Publications by authors named "Joseph Haynes"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Early Experience with Comaneci, a Newly FDA-Approved Controllable Assist Device for Wide-Necked Intracranial Aneurysm Coiling.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 May 10:1-8. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Comaneci (Rapid Medical) is a compliant, adjustable mesh that provides temporary scaffolding during coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms (WNAs) that preserves antegrade flow. We report our early multi-institutional experience with the Comaneci device in the USA.

Method: We reviewed all patients with WNAs that were treated using the Comaneci device for coil remodeling of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms at 4 institutions between July 2019 and May 2020. Clinical characteristics, angiographic variables, and endovascular results were assessed.

Results: A total of 26 patients were included (18 women). The mean age was 62.7 years (range 44-81). Fifteen patients presented with ruptured aneurysms and 11 with unruptured aneurysms. The mean aneurysm neck width was 3.91 mm (range 1.9-6.5) with a mean dome-to-neck ratio of 1.57 (range 0.59-3.39). The mean maximum width was 5.80 mm (range 3.0-9.9) and the mean maximum height was 5.61 mm (range 2.0-11.8). Successful aneurysm occlusion was achieved in 25 of 26 patients. Complete occlusion was achieved in 16 patients, near-complete occlusion was observed in 9 patients, and 1 patient demonstrated residual filling. The mean time of device exposure was 24 min (range 8-76). No vasospasm was observed at the device location. Clot formation on the device was noted in 2 separate cases, but there were no clinical sequelae. There was 1 intraprocedural complication in a case that involved the simultaneous use of 2 Comaneci devices.

Conclusions: Our initial experience shows that the Comaneci device is a promising and reliable tool that can safely support coil remodeling of WNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514371DOI Listing
May 2021

Superficial Temporal Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Cranial Bypass for Nonmoyamoya Steno-Occlusive Disease in Patients Who Failed Optimal Medical Treatment: A Case Series.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 04;20(5):444-455

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York.

Background: In the post-Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS) era, multiple reviews suggested subset groups of patients as potential candidates for superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass. Among them are patients with recurrent strokes despite optimal medical therapy. There is a paucity of data on the outcome of bypass in these specific patients.

Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of direct STA-MCA bypass in patients with nonmoyamoya, symptomatic steno-occlusive disease with impaired distal perfusion, who failed optimal medical management or endovascular treatment.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed to identify patients with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease who underwent bypass after symptomatic recurrent or rapidly progressive strokes, despite optimal conservative or endovascular treatment.

Results: A total of 8 patients (mean age 60 ± 6 yr) underwent direct or combined direct/indirect STA-MCA bypass between 2016 and 2019. All anastomoses were patent. One bypass carried slow flow. There were no procedure-related permanent deficits. One patient developed seizures which were controlled by medications. A total of 7 out of 8 patients were stable or improved clinically at last follow-up (mean 27.3 ± 13.8 mo) without recurrent strokes. One patient did not recover from their presenting stroke, experienced severe bilateral strokes 4 mo postoperatively, and subsequently expired. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) improved in 6 patients (75%), remained stable in 1 patient (12.5%), and deteriorated in 1 (12.5%). Good long-term functional outcome was achieved in 5 patients (63%, mRS ≤ 2).

Conclusion: Patients with symptomatic, hypoperfused steno-occlusive disease who fail optimal medical or endovascular treatment may benefit from cerebral revascularization. Direct or combined STA-MCA bypass was safe and provided favorable outcomes in this small series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opaa458DOI Listing
April 2021

Intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy for acute anterior spinal artery stroke.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Feb 24;84:102-105. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Importance: Spinal cord infarction is rare but can be extremely disabling. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of these infarcts is important for patient outcomes. While intravenous thrombolytic therapy is a well-established form of treatment in circumstances of cerebral stroke, it has only recently been successfully used in a few incidents of spinal cord ischemia. We present a case of anterior spinal artery (ASA) territory ischemia treated with ASA intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy.

Clinical Presentation: A 52-year-old male presented with acute onset of severe lumbar pain, rapidly progressing paraplegia and loss of pain and temperature sensation, with preservation of proprioception and vibratory sensation at the L1 level and below on the right and at the L3 level and below on the left. MRI showed restricted diffusion involving the cord at and below L1 level, with normal cord T2 signal. Digital subtraction spinal angiography showed ASA cutoff in the descending limb at the level of L1. Intra-arterial tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) combined with verapamil and eptifibatide was administered within the ASA and the patient had significant neurological improvement immediately postoperatively and at 8-month clinical follow-up.

Conclusion: Direct ASA intra-arterial thrombolysis is feasible, and this drug combination might be an effective therapy for spinal stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2020.11.035DOI Listing
February 2021

Endarterectomy for symptomatic internal carotid artery web.

J Neurosurg 2020 Aug 28:1-8. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

3Department of Neurosurgery.

Objective: The carotid web (CW) is an underrecognized source of cryptogenic, embolic stroke in patients younger than 55 years of age, with up to 37% of these patients found to have CW on angiography. Currently, there are little data detailing the best treatment practices to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke in these patients. The authors describe their institutional surgical experience with patients treated via carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for a symptomatic internal carotid artery web.

Methods: A retrospective, observational cohort study was performed including all patients presenting to the authors' institution with CW. All patients who were screened underwent either carotid artery stenting (CAS) or CEA after presentation with ischemic stroke from January 2019 to February 2020. From this sample, patients with suggestive radiological features and pathologically confirmed CW who underwent CEA were identified. Patient demographics, medical histories, radiological images, surgical results, and clinical outcomes were collected and described using descriptive statistics.

Results: A total of 45 patients with symptomatic carotid lesions were treated at the authors' institution during the time period. Twenty patients underwent CAS, 1 of them for a CW. Twenty-five patients were treated via CEA, and of these, 6 presented with ischemic strokes ipsilateral to CWs, including 3 patients who presented with recurrent strokes. The mean patient age was 55 ± 12.6 years and 5 of 6 were women. CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography demonstrated the presence of CWs ipsilateral to the stroke in all patients. All patients underwent resection of CWs using CEA. There were no permanent procedural complications and no patients had stroke recurrence following intervention at the latest follow-up (mean 6.1 ± 4 months). One patient developed mild tongue deviation most likely related to retraction, with complete recovery at follow-up.

Conclusions: CEA is a safe and feasible treatment for symptomatic carotid webs and should be considered a viable alternative to CAS in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.5.JNS201107DOI Listing
August 2020

Nasopharyngeal Vascular Hamartoma in a Dog.

Case Rep Vet Med 2020 4;2020:9716179. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

An 8-year-old spayed female 32 kg Labrador retriever was presented for further investigation into the underlying cause of dyspnea, stertor, and sleep apnea present for three months and worsening over 30 days. There were significant reduction in airflow through the nares and loud inspiratory stridor. Thoracic and cervical radiographs made were normal. A skull CT and retrograde rhinoscopy showed a mass occluding the majority of the nasopharynx above the caudal third of the hard palate. The main differential diagnoses included a neoplastic mass vs. inflammatory mass vs. cyst vs. mucous obstruction. There was no destruction of nasal turbinates, making a benign etiology more likely. Biopsy of the mass showed an inflammatory process. En bloc excision of the mass was performed via ventral rhinotomy without complication. Histopathology of the excised mass revealed it to be a mucosal vascular hamartoma. The dog recovered uneventfully and had no further respiratory issues, short or long term. Although vascular hamartomas are a rare finding in veterinary medicine, they can be found in a wide variety of species and anatomic locations. They should be considered when naming differentials for benign mass lesions throughout the body, including the nasopharynx. Although they are benign masses in nature, they can be clinically significant and should be addressed. Prognosis after removal in this location is excellent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9716179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293740PMC
June 2020

DynaCT Enhancement of Subdural Membranes After Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization: Insights into Pathophysiology.

World Neurosurg 2020 07 13;139:e265-e270. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization could be an effective method of inhibiting neovascularization of the subdural capsular membrane and preventing hematoma maintenance. We sought to better understand how the MMA might affect subdural hematoma physiology and how this process might be modified by embolization.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 27 patients with 29 subdural hematomas (SDHs) who had undergone MMA embolization from July 2018 to May 2019. Of the 27 patients, 8 had undergone postembolization DynaCT imaging studies and were included in the present study.

Results: The average patient age was 75 years. The baseline noncontrast-enhanced cranial computed tomography (CT) scans showed the presence of a hematoma membrane in all 8 patients. The postembolization DynaCT scans of all patients demonstrated enhancement of all 4 components (i.e., dura, capsular membrane, septations, and subdural hematoma fluid). All patients had a minimum of 60-day imaging and clinical follow-up data available. The average decrease in SDH volume at the last follow-up examination was 87% compared with that at baseline. A significant difference was found between the average baseline and average last follow-up SDH volume (P < 0.0001, paired t test) in all 8 patients. The average interval from the date of the procedure to the last follow-up scan was 89 days (range, 61-122 days). No patient experienced postembolization complications, subsequent SDH drainage, or mortality.

Conclusions: Our data lend support to the theory of contiguous vascular networks between the MMA and SDH membranes. Targeting these leaky vascular networks might remove the source of hematoma accumulation. These data add to the pathophysiological understanding of the disease and suggests potential insights into the mechanism of action of MMA embolization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.03.188DOI Listing
July 2020

Upper Airway Obstruction Due to Primary Laryngeal Blastomycosis in a Dog.

J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2020 May/Jun;56(3):181. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

From Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6984DOI Listing
January 2021

Radial Arterial Access for Thoracic Intraoperative Spinal Angiography in the Prone Position.

World Neurosurg 2020 05 4;137:e358-e365. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Section of Neurointerventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Verification of complete occlusion or resection of neurovascular lesions is often performed using intraoperative angiography. Surgery for spinal vascular lesions such as arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) is typically performed with the patient in the prone position, making intraoperative angiography difficult. No standardized protocol is available for intraoperative angiography during spinal surgery with the patient in the prone position. We have described our experience using radial artery access for intraoperative angiography in thoracic spinal neurovascular procedures performed with the patient in the prone position.

Methods: We reviewed the data from all patients who had undergone surgical resection of spinal vascular lesions in the prone position with radial artery vascular access for intraoperative angiography. The patients were treated in a hybrid endovascular operating room.

Results: A total of 4 patients were treated in the prone position using transradial artery access intraoperative angiography for confirmation of complete resection of the vascular lesions. Of the 4 patients, 2 had undergone surgery for a dural AVF, 1 for a pial AVF, and 1 for an AVM of the filum terminale. None of the patients had experienced any procedural complications.

Conclusion: Radial artery access for intraoperative angiography during spinal neurovascular procedures in which selective catheterization of a thoracic branch is necessary is feasible, safe, and practical.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.01.208DOI Listing
May 2020

Microsurgical Resection of a Spinal Cord Pial Arteriovenous Fistula: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2020 08;19(2):E152

Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.

We present a patient who was diagnosed 20 yr prior to current presentation with a spinal arteriovenous malformation. This patient had a 10-yr history of worsening back pain (and underwent lumbar fusion), urinary dysfunction leading to 3-yr dependence on intermittent catheterization, lower extremity paresthesias and pain, and progressive weakness with multiple falls, leading to walker then wheelchair dependence for mobility. Magnetic resonance studies showed extensive thoracic cord expansion and edema with enlarged spinal cord surface veins and flow voids extending from spinal levels T6 to the conus medullaris. Partial embolization at an outside institution elicited transient symptom improvement. Repeated spinal angiogram demonstrated persistent T10 pial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) supplied by the posterior spinal artery arising from the right T11 segmental artery as well as by the anterior spinal artery from the left T10 segmental artery. Because additional embolization carried significant risk, we planned open surgery with fistula resection. Informed consent for the surgery and video recording was obtained. The patient was placed in the prone position, and a radial artery access was obtained for intraoperative angiogram. Following a posterior T9-T11 laminectomy and dural opening, a pial dissection was performed to expose the AVF. Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography was used to assist in identifying the feeders and major drainage of the AVF. Post-AVF resection, a formal intraoperative radial access spinal angiogram demonstrated complete resection of the lesion with no residual shunt or early venous drainage. The patient improved significantly and, on last follow-up, is ambulating without any assistive devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opz388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594179PMC
August 2020

Bilateral Sterile Pyogranulomatous Keratitis in a Dog.

Case Rep Vet Med 2019 20;2019:8516981. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

Purpose: To describe the clinicopathologic features of bilateral sterile pyogranulomatous keratitis in a 16-year-old spayed female rat terrier dog.

Methods: The dog presented one year prior due to ulceration of the right and left corneas. The ulcers healed but plaques developed on both eyes which progressed, during the course of one year, to cover both the left and the right corneas. Due to the animal's loss of sight and its painful condition, bilateral enucleation was performed with submission of the eyes for histopathology.

Results: Microscopic examination revealed bilateral pyogranulomatous keratitis absent of etiological organisms.

Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of bilateral sterile pyogranulomatous keratitis in a dog.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/8516981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6719276PMC
August 2019

Novel siadenovirus infection in a cockatiel with chronic liver disease.

Virus Res 2019 04 31;263:164-168. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

A 15-year-old female cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) undergoing long term management for hepatopathy died and underwent necropsy. Microscopic findings were consistent with chronic liver disease characterized by distorted hepatic architecture, fibrosis and biliary proliferation. The additional finding of large intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes and renal tubular epithelium prompted diagnostic next generation sequencing. The assembled sequences isolated from pooled kidney and liver were related to siadenoviruses. The genus Siadenovirus, within the family Adenoviridae, includes several species of viruses that pathogenically infect avian species including hemorrhagic enteritis virus of turkeys and marble spleen virus of pheasants. Siadenoviruses have previously been reported in seven psittacine species: a plum-headed parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala), an umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba) budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulates), an eastern rosella (Platycercus eximius), a scarlet chested parrot (Neophema splendida), a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), and a red-crowned parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae). This report describes a novel siadenovirus in a cockatiel that is highly identical to budgerigar adenovirus 1 and distinct from PsAdV-2 in cockatiels. We report the clinical pathologic, gross, and histopathologic findings in a cockatiel with chronic hepatitis and a novel siadenovirus, PsAdV-5. The sequencing data is presented with a phylogenetic analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2019.01.018DOI Listing
April 2019

What is your diagnosis? Caudal fossa mass from a dog.

Vet Clin Pathol 2018 Jun 26;47(2):322-323. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12610DOI Listing
June 2018

Bioavailability and biochemical effects of diclofenac sodium 0.1% ophthalmic solution in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

Vet Ophthalmol 2017 Mar 11;20(2):171-176. Epub 2016 May 11.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, 1600 S. 16th Street, Ames, IA, 50011, USA.

Objective: To determine if topical ophthalmic diclofenac sodium 0.1% solution alters renal parameters in the domestic chicken, and to determine if the drug is detectable in plasma after topical ophthalmic administration.

Animals: Thirty healthy domestic chickens.

Procedures: Over 7 days, six birds were treated unilaterally with one drop of artificial tear solution (group 1), 12 birds were treated unilaterally (group 2) and 12 bilaterally (group 3) with diclofenac sodium 0.1% ophthalmic solution. Treatments were provided every 12 h in all groups. Pre- and post-treatment plasma samples from all birds were evaluated for changes in albumin, total protein, and uric acid. Post-treatment samples of all birds, collected 15 min post-administration, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for diclofenac sodium detection. A randomly selected renal sample from each group was submitted for histopathologic review.

Results: Changes in pre- and post-treatment plasma albumin were significant (P < 0.05) in groups 2 and 3, but not for group 1. Pre- and post-treatment changes in total protein and uric acid were not significant for any group. Diclofenac sodium was not detectable (limit of detection = 0.10 ng/mL) in plasma samples from birds in group 1. Post-treatment concentration of diclofenac in group 3 was statistically greater than group 2 (P = 0.0008). Histopathologic changes did not identify diclofenac-induced acute renal tubular necrosis.

Conclusions: Ophthalmic diclofenac sodium 0.1% administered topically every 12 h in one or both eyes for 7 days is detectable in systemic circulation in the domestic chicken, but does not cause overt significant changes in plasma uric acid or total protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vop.12387DOI Listing
March 2017

Corneal fibrosarcoma in a cat.

Vet Ophthalmol 2016 Jul 3;19 Suppl 1:131-135. Epub 2016 Feb 3.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, 1600 S. 16th St, Ames, IA, 50011, USA.

Purpose: To present the clinicopathologic features of a Domestic Short-haired cat with spontaneous, intermediate-grade corneal fibrosarcoma, possibly secondary to chronic corneal irritation associated with a corneal sequestrum.

Methods: A 12-year-old, spayed female Domestic Short-haired cat was evaluated for a slowly growing, pink, exophytic mass affecting the left cornea. The cat had presented 6 years previously for bilateral brown corneal sequestra, as well as 3 years previously for a small pale growth on the left cornea hypothesized to be an epithelial inclusion cyst and a corneal ulcer affecting the right eye. Incisional biopsy of the corneal mass indicated intermediate-grade corneal fibrosarcoma within the corneal stroma. Owing to the potential for malignant behavior, the left globe was enucleated. Routine systemic staging was performed prior to surgery with no evidence of metastasis.

Results: Definitive diagnosis of corneal fibrosarcoma was made through histopathologic examination of the incisional biopsy. There was an elevated mitotic index, indicating an intermediate-grade phenotype. Histopathology of the enucleated globe substantiated the initial findings, and complete tumor resection was confirmed. Subjacent to the corneal fibrosarcoma, there was a region of necrotic tissue suggestive of a corneal sequestrum. Six months after diagnosis and enucleation, the patient remained healthy with no signs of local spread or distant metastasis.

Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of a corneal fibrosarcoma in a cat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vop.12354DOI Listing
July 2016

Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma Induced by a Foreign Body Granuloma.

J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2015 Sep-Oct;51(5):315-9

From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (J.E.S., N.R.K.) and Department of Veterinary Pathology (J.H.), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

An 8 yr old spayed female Italian greyhound was presented with a mass in the cranial abdomen. Preliminary evaluation of the dog revealed a large, cavitary, irregularly shaped mass with no definitive association with any abdominal organs. During an exploratory celiotomy, a 16 cm × 12 cm × 6 cm mass was removed. On subsequent histopathology, extraskeletal osteosarcoma induced by a foreign body granuloma was diagnosed. The foreign body granuloma, based on histopathological findings, was suspected to be secondary to a retained surgical sponge from her routine ovariohysterectomy performed 7 yr prior to presentation. Animals with granulomas induced by foreign bodies can remain asymptomatic for years; however, those granulomas can progress to extraskeletal osteosarcomas, which carry a poor prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6224DOI Listing
August 2016

Activation of autophagy and nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat-containing-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 inflammasome during Leishmania infantum-associated glomerulonephritis.

Am J Pathol 2015 Aug 13;185(8):2105-17. Epub 2015 Jun 13.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa; Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. Electronic address:

Chronic kidney disease is a major contributor to human and companion animal morbidity and mortality. Renal complications are sequelae of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Despite the high incidence of infection-mediated glomerulonephritis, little is known about pathogenesis of VL-associated renal disease. Leishmania infantum-infected dogs are a naturally occurring model of VL-associated glomerulonephritis. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I [24 of 25 (96%)], with interstitial lymphoplasmacytic nephritis [23 of 25 (92%)], and glomerular and interstitial fibrosis [12 of 25 (48%)] were predominant lesions. An ultrastructural evaluation of glomeruli from animals with VL identified mesangial cell proliferation and interposition. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated significant Leishmania antigen, IgG, and C3b deposition in VL dog glomeruli. Asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs had increased glomerular nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat-containing-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 and autophagosome-associated microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 associated with glomerular lesion severity. Transcriptional analyses from symptomatic dogs confirmed induction of autophagy and inflammasome genes within glomeruli and tubules. On the basis of temporal VL staging, glomerulonephritis was initiated by IgG and complement deposition. This deposition preceded presence of nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat-containing-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3-associated inflammasomes and increased light chain 3 puncta indicative of autophagosomes in glomeruli from dogs with clinical VL and renal failure. These findings indicate potential roles for inflammasome complexes in glomerular damage during VL and autophagy in ensuing cellular responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.04.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4530124PMC
August 2015

Use of terbinafine in the treatment protocol of intestinal Cryptococcus neoformans in a dog.

J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2012 May-Jun;48(3):216-20. Epub 2012 Apr 3.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Internal Medicine Services, Iowa State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ames, IA, USA.

A 2.5 yr old sexually intact male vizsla was admitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for persistent diarrhea, weight loss, and panhypoproteinemia. Examination revealed an emaciated condition and melena. Two masses were palpated in the cranial abdomen. Hematology and serum biochemistry exhibited a regenerative anemia and confirmed the presence of panhypoproteinemia, suggestive of a protein-losing eneteropathy. Distinct areas of thickened intestinal wall and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were found on abdominal ultrasound. Cytology from those nodes showed the presence of suspected Cryptococcus spp., and infection was confirmed utilizing a cryptococcal antigen titer. Medical therapy with lipid-complexed amphotericin B and fluconazole was unsuccessful. Two surgical procedures were performed to remove the affected areas of intestine and lymph nodes, but the disease persisted as evidenced by a persistently elevated cryptococcal antigen titer. Terbinafine was prescribed, which resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs and a steadily decreasing cryptococcal antigen titer. Very few cases of intestinal cryptococcosis have been reported. In this case, infection resulted in a protein-losing enteropathy. In addition, this article describes the use of terbinafine in the treatment of intestinal cryptococcal infection in the dog, which has not been previously reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5326/JAAHA-MS-5813DOI Listing
June 2012

Disseminated T-cell lymphoma in a bonobo (Pan paniscus).

J Vet Diagn Invest 2012 Jan 6;24(1):238-40. Epub 2011 Dec 6.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

Disseminated lymphoma was diagnosed in an 8-year-old male bonobo (Pan paniscus). The male bonobo presented with a 4-6 week history of dyspnea and facial swelling around the eyes; thoracic radiographs and computed tomography scan indicated a craniodorsal mediastinal soft tissue mass. Upon gross examination, there was a large, cream to white mass expanding the mediastinum and pericardial sac. The mass extended along the thoracic aorta and cranial vena cava, through the thoracic inlet, along and encircling the trachea, and bilaterally into the thyroid glands. Microscopically, neoplastic lymphocytes were present in the thymus, trachea, lungs, kidney, heart, and numerous other tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of neoplastic lymphocytes revealed diffuse immunoreactivity for cluster of differentiation (CD)3 indicating T-cell lymphoma. Routine viral screening was negative via polymerase chain reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638711427175DOI Listing
January 2012

Targeted delivery of vitamin D to the colon using β-glucuronides of vitamin D: therapeutic effects in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2012 Feb 23;302(4):G460-9. Epub 2011 Nov 23.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA 50011, USA.

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D] has been shown to inhibit development of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice but can also cause hypercalcemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether β-glucuronides of vitamin D could deliver 1,25(OH)(2)D to the colon to ameliorate colitis while reducing the risk of hypercalcemia. Initial studies demonstrated that bacteria residing in the lower intestinal tract were capable of liberating 1,25(OH)(2)D from 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-25-β-glucuronide [β-gluc-1,25(OH)(2)D]. We also determined that a much greater upregulation of the vitamin D-dependent 24-hydroxylase gene (Cyp24) was induced in the colon by treatment of mice with an oral dose of β-gluc-1,25(OH)(2)D than 1,25(OH)(2)D, demonstrating targeted delivery of 1,25(OH)(2)D to the colon. We then tested β-glucuronides of vitamin D in the mouse DSS colitis model in two studies. In mice receiving DSS dissolved in distilled water and treated with 1,25(OH)(2)D or β-gluc-1,25(OH)(2)D, severity of colitis was reduced. Combination of β-gluc-1,25(OH)(2)D with 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)-25-β-glucuronide [β-gluc-25(OH)D] resulted in the greatest reduction of colitis lesions and symptoms in DSS-treated mice. Plasma calcium concentrations were lower in mice treated with β-gluc-1,25(OH)(2)D alone or in combination with β-gluc-25(OH)D than in mice treated with 1,25(OH)(2)D, which were hypercalcemic at the time of death. β-Glucuronides of vitamin D compounds can deliver 1,25(OH)(2)D to the lower intestine and can reduce symptoms and lesions of acute colitis in this model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00156.2011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5142426PMC
February 2012

Idiopathic eosinophilic meningoencephalomyelitis in a Rottweiler dog.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2010 Jul;22(4):646-8

Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, 2740 Veterinary Pathology, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

A 6-month-old, female, intact Rottweiler dog was presented to the Iowa State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a progressive history of abnormal behavior and generalized ataxia. At necropsy, there was eosinophilic infiltration of the brain and spinal cord, most severe in the medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and cervical spinal cord. Infiltrates of eosinophils were also present in the liver and small intestines. The dog was diagnosed with idiopathic eosinophilic meningoencephalomyelitis based on cerebrospinal fluid analysis, histopathology, and special stains to exclude etiologic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104063871002200427DOI Listing
July 2010

HBCUs inform students and the community about cervical cancer.

J S C Med Assoc 2009 Dec;105(7):260-2

In summary, HBCUs can no longer remain reactive, but must spearhead efforts to increase both the health of the student body, as well as the community at large. HBCUs should collaboratively initiate a "Call to Action", whereby policies and programs could be created to aid in the prevention of HPV and other STIs. To support this action, HBCUs could more actively pursue funding sources that support both universities and the communities in which they exist. Student orientation could be redefined to include short courses in STI awareness and prevention, and be communicated in a manner that is professional, yet engaging to students. Moreover, university departments which have an interest in the health of communities should supervise these efforts. The knowledge of university faculty members within departments of Nursing, Social Work, Public Health, Rehabilitation Counseling and Physical Education should extend beyond the classroom and into the community. Clark commented, "Perhaps course content across departments could be revised to encompass an increased focus on practice skills which support awareness and prevention efforts". Through employment, volunteerism and student internships, each of these disciplines have established relationships with the surrounding community and understand the associated critical needs. Such relationships provide the best environment for both the creation and implementation of services, and provide students with a model of how to "give back" to the community by utilizing their education. Campus health centers should be more prevention-driven beyond the distribution of condoms and pamphlets, to collaborate with local area high schools and community-based organizations to create an information network accessible to students and community residents. Additionally, health centers should promote the availability of HPV vaccination, which depending on state of residence and age, may be free or available at a discounted cost. According to Bynum, some HBCUs have already begun to promote and provide the vaccination, "South Carolina State University is one of the HBCUs which provides the HPV vaccination and promotes HPV prevention. There has been a great initiative by their health center to focus prevention efforts on incoming freshman". HBCU administrations must bear in mind that beyond the campus, students will undoubtedly carry the information learned during college into the communities in which they live after graduation and moreover, utilize this information as a basis for educating their children and families. Community activist and Columbia resident Linda "T'Zima" Brown, whose 16 year-old son is considering application to Delaware State University, believes that HBCUs bear a great responsibility to the well-being of the community, "We as residents should be able to take part in the events that our black colleges have. Black colleges used to operate from a more inclusive, family approach, and we need to get back to that; plus, many HBCUs are supported with our state dollars, so the community should be able to look to them for information aside from what our children relay to us".
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December 2009

A vascular hamartoma arising from the cervical spine of a cat.

J Feline Med Surg 2009 Aug 28;11(8):724-7. Epub 2009 Jun 28.

Georgia Veterinary Specialists, 455 Abernathy Rd NE, Atlanta, GA, USA.

A 15-month-old cat presented for evaluation of worsening generalized proprioceptive ataxia. Computed tomography of the cervical spine revealed the presence of a compressive extradural bony mass involving the dorsal aspect of C1. Surgical exploration and debulking of the mass was performed. Histological evaluation of the mass revealed fibrovascular tissue consistent with a vascular hamartoma. This mass was deemed to be originating from the soft tissue associated with the C1 vertebra with subsequent bony proliferation. Surgical debulking of the mass resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs with no evidence of recurrence 2 years after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfms.2008.09.009DOI Listing
August 2009

Respiratory herpesvirus infection in two Indian Ringneck parakeets.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2008 Mar;20(2):235-8

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Vet Med Building, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA.

A flock of Indian Ringneck parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) was imported to the United States from Australia. Soon after, 1 parakeet suddenly died, and a second parakeet died after a 2-day course of illness, which consisted of anorexia, lethargy, emaciation, and dyspnea. At necropsy, the affected birds had diffuse consolidation and red discoloration of the lungs, as well as thickened, congested air sacs. The microscopic examination revealed multifocal, necrotizing bronchitis, parabronchitis, and interstitial pneumonia. The lumen of the affected airways contained numerous, large syncytial cells with up to 15 nuclei. The nuclei of these syncytial cells often contained large, eosinophilic inclusion bodies, consistent with herpesvirus. The epithelium of the trachea and air sacs was hypertrophied and contained syncytial cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies similar to the bronchi. In addition, a few intranuclear inclusion bodies were also present in the epithelial cells that line the air capillaries. On ultrastructural examination, the nuclei of degenerating epithelial cells contained clusters of viral nucleocapsid proteins and unenveloped, icosahedral, viral particles that were approximately 90 nm in diameter. In addition, some epithelial cells contained clusters of enveloped viral particles approximately 105 nm in diameter, within the cytocavitary network. These lesions are characteristic of those caused by respiratory herpesvirus of parakeets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104063870802000217DOI Listing
March 2008

Dandy-Walker-Like syndrome in a quarter horse colt.

J Vet Intern Med 2007 Sep-Oct;21(5):1130-4

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1892/0891-6640(2007)21[1130:dsiaqh]2.0.co;2DOI Listing
December 2007

Unilateral uveitis in a dog with uveodermatologic syndrome.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006 Feb;228(4):543-8

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

Case Description: A 7-year-old Siberian Husky-type dog with heterochromia irides was evaluated because of signs of pain associated with the right eye.

Clinical Findings: Unilateral panuveitis, iris bombé, and secondary glaucoma were detected in the right eye. Tear production was low bilaterally. Facial and truncal poliosis and vitiligo were also evident; skin biopsy specimens were obtained from the nasal planum. Uveodermatologic syndrome was diagnosed on the basis of histopathologic findings of a lichenoid interface dermatitis and pigmentary incontinence within the dermis. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on skin samples retrospectively, and findings were inconclusive.

Treatment And Outcome: Treatment involved topical (ocular) and oral administration of corticosteroids, oral administration of azathioprine, and topical (ocular) administration of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and a lacrimostimulant. The secondary glaucoma was refractory to treatment, and the right eye was enucleated. Uveodermatologic syndrome was confirmed via histologic examination of ocular tissues. The left eye remained free of inflammation 16 months after the initial diagnosis. The periocular skin and skin of the nose partially regained pigment, but the hair did not.

Clinical Relevance: Some breeds in which uveodermatologic syndrome has been reported (eg, Siberian Huskies, Old English Sheepdogs, Australian Shepherds, and Shetland Sheepdogs) often have heterochromia irides. This case highlights the fact that dogs with asymmetric uveal pigmentation may have unilateral ocular changes; therefore, uveodermatologic syndrome should not be excluded as a differential diagnosis on the basis of unilateral clinical signs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.228.4.543DOI Listing
February 2006

Actinobacillus capsulatus septicemia in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

J Vet Diagn Invest 2005 Jan;17(1):83-5

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1250, USA.

A 5-year-old pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) died after a 3-day history of anorexia and depression. At necropsy, the stomach was distended with dough-like ingesta and hair consistent with gastric stasis syndrome. The lungs had multifocal, raised red nodules with circumferential hemorrhage. Microscopic examination showed pulmonary hemorrhage with intravascular fibrin thrombi and bacterial colonies, which were present in lesser amounts in the kidney, heart, and liver. Bacterial culture of the lung produced a heavy pure growth of Actinobacillus capsulatus. Acute septicemia is a novel presentation for this pathogen. This is the first documented case of A. capsulatus disease in the contiguous United States and may represent an underdiagnosed to emerging disease of lagomorphs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104063870501700119DOI Listing
January 2005

Lymphoid hyperplasia resulting in immune dysregulation is caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in neonatal pigs.

J Immunol 2004 Feb;172(3):1916-25

Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

Amid growing evidence that numerous viral infections can produce immunopathology, including nonspecific polyclonal lymphocyte activation, the need to test the direct impact of an infecting virus on the immune system of the host is crucial. This can best be tested in the isolator piglet model in which maternal and other extrinsic influences can be excluded. Therefore, neonatal isolator piglets were colonized with a benign Escherichia coli, or kept germfree, and then inoculated with wild-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or sham medium. Two weeks after inoculation, serum IgM, IgG, and IgA levels were 30- to 50-, 20- to 80-, and 10- to 20-fold higher, respectively, in animals receiving virus vs sham controls, although <1% was virus specific. PRRSV-infected piglets also had bronchial tree-associated lymph nodes and submandibular lymph nodes that were 5-10 times larger than colonized, sham-inoculated animals. Size-exclusion fast performance liquid chromatography revealed that PRRSV-infected sera contained high-molecular-mass fractions that contained IgG, suggesting the presence of immune complexes. Lesions, inflammatory cell infiltration, glomerular deposits of IgG, IgM, and IgA, and Abs of all three isotypes to basement membrane and vascular endothelium were observed in the kidneys of PRRSV-infected piglets. Furthermore, autoantibodies specific for Golgi Ags and dsDNA could be detected 3-4 wk after viral inoculation. These data demonstrate that PRRSV induces B cell hyperplasia in isolator piglets that leads to immunologic injury and suggests that the isolator piglet model could serve as a useful model to determine the mechanisms of virus-induced immunopathology in this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.172.3.1916DOI Listing
February 2004

Cytokine effects on maturation of the phagosomes containing Mycobacteria avium subspecies paratuberculosis in J774 cells.

FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2002 Oct;34(2):127-34

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. a. ptb) is an intracellular pathogen of macrophages. Intracellular survival of several species of pathogenic mycobacteria is dependent on inhibition of maturation of the phagosomes containing these pathogens into functional phagolysosomes. In activated macrophages, however, this capacity is reduced, leading to increased bacterial killing. It is the hypothesis of this study that there is increased acidification and maturation of the phagosome containing M. a. ptb in interferon gamma and lipopolysaccharide (IFN-gamma/LPS) activated macrophages. In activated macrophages colocalization of M. a. ptb with either a marker of acidic compartments (Lysotracker Red) or compartments containing a late phagosome maturation marker lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (Lamp-1) were evaluated by laser confocal microscopy. Intracellular survival of M. a. ptb in activated macrophages was evaluated directly using differential fluorescent live/dead staining. The results of this study demonstrated increased colocalization of both Lysotracker Red and Lamp-1 with FITC labeled M. a. ptb, which correlated with decreased survival of M. a. ptb within activated macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-695X.2002.tb00613.xDOI Listing
October 2002