Publications by authors named "Joseph P Allen"

109 Publications

Here for You: Attachment and the Growth of Empathic Support for Friends in Adolescence.

Child Dev 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

University of Virginia.

Attachment was examined as a predictor of teens' empathic support for friends in a multimethod longitudinal study of 184 U.S. adolescents (58% Caucasian, 29% African American, 13% other) followed from ages 14 to 18. Adolescents' secure state of mind regarding attachment at 14 predicted teens' greater capacity to provide empathic support during observed interactions with friends across ages 16-18 (B  = .39). Teens' empathic support was generally stable during this period, and less secure teens were slower to develop these skills. Further, teens' attachment security predicted the degree to which friends called for their support (B  = .29), which was associated with teens' responsiveness to such calls. The findings suggest that secure attachment predicts teens' ability to provide empathic support in close friendships.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13630DOI Listing
July 2021

Autonomy and relatedness in early adolescent friendships as predictors of short- and long-term academic success.

Soc Dev 2020 Aug 4;29(3):818-836. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

University of Virginia.

This study examined early adolescent autonomy and relatedness during disagreements with friends as key social competencies likely to predict academic achievement during the transition to high school and academic attainment into early adulthood. A sample of 184 adolescents was followed through age 29 to assess predictions to academic success from observed autonomy and relatedness during a disagreement task with a close friend. Observed autonomy and relatedness at age 13 predicted relative increases in grade point average (GPA) from 13 to 15, and greater academic attainment by age 29, after accounting for baseline GPA. Findings remained after accounting for peer acceptance, social competence, scholastic competence, externalizing and depressive symptoms, suggesting a key role for autonomy and relatedness during disagreements in helping adolescents navigate challenges in the transition to high school and beyond.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sode.12424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938762PMC
August 2020

Romantic Relationship Churn in Early Adolescence Predicts Hostility, Abuse, and Avoidance in Relationships Into Early Adulthood.

J Early Adolesc 2020 Oct 20;40(8):1195-1225. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

University of Virginia.

This study examined early adolescent romantic "churning," defined here as having a large number of boyfriends/girlfriends by age 13, as a problematic marker likely to predict hostility, abuse, and avoidance during conflict in later relationships. A sample of 184 adolescents was followed through age 24 to assess predictions of hostility, abuse, and avoidance during conflict from early romantic churning. Controlling for gender and family income, romantic churning at age 13 predicted relative decreases in peer preference and relative increases in conflict and betrayal in close friendships from ages 13-16, as well as higher observable hostility and self and partner-reported abuse in romantic relationships by age 18 and greater avoidance during conflict with romantic partners by age 24. Findings remained after accounting for attachment security, social competence, and friendship quality in early adolescence, suggesting that early romantic churning may uniquely predict a problematic developmental pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272431619899477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901808PMC
October 2020

With(out) a little help from my friends: insecure attachment in adolescence, support-seeking, and adult negativity and hostility.

Attach Hum Dev 2020 Sep 29:1-19. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

Attachment theory suggests that insecurely attached individuals will have more difficulty seeking and receiving support from others. Such struggles in adolescence may reinforce negative expectations of others and contribute to relationship difficulties into adulthood. Using a diverse community sample of 184 adolescents followed from age 13 to 27, along with friends and romantic partners, this study found that more insecure states of mind regarding attachment at age 14 predicted relative decreases in teens' abilities to seek and receive support from close friends from ages 14-18. In addition, greater attachment insecurity predicted greater observed negative interactions with romantic partners and relative increases in hostile attitudes from ages 14 to 27. The effect of attachment insecurity on observed negativity was mediated by difficulty seeking/receiving support in friendships during adolescence. Results suggest a type of self-fulfilling prophecy as insecure adolescents confirm their negative expectations of others through ongoing struggles to obtain support.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2020.1821722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005498PMC
September 2020

OXTR DNA methylation moderates the developmental calibration of neural reward sensitivity.

Dev Psychobiol 2021 01 17;63(1):114-124. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

The Adaptive Calibration Model of Stress Responsivity (ACM) suggests that developmental experiences predictably tune biological systems to meet the demands of the environment. Particularly important is the calibration of reward systems. Using a longitudinal sample (N = 184) followed since adolescence, this study models the dimensions of early life stress and their effects on epigenetic modification of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and individual differences in neural response to reward anticipation. We first created a latent variable model of developmental context using measures collected when participants were 13 years old. As adults, two subsets of participants completed a reward anticipation fMRI paradigm (N = 82) and agreed to have their blood assayed for (OXTR) DNA methylation (N = 112) at two CpG sites. Three latent constructs of developmental context emerged: Neighborhood Harshness, Family Harshness, and Abuse and Disorder. Greater OXTR DNA methylation at CpG sites -924 and -934 blunted the association between greater Neighborhood Harshness and increased neural activation in caudate in anticipation of rewards. Interaction effects were also found outside of reward-related areas for all three latent constructs. Results indicate an epigenetically derived differential susceptibility model whereby high methylation coincides with decreased association between developmental environment and neural reward anticipation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dev.22026DOI Listing
January 2021

Different factors predict adolescent substance use versus adult substance abuse: Lessons from a social-developmental approach.

Dev Psychopathol 2021 08;33(3):792-802

Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

This 17-year prospective study applied a social-developmental lens to the challenge of distinguishing predictors of adolescent-era substance use from predictors of longer term adult substance use problems. A diverse community sample of 168 individuals was repeatedly assessed from age 13 to age 30 using test, self-, parent-, and peer-report methods. As hypothesized, substance use within adolescence was linked to a range of likely transient social and developmental factors that are particularly salient during the adolescent era, including popularity with peers, peer substance use, parent-adolescent conflict, and broader patterns of deviant behavior. Substance abuse problems at ages 27-30 were best predicted, even after accounting for levels of substance use in adolescence, by adolescent-era markers of underlying deficits, including lack of social skills and poor self-concept. The factors that best predicted levels of adolescent-era substance use were not generally predictive of adult substance abuse problems in multivariate models (either with or without accounting for baseline levels of use). Results are interpreted as suggesting that recognizing the developmental nature of adolescent-era substance use may be crucial to distinguishing factors that predict socially driven and/or relatively transient use during adolescence from factors that predict long-term problems with substance abuse that extend well into adulthood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095457942000005XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755752PMC
August 2021

Perceived Psychological Control in Early Adolescence Predicts Lower Levels of Adaptation into Mid-Adulthood.

Child Dev 2021 03 16;92(2):e158-e172. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

University of Virginia.

This study examined perceived parental psychological control in early adolescence as a critical stressor likely to be associated with lower levels of adaptation into mid-adulthood. A diverse sample of 184 adolescents was followed from age 13 through 32 to assess predictions to adult adaptation. Perceived parental psychological control at age 13 predicted relative decreases in observed support, lower likelihood of being in a romantic relationship, and lower academic attainment (after accounting for grade point average at baseline) by age 32. Many outcomes were mediated by lower levels of psychosocial maturity and peer acceptance in mid-adolescence. Overall, results suggest that perceived parental psychological control in early adolescence potentially undermines autonomy so as to lead to less favorable outcomes well into adulthood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071584PMC
March 2021

The developmental precursors of blunted cardiovascular responses to stress.

Dev Psychobiol 2021 03 17;63(2):247-261. Epub 2020 May 17.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Blunted cardiovascular responses to stress have been associated with both mental and physical health concerns. This multi-method, longitudinal study examined the role of chronic social-developmental stress from adolescence onward as a precursor to these blunted stress responses. Using a diverse community sample of 184 adolescents followed from age 13 to 29 along with friends and romantic partners, this study found that high levels of parental psychological control at age 13 directly predicted a blunted heart rate response and indirectly predicted blunted respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity under stress. Heart rate effects were mediated via indicators of a developing passive response style, including observational measures of withdrawal during conflict with friends and romantic partners, social disengagement, and coping with stressors by using denial. RSA effects were mediated via withdrawal during conflict with romantic partners and coping by using denial. The current findings are interpreted as suggesting a mechanism by which a key social/developmental stressor in adolescence may alter relational and ultimately physiological patterns of stress responding into adulthood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dev.21977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008948PMC
March 2021

Interactions between anxiety subtypes, personality characteristics, and emotional regulation skills as predictors of future work outcomes.

J Adolesc 2020 04 4;80:157-172. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

University of Virginia, Department of Psychology, P.O Box 400400, Charlottesville, VA, 22904, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study examined long-term predictive links between different types of anxiety in late adolescence and work-related outcomes in young adulthood. The presence of adaptive personality traits and positive emotion regulation and coping skills were hypothesized to buffer these associations, reducing the negative effects of anxiety on future work outcomes.

Methods: Hypotheses were tested using multi-reporter data from a community sample of 184 youth in the United States followed from ages 17-30. Trait anxiety, anxious arousal, rejection sensitivity, and implicit rejection were each examined in late adolescence as predictors of work-related ambition, work performance, job satisfaction, and career satisfaction in young adulthood. Conscientiousness, grit, emotion regulation (ER) and coping skills were examined as potential moderators.

Results: Although trait anxiety was the only anxiety variable directly predictive of work outcomes in regression analyses, personality variables and ER skills interacted with multiple types of anxiety to predict work outcomes. Interestingly, findings reflected a pattern in which a combination of greater conscientiousness and greater anxiety, and greater ER skills and greater anxiety, predicted more positive work outcomes.

Conclusions: These findings not only suggest that the development of traits such as conscientiousness and ER skills may be helpful for youth with higher levels of anxiety, but also that higher levels of anxiety, when appropriately balanced by other qualities, may be adaptive for promoting positive career development for some youth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2020.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248278PMC
April 2020

The Connection Project: Changing the peer environment to improve outcomes for marginalized adolescents.

Dev Psychopathol 2021 05;33(2):647-657

Wyman Center, St. Louis, MO, USA.

This study evaluated a school-based intervention to enhance adolescent peer relationships and improve functional outcomes, building upon Ed Zigler's seminal contribution in recognizing the potential of academic contexts to enhance social and emotional development. Adolescents (N = 610) primarily from economically or racially/ethnically marginalized groups were assessed preintervention, postintervention, and at 4-month follow-up in a randomized controlled trial. At program completion, intervention participants reported significantly increased quality of peer relationships; by 4-month follow-up, this increased quality was also observable by peers outside of the program, and program participants also displayed higher levels of academic engagement and lower levels of depressive symptoms. These latter effects appear to have potentially been mediated via participants' increased use of social support. The potential of the Connection Project intervention specifically, and of broader efforts to activate adolescent peer relationships as potent sources of social support and growth more generally within the secondary school context, is discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579419001731DOI Listing
May 2021

Focused Classroom Coaching and Widespread Racial Equity in School Discipline.

AERA Open 2019 Oct 22;5(4):1-15. Epub 2019 Dec 22.

University of Virginia.

We examined the effects of a teacher coaching program on discipline referrals using records from 7,794 secondary U.S. classrooms. Some classroom teachers took part in a trial: They were randomized to receive intensive coaching in a focal classroom or to form a business-as-usual control group. The remaining teachers taught in the same schools. Previous research suggested that the coaching program was associated with increasing equity in discipline referrals in focal coached classrooms (Gregory et al., 2016). The current study addressed the generalizability of effects from teachers' focal coached classrooms to diverse classrooms in their course load. Results suggested that the coaching program had no generalized effects on reducing referrals with African American students or racial referral gaps in classrooms with coached teachers, relative to the control teachers and the other teachers in the schools. We offer implications for coaching programs and directions for equity-oriented efforts to reduce racial discipline gaps.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2332858419897274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186456PMC
October 2019

Beyond deviancy-training: Deviant adolescent friendships and long-term social development.

Dev Psychopathol 2019 12;31(5):1609-1618

Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Adolescent association with deviant and delinquent friends was examined for its roots in coercive parent-teen interactions and its links to functional difficulties extending beyond delinquent behavior and into adulthood. A community sample of 184 adolescents was followed from age 13 to age 27, with collateral data obtained from close friends, classmates, and parents. Even after accounting for adolescent levels of delinquent and deviant behavior, association with deviant friends was predicted by coercive parent-teen interactions and then linked to declining functioning with peers during adolescence and greater internalizing and externalizing symptoms and poorer overall adjustment in adulthood. Results are interpreted as suggesting that association with deviant friends may disrupt a core developmental task-establishing positive relationships with peers-with implications that extend well beyond deviancy-training effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095457941900083XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6854276PMC
December 2019

The Intensity Effect in Adolescent Close Friendships: Implications for Aggressive and Depressive Symptomatology.

J Res Adolesc 2020 03 28;30(1):158-169. Epub 2019 May 28.

The University of Virginia.

This study examined the effect of close friendship intensity as a potential amplifier of an adolescent's preexisting tendencies toward depressive and aggressive symptoms. A diverse community sample of 170 adolescents and their closest friends was assessed via multiple methods, and adolescents were followed from age 16 to 17. Results supported the hypothesized effect, with more intense close friendships interacting with higher baseline levels of behavioral symptoms to predict greater relative increases in symptoms over time. Effects were observed for both depressive and aggressive symptoms, and appeared with respect to multiple observational measures of friendship intensity. Findings are interpreted as suggesting that seemingly disparate phenomena (e.g., co-rumination for depression and deviancy-training for aggression) may both be dependent upon the intensity of the adolescent's social connections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6881514PMC
March 2020

The Young Adult Love Lives of Happy Teenagers: The Role of Adolescent Affect in Adult Romantic Relationship Functioning.

J Res Pers 2019 Jun 18;80:1-9. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

University of Virginia.

This study assessed early adolescent positive and negative affect as long-term predictors of romantic conflict, anxious and avoidant attachment, romantic and social competence, and relationship satisfaction in adulthood utilizing a longitudinal, multi-informant study of 166 participants assessed annually at ages 14-17, and again at ages 23-25. Positive affect in adolescence predicted greater self-rated social competence during late adolescence and greater self-rated romantic competence and less partner-reported hostile conflict almost a decade later. Negative affect predicted lower social and romantic competence. Results generally remained significant after controlling for personality traits, providing greater support for the hypothesis that affect has a robust, direct relation to romantic development over time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2019.03.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6530922PMC
June 2019

Adolescent Peer Relationship Qualities as Predictors of Long-Term Romantic Life Satisfaction.

Child Dev 2020 01 24;91(1):327-340. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

University of Virginia.

Adolescent-era predictors of adult romantic life satisfaction were examined in a multimethod, prospective, longitudinal study of 165 adolescents followed from ages 13 to 30. Progress in key developmental tasks, including establishing positive expectations and capacity for assertiveness with peers at age 13, social competence at ages 15 and 16, and ability to form and maintain strong close friendships at ages 16-18, predicted romantic life satisfaction at ages 27-30. In contrast, several qualities linked to romantic experience during adolescence (i.e., sexual and dating experience, physical attractiveness) were unrelated to future satisfaction. Results suggest a central role of competence in nonromantic friendships as preparation for successful management of the future demands of adult romantic life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6656620PMC
January 2020

Brief behavioral interventions at free medical fairs.

Int J Psychiatry Med 2018 11;53(5-6):371-383

2 Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Free medical fairs have emerged to compensate for the lack of access to affordable health care in rural areas of the United States. Mental health services are offered less frequently than other medical services, despite a documented need, perhaps due to a belief that mental health interventions could not be effective in a single session. We examined the types of problems presented at three rural medical fairs, and whether single session mental health interventions affected participants' health confidence, distress, or progress toward health-related goals. Problems presented included mental health, legal, financial, tobacco cessation, and relationship problems. Findings indicated that, on average, participants gained health confidence and reduced distress and found the service very helpful. The majority of those reached for phone follow-up reported progress on one or more health goals. Goals that involved manageable steps within the participants' own control, such as gratitude practices or progressive muscle relaxation, were the most likely to be completed. Implementation lessons included the importance of learning about the fairs' cultures, advertising the services, location of services, being proactive in connecting with patients, and preparing resources for community referrals. Overall, findings suggest that mental health interventions can have a positive impact on some people at free medical fairs. Given that tens of thousands of people attend each year, the fairs offer a fruitful opportunity to reach some of our most underserved citizens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0091217418791441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537097PMC
November 2018

Making Sense and Moving On: The Potential for Individual and Interpersonal Growth Following Emerging Adult Breakups.

Emerg Adulthood 2018 29;6(3):172-190. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

This study assessed the key aspects of romantic relationship dissolution in emerging adulthood as predictors of future mental health and romantic qualities. It utilized a longitudinal, multiinformant, multimethod study of 160 participants with their romantic partners and close friends followed from ages 20-25, with a breakup assessed at age 22. Having control over initiating a breakup at age 22 predicted relative increases in peer-rated internalizing symptoms and autonomy-undermining interactions with a new partner at ages 23-25. Having a greater understanding of the reasons for a breakup predicted lower self-reported internalizing symptoms and relative decreases in partner-reported romantic conflict as well as relative increases in self-reported relationship satisfaction and peer-rated intimate relationship competence at ages 23-25. Predictions remained after accounting for numerous potential confounds including age 20-22 baseline relationship quality, social competence, internalizing symptoms, and gender. Implications for understanding links between breakup characteristics on emerging adult psychological and relationship functioning are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2167696817711766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6051550PMC
June 2017

Getting What You Expect: Negative Social Expectations in Early Adolescence Predict Hostile Romantic Partnerships and Friendships Into Adulthood.

J Early Adolesc 2018 Apr 3;38(4):475-496. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA.

Adolescents' negative expectations of their peers were examined as predictors of their future selection of hostile partners, in a community sample of 184 adolescents followed from ages 13 to 24. Utilizing observational data, close friend- and self-reports, adolescents with more negative expectations at age 13 were found to be more likely to form relationships with observably hostile romantic partners and friends with hostile attitudes by age 18 even after accounting for baseline levels of friend hostile attitudes at age 13 and adolescents' own hostile behavior and attitudes. Furthermore, the presence of friends with hostile attitudes at age 18 in turn predicted higher levels of adult friend hostile attitudes at age 24. Results suggest the presence of a considerable degree of continuity from negative expectations to hostile partnerships from adolescence well into adulthood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272431616675971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5889146PMC
April 2018

Learning to cope with anxiety: Long-term links from adolescence to adult career satisfaction.

J Adolesc 2018 04 3;64:1-12. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

University of Virginia, Department of Psychology, P.O Box 400400, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA. Electronic address:

This study examined the long-term effect of anxiety on career satisfaction for young adults in the United States. The abilities to positively cope with stress and function competently as an adult were examined as potential moderators of this link, and adolescent developmental precursors of these abilities were also investigated. Analyses revealed a negative association between anxiety at age 21 and career satisfaction at age 27. However, this association was ameliorated for youth with better coping skills and functional competence at age 24. Autonomy and relatedness behaviors with best friends and mothers were examined as potential predictors of these moderators, with positive autonomy and relatedness from friends at age 13 emerging as the sole predictor of these skills. Results suggest that although anxiety may inhibit career satisfaction for many youth, positive coping and adult functional competence skills may allow anxious individuals to achieve career satisfaction. Moreover, these skills may be promoted through peer relationships in early adolescence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6499399PMC
April 2018

Long-Term Risks and Possible Benefits Associated with Late Adolescent Romantic Relationship Quality.

J Youth Adolesc 2018 Jul 5;47(7):1531-1544. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Adolescent romantic relationships have the potential to affect psychological functioning well into adulthood. This study assessed adolescent romantic relationship qualities as long-term predictors of psychological functioning utilizing a longitudinal multi-method, multi-informant study of 80 participants (59% female; 54% Caucasian, 35% African American, 11% mixed or other race) assessed at age 17 along with their romantic partners and at ages 25-27. Controlling for gender, family income, and baseline mental health, partner-reported hostile conflict at age 17 predicted relative increases in internalizing behaviors from age 17 to 27. In contrast, observed teen support with their partner during a help-seeking task at age 17 predicted relative decreases in externalizing behaviors over time. The results are interpreted as suggesting qualities that may help determine whether adolescent romances have positive vs. negative long-term psychological health implications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-018-0813-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003846PMC
July 2018

The body remembers: Adolescent conflict struggles predict adult interleukin-6 levels.

Dev Psychopathol 2018 10 7;30(4):1435-1445. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

University of Utah.

Struggles managing conflict and hostility in adolescent social relationships were examined as long-term predictors of immune-mediated inflammation in adulthood that has been linked to long-term health outcomes. Circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a marker of immune system dysfunction when chronically elevated, were assessed at age 28 in a community sample of 127 individuals followed via multiple methods and reporters from ages 13 to 28. Adult serum IL-6 levels were predicted across periods as long as 15 years by adolescents' inability to defuse peer aggression and poor peer-rated conflict resolution skills, and by independently observed romantic partner hostility in late adolescence. Adult relationship difficulties also predicted higher IL-6 levels but did not mediate predictions from adolescent-era conflict struggles. Predictions were also not mediated by adult trait hostility or aggressive behavior, suggesting the unique role of struggles with conflict and hostility from others during adolescence. The implications for understanding the import of adolescent peer relationships for life span physical health outcomes are considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579417001754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5991989PMC
October 2018

Effects of a Brief Psychosocial Intervention on Inpatient Satisfaction: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Fam Med 2017 10;49(9):675-678

University of Virginia Department of Family Medicine.

Background And Objectives: Increasing attention is being paid to patients’ experience of hospitalization. BATHE (a brief psychosocial intervention that addresses Background, Affect, Trouble, Handling, and Empathy) has been found to improve patients’ outpatient experiences but has not yet been studied in inpatient settings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examined whether daily administration of BATHE would improve patients’ satisfaction with their hospital experience.

Methods: BATHE is a brief psychosocial intervention designed to reduce distress and strengthen the physician-patient relationship. In February through March 2015 and February through March 2016, 25 patients admitted to the University of Virginia Family Medicine inpatient service were randomized to usual care or to the BATHE intervention. Participants completed a baseline measure of satisfaction at enrollment. Those in the intervention group received the BATHE intervention daily for five days or until discharge. At completion, participants completed a patient satisfaction measure.

Results: Daily administration of BATHE had strong effects on patients’ likelihood of endorsing their medical care as “excellent.” BATHE did not improve satisfaction by making patients feel more respected, informed or attended to. Rather, effects on satisfaction were mediated by patients’ perception that their physician showed “a genuine interest in me as a person."

Conclusions: Our study suggests that patients are more satisfied with their hospitalization experience when physicians take a daily moment to check in with the patient “as a person” and not just as a medical patient. The brevity of the BATHE intervention indicates that this check-in need not be lengthy or overly burdensome for the already busy inpatient physician.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5689450PMC
October 2017

Close Friendship Strength and Broader Peer Group Desirability as Differential Predictors of Adult Mental Health.

Child Dev 2019 01 21;90(1):298-313. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

University of Virginia.

Middle adolescents' close friendship strength and the degree to which their broader peer group expressed a preference to affiliate with them were examined as predictors of relative change in depressive symptoms, self-worth, and social anxiety symptoms from ages 15 to 25 using multimethod, longitudinal data from 169 adolescents. Close friendship strength in midadolescence predicted relative increases in self-worth and decreases in anxiety and depressive symptoms by early adulthood. Affiliation preference by the broader peer group, in contrast, predicted higher social anxiety by early adulthood. Results are interpreted as suggesting that adolescents who prioritize forming close friendships are better situated to manage key social developmental tasks going forward than adolescents who prioritize attaining preference with many others in their peer milieu.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5821600PMC
January 2019

Perceptions of Relatedness with Classroom Peers Promote Adolescents' Behavioral Engagement and Achievement in Secondary School.

J Youth Adolesc 2017 11 28;46(11):2341-2354. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22903, USA.

Secondary school is a vulnerable time where stagnation or declines in classroom behavioral engagement occur for many students, and peer relationships take on a heightened significance. We examined the implications of adolescents' perceptions of relatedness with classroom peers for their academic learning. Participants were 1084 adolescents (53% female) in 65 middle and high school classrooms. Multilevel cross-lagged path analyses found that adolescents' perceived relatedness with classroom peers subsequently predicted their increased self-reported behavioral engagement in that classroom from fall to winter and again from winter to spring. Higher engagement in spring predicted higher end of year objective achievement test scores after statistical control of prior year test scores. Implications are discussed for increasing classroom peer relatedness to enhance adolescents' achievement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0724-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5671357PMC
November 2017

Parent and Peer Predictors of Change in Attachment Security From Adolescence to Adulthood.

Child Dev 2018 07 1;89(4):1120-1132. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

University of Virginia.

Interview, self-report, peer report, and observational data were used to examine parent and peer relationship qualities as predictors of relative changes in attachment security in a community sample of adolescents followed from ages 14 to 24. Early maternal supportive behavior predicted relative increases in attachment security from adolescence to adulthood, whereas psychological control and interparental hostile conflict predicted relative decreases. Peer predictors of relative increases in security included collaborative and autonomous behaviors and lack of hostile interactions, with peer predictions growing stronger for relationships assessed at later ages. Overall, models accounted for sufficient variance as to suggest that attachment security across this period is well explained by a combination of stability plus theoretically predicted change linked to social relationship qualities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5711609PMC
July 2018

Subjective General Health and the Social Regulation of Hypothalamic Activity.

Psychosom Med 2017 Jul/Aug;79(6):670-673

From the Department of Psychology (Brown), University of California, Berkeley, California; Department of Psychology (Beckes), Bradley University, Peoria, Illinois; and Department of Psychology (Allen, Coan), University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Objective: Social support is associated with better health. This association may be partly mediated through the social regulation of adrenomedullary activity related to poor cardiovascular health and glucocorticoid activity known to inhibit immune functioning. These physiological cascades originate in the hypothalamic areas that are involved in the neural response to threat. The aim of the study investigated whether the down regulation, by social support, of hypothalamic responses to threat is associated with better subjective health.

Methods: A diverse community sample of seventy-five individuals, aged 23 to 26 years, were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. Participants completed the Short Form Health Survey, a well-validated self-report measure used to assess subjective general health. They were scanned, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, during a threat of shock paradigm involving various levels of social support, which was manipulated using handholding from a close relational partner, a stranger, and an alone condition. We focused on a hypothalamic region of interest derived from an independent sample to examine the association between hypothalamic activity and subjective general health.

Results: Results revealed a significant interaction between handholding condition and self-reported general health (F(2,72) = 3.53, p = .032, partial η = 0.05). Down regulation of the hypothalamic region of interest during partner handholding corresponded with higher self-ratings of general health (ß = -0.31, p = .007).

Conclusions: Higher self-ratings of general health correspond with decreased hypothalamic activity during a task that blends threat with supportive handholding. These results suggest that associations between social support and health are partly mediated through the social regulation of hypothalamic sensitivity to threat.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5629910PMC
April 2018

Adolescent support seeking as a path to adult functional independence.

Dev Psychol 2017 05 30;53(5):949-961. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

Department of Psychology, University of Virginia.

The potential importance of depending on others during adolescence to establish independence in young adulthood was examined across adolescence to emerging adulthood. Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-White), their mothers, best friends, and romantic partners, assessed at ages 13-14, 18, 21-22, and 25. Path analyses showed that associations were both partner and age specific: markers of independence were predicted by participants' efforts to seek support from mothers at age 13, best friends at 18, and romantic partners at 21. More important, analyses controlled for support seeking from these partners at other ages, as well as for other potentially confounding variables including attachment security, scholastic/job competence, and physical attractiveness over time. Moreover, analyses suggested the transfer of support seeking behavior from mothers to best friends to romantic partners over time based on support given by the previous partner at an earlier age. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5469408PMC
May 2017

How teacher emotional support motivates students: The mediating roles of perceived peer relatedness, autonomy support, and competence.

Learn Instr 2016 Apr 29;42:95-103. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning, University of Virginia, USA.

Multilevel mediation analyses test whether students' mid-year reports of classroom experiences of autonomy, relatedness with peers, and competence mediate associations between early in the school year emotionally-supportive teacher-student interactions (independently observed) and student-reported academic year changes in mastery motivation and behavioral engagement. When teachers were observed to be more emotionally-supportive in the beginning of the school year, adolescents reported academic year increases in their behavioral engagement and mastery motivation. Mid-year student reports indicated that in emotionally-supportive classrooms, adolescents experienced more developmentally-appropriate opportunities to exercise autonomy in their day-to-day activities and had more positive relationships with their peers. Analyses of the indirect effects of teacher emotional support on students' engagement and motivation indicated significant mediating effects of autonomy and peer relatedness experiences, but not competence beliefs, in this sample of 960 students (ages 11-17) in the classrooms of 68 middle and high school teachers in 12 U.S. schools.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.01.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5298258PMC
April 2016

Closing the Racial Discipline Gap in Classrooms by Changing Teacher Practice.

School Psych Rev 2016 Jun;45(2):171-191

University of Virginia.

Black students are issued school discipline sanctions at rates higher than members of other racial and ethnic groups, underscoring the need for professional development that addresses this gap. In 86 secondary classrooms, a randomized controlled trial examined the effects of a 2-year teacher coaching program, My Teaching Partner Secondary (MTP-S). Results from the second year of coaching and the year after coaching was discontinued replicated previous findings from the first year of coaching-intervention teachers had no significant disparities in discipline referral between Black students and their classmates, compared to teachers in the control condition, for whom racial discipline gaps remained. Thus, MTP-S effects were replicated in the second year of coaching and maintained when coaching was withdrawn. Mediational analyses identified mechanisms for these effects; Black students had a low probability of receiving disciplinary referrals with teachers who increased skills to engage students in high-level analysis and inquiry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.17105/SPR45-2.171-191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5302858PMC
June 2016

Long-Term Predictions from Early Adolescent Attachment State of Mind to Romantic Relationship Behaviors.

J Res Adolesc 2016 12 5;26(4):1022-1035. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School.

Attachment state of mind was investigated as a long-term predictor of romantic relationship competence. A secure early adolescent attachment state of mind was hypothesized to predict more constructive dyadic behaviors during conflict discussions and support seeking interactions in late adolescence and early adulthood. Utilizing multi-method data from a community sample of 184 individuals, followed from ages 14 to 21, adolescents with a secure attachment state of mind at age 14 were found to be in relationships that displayed more constructive dyadic conflict discussion behaviors and dyadic supportive behaviors at both ages 18 and 21. Results suggest substantial links between early adolescent attachment state of mind and the adult romantic relationship atmosphere an individual creates and experiences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5279894PMC
December 2016
-->