using Wharton's jelly (WJ)-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as a potentially safe and effective therapeutic strategy in the management of GVHD. Adult-derived sources of MSCs have demonstrated signals of efficacy in the management of GVHD. However, there are limitations, including: limited proliferation capacity; heterogeneity of cell sources; lengthy expansion time to clinical dose; expansion failure in vitro; and a painful, invasive, isolation procedure for the donor. Therefore, alternative MSC sources for cellular therapy are sought. The reviewed data suggests MSCs derived from WJ may be a safe and effective cellular therapy for GVHD. Laboratories investigated and defined the immune properties of WJ-MSCs for potential use in cellular therapy. These cells represent a more uniform cell population than bone marrow-derived MSCs, displaying robust immunosuppressive properties and lacking significant immunogenicity. They can be collected safely and painlessly from individuals at birth, rapidly expanded and stored cryogenically for later clinical use. Additionally, data we reviewed suggested licensing MSCs (activating MSCs by exposure to cytokines) to enhance effectiveness in treating GVHD. Therefore, WJCs should be tested as a second generation, relatively homogeneous allogeneic cell therapy for the treatment of GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph8020196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4491656PMC
April 2015

Rates of complete diagnostic testing for patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Cancer Med 2015 Apr 26;4(4):519-22. Epub 2015 Jan 26.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas School of Medicine, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, Kansas, 66210.

In addition to cytogenetics, additional molecular markers of prognosis have been identified and incorporated into the management of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We hypothesized that rates of molecular testing would be higher in an academic center versus community sites. A retrospective chart review included all de novo AML patients (excluding M3) at Kansas University Medical Center (KUMC) from January 2008 through April 2013. Records were evaluated for completeness of molecular testing as indicated by karyotype (FLT3, CEBPα, NPM1 in normal cytogenetics AML and c-KIT in core binding factor [CBF] AML). 271 charts were reviewed: 98 with CN-AML and 29 with CBF AML. Seventy were diagnosed at KUMC, 57 at a community site. Molecular testing was sent in 76/98 (77%) patients with CN-AML. Patients diagnosed at KUMC had a significantly higher rate of molecular testing (51/55, 93%) as compared to those diagnosed at outside centers (18/43, 41%) (P < 0.001). Of 29 patients with CBF AML, c-kit mutational analysis was performed more frequently at KUMC (14/15, 93%) than in community sites (8/14, 57%) (P = 0.035). There was a trend towards increased testing at both KUMC and community sites in later years. Rates of molecular testing in AML were higher in an academic center versus community sites in the 5 years following the World Health Organization revised classification of AML. All physicians who diagnose and treat AML must remain up to date on the latest recommendations and controversies in molecular testing in order to appropriately risk stratify patients and determine optimal therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4402066PMC
April 2015

Routine radiographic screening after completion of initial chemotherapy and relapse-free survival after transplant in patients with relapsed lymphoma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2015 Feb 15;56(2):518-9. Epub 2014 Jul 15.

Blood and Marrow Transplantation Program, University of Kansas Medical Center , Westwood, KA , USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2014.921916DOI Listing
February 2015

Pulmonary manifestations of the pre-engraftment syndrome after umbilical cord blood transplantation.

Ann Hematol 2014 May 18;93(5):847-54. Epub 2013 Dec 18.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS, 66160, USA,

Pre-engraftment syndrome (PES) is a condition occurring after umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) characterized by fever and erythematous skin rash prior to neutrophil engraftment. We sought to determine the incidence and characterize the pulmonary manifestations of PES. A retrospective review of patients who underwent UCBT at the University of Kansas Medical Center over a 5-year period was performed. Data collected included patient baseline characteristics, presence of PES, pulmonary findings, treatments, and survival. Forty-four patients underwent UCBT with 22 of those patients developing PES. Full-intensity myeloablative conditioning regimen was found to be a risk factor for development of PES. Of those 22 patients, 13 had resting hypoxemia. The most common radiographic findings included diffuse ground glass opacities with pleural effusions. Fifteen patients with PES received corticosteroids, of which 12 had improvement in fevers and rash. These patients had a trend toward worse mortality than those not receiving corticosteroids. There was a nonsignificant trend toward worse survival in patients with PES and hypoxemia compared to those without hypoxemia. PES is a common complication following cord blood transplantation, with hypoxemia being present in over half of patients with PES. Hypoxemia with PES and treatment with corticosteroids may portend a worse prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-013-1981-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4109706PMC
May 2014

Combined use of multiday palonosetron with aprepitant and low-dose dexamethasone in prevention of nausea and emesis among patients with multiple myeloma and lymphoma undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant: A pilot study.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2014 Aug 4;20(4):263-9. Epub 2013 Sep 4.

Hematology/Oncology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.

Background: The current standard for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting in autologous stem cell transplant only achieves 4-20% emetic control.

Objectives: To assess emetic responses to multiday palonosetron, aprepitant, and low-dose dexamethasone among patients with myeloma and lymphoma undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

Methods: Oral aprepitant 125/80/80 mg was administered with intravenous dexamethasone 4 mg and palonosetron 0.25 mg on days -3, -2, -1 for multiple myeloma and days -7 through -3 for lymphoma. Palonosetron was repeated day +3 in both groups.

Results: A total of 20 patients were enrolled and 18 analyzed. None experienced emetic failure with complete control achieved in 78, 33, and 17% in the acute, delayed, and extended phases, respectively. Nausea occurred in 78% although not significant in 61%, with median Nausea Visual Score of 4.5. Quality of life correlated with emetic and nausea control. Eight patients developed grade 2-3 nonhematologic toxicities with only one event attributed to the study medications.

Conclusions: This triplet regimen was feasible with acceptable safety profile in the autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant setting. Emetic control was best achieved in the acute phase. Lesser degree of emetic and nausea control in the delayed and extended phases impacted quality of life. Our results warrant further evaluation in a larger autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1078155213502103DOI Listing
August 2014

Hyperbaric oxygen improves engraftment of ex-vivo expanded and gene transduced human CD34⁺ cells in a murine model of umbilical cord blood transplantation.

Blood Cells Mol Dis 2014 Jan 14;52(1):59-67. Epub 2013 Aug 14.

Division of Hematology/Oncology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation Program, 2330 Shawnee Mission Parkway, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66205, USA. Electronic address:

Delayed engraftment and graft failure represent major obstacles to successful umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation. Herein, we evaluated the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy as an intervention to improve human UCB stem/progenitor cell engraftment in an immune deficient mouse model. Six- to eight-week old NSG mice were sublethally irradiated 24 hours prior to CD34⁺ UCB cell transplant. Irradiated mice were separated into a non-HBO group (where mice remained under normoxic conditions) and the HBO group (where mice received 2 hours of HBO therapy; 100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres absolute). Four hours after completing HBO therapy, both groups intravenously received CD34⁺ UCB cells that were transduced with a lentivirus carrying luciferase gene and expanded for in vivo imaging. Mice were imaged and then sacrificed at one of 10 times up to 4.5 months post-transplant. HBO treated mice demonstrated significantly improved bone marrow, peripheral blood, and spleen retention and subsequent engraftment. In addition, HBO significantly improved peripheral, spleen and bone marrow engraftment of human myeloid and B-cell subsets. In vivo imaging demonstrated that HBO mice had significantly higher ventral and dorsal bioluminescence values. These studies suggest that HBO treatment of NSG mice prior to UCB CD34⁺ cell infusion significantly improves engraftment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcmd.2013.07.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4075130PMC
January 2014

Preclinical and phase I results of decitabine in combination with midostaurin (PKC412) for newly diagnosed elderly or relapsed/refractory adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Pharmacotherapy 2013 Dec 24;33(12):1341-52. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

Sanford Research/USD, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Purpose: To determine the preclinical activity, clinical maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and recommended phase II dose of midostaurin (MS) combined either sequentially or concurrently with intravenous decitabine (DAC) in newly diagnosed patients 60 years or older or relapsed/refractory adult patients (18 years or older) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Patients And Methods: Cultured and primary AML cells were treated with DAC and/or MS and analyzed by flow cytometry and immunoblot analyses. In the phase I study, 16 patients were enrolled; 8 were newly diagnosed patients 60 years or older and 8 were 18 years or older with relapsed AML. Only 2 of 16 patients (13%) had FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations, and no patient had KIT mutations.

Results: Compared with treatment with either agent alone, sequential treatment with DAC and MS exerted superior anti-AML activity in cultured and primary FLT3-ITD-expressing AML cells. In the subsequent phase I study, the MTD and schedule of administration of the combination was identified as DAC followed by MS. Three patients developed dose-limiting toxicities: two patients developed pulmonary edema requiring mechanical ventilation and one patient developed a prolonged QTc greater than 500 msec. Based on an intent-to-treat analysis, 57% of the patients achieved stable disease or better while enrolled in the trial; 25% had a complete hematologic response. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed results similar to those previously reported for MS.

Conclusion: The in vitro combination of DAC and MS is synergistically active against FLT3-ITD mutations expressing AML cells. In a clinical setting, the combination of sequentially administered DAC followed by MS is possible without significant unexpected toxicity, but the concurrent administration of DAC and MS led to pulmonary toxicity after only a few doses. On the basis of these results, additional studies exploring the sequential combination of untreated AML in elderly patients are warranted to further evaluate this combination at the MTD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.1316DOI Listing
December 2013

Bendamustine associated with irreversible ascending paralysis.

Case Rep Hematol 2013 27;2013:931519. Epub 2013 Feb 27.

Internal Medicine Department, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.

Bendamustine is an alkylating agent currently used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders. Many adverse effects, including a rare case of reversible neurotoxicity, have been reported in association with bendamustine. Herein, we report the first case of irreversible ascending paralysis related to bendamustine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/931519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3600208PMC
March 2013