Publications by authors named "Joseph H Chewning"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Infection prophylaxis patterns following pediatric autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A survey of Pediatric Transplant and Cell Therapy Consortium centers.

Pediatr Transplant 2020 12 25;24(8):e13821. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

No standardized guidelines exist for infectious prophylaxis following pediatric auto-HSCT. We hypothesized significant variation in clinical practice. Thirty-three Pediatric Transplant and Cell Therapy Consortium centers completed a survey to assess institutional management. The majority utilize viral (91%) and fungal prophylaxis (94%), but duration varies. Bacterial prophylaxis during neutropenia is instituted by 42%. Our study demonstrates marked practice variability in infectious prophylaxis across centers. Additional research is needed to address patterns of infectious complications and to develop meaningful clinical practice guidelines for pediatric auto-HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13821DOI Listing
December 2020

Immune profile differences between chronic GVHD and late acute GVHD: results of the ABLE/PBMTC 1202 studies.

Blood 2020 04;135(15):1287-1298

CancerCare Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Human graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) biology beyond 3 months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is complex. The Applied Biomarker in Late Effects of Childhood Cancer study (ABLE/PBMTC1202, NCT02067832) evaluated the immune profiles in chronic GVHD (cGVHD) and late acute GVHD (L-aGVHD). Peripheral blood immune cell and plasma markers were analyzed at day 100 post-HSCT and correlated with GVHD diagnosed according to the National Institutes of Health consensus criteria (NIH-CC) for cGVHD. Of 302 children enrolled, 241 were evaluable as L-aGVHD, cGVHD, active L-aGVHD or cGVHD, and no cGVHD/L-aGVHD. Significant marker differences, adjusted for major clinical factors, were defined as meeting all 3 criteria: receiver-operating characteristic area under the curve ≥0.60, P ≤ .05, and effect ratio ≥1.3 or ≤0.75. Patients with only distinctive features but determined as cGVHD by the adjudication committee (non-NIH-CC) had immune profiles similar to NIH-CC. Both cGVHD and L-aGVHD had decreased transitional B cells and increased cytolytic natural killer (NK) cells. cGVHD had additional abnormalities, with increased activated T cells, naive helper T (Th) and cytotoxic T cells, loss of CD56bright regulatory NK cells, and increased ST2 and soluble CD13. Active L-aGVHD before day 114 had additional abnormalities in naive Th, naive regulatory T (Treg) cell populations, and cytokines, and active cGVHD had an increase in PD-1- and a decrease in PD-1+ memory Treg cells. Unsupervised analysis appeared to show a progression of immune abnormalities from no cGVHD/L-aGVHD to L-aGVHD, with the most complex pattern in cGVHD. Comprehensive immune profiling will allow us to better understand how to minimize L-aGVHD and cGVHD. Further confirmation in adult and pediatric cohorts is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019003186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146024PMC
April 2020

Benefits and challenges with diagnosing chronic and late acute GVHD in children using the NIH consensus criteria.

Blood 2019 07 1;134(3):304-316. Epub 2019 May 1.

British Columbia Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) and late acute graft-versus-host disease (L-aGVHD) are understudied complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children. The National Institutes of Health Consensus Criteria (NIH-CC) were designed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of cGVHD and to better classify graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) syndromes but have not been validated in patients <18 years of age. The objectives of this prospective multi-institution study were to determine: (1) whether the NIH-CC could be used to diagnose pediatric cGVHD and whether the criteria operationalize well in a multi-institution study; (2) the frequency of cGVHD and L-aGVHD in children using the NIH-CC; and (3) the clinical features and risk factors for cGVHD and L-aGVHD using the NIH-CC. Twenty-seven transplant centers enrolled 302 patients <18 years of age before conditioning and prospectively followed them for 1 year posttransplant for development of cGVHD. Centers justified their cGVHD diagnosis according to the NIH-CC using central review and a study adjudication committee. A total of 28.2% of reported cGVHD cases was reclassified, usually as L-aGVHD, following study committee review. Similar incidence of cGVHD and L-aGVHD was found (21% and 24.7%, respectively). The most common organs involved with diagnostic or distinctive manifestations of cGVHD in children include the mouth, skin, eyes, and lungs. Importantly, the 2014 NIH-CC for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome perform poorly in children. Past acute GVHD and peripheral blood grafts are major risk factors for cGVHD and L-aGVHD, with recipients ≥12 years of age being at risk for cGVHD. Applying the NIH-CC in pediatrics is feasible and reliable; however, further refinement of the criteria specifically for children is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019000216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6911839PMC
July 2019

Screening for Family Psychosocial Risk in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with the Psychosocial Assessment Tool.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 07 14;25(7):1374-1381. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Center for Healthcare Delivery Science, Nemours Children's Health System; Department of Pediatrics, Sidney Kimmel Medical School at Thomas Jefferson University. Electronic address:

Family psychosocial risk screening is an important initial step in delivering evidence-based care in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Establishing an evidence-based screening approach that is acceptable, reliable, and valid is an essential step in psychosocial care delivery. This is a 3-institution multimethod study. In part 1, caregivers of children about to undergo HCT (n = 140) completed the Psychosocial Assessment Tool-Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (PAT-HCT), a brief parent report screener adapted for HCT, and validating questionnaires. Families received feedback on their risks identified on the PAT-HCT. In part 2, 12 caregivers completed a semistructured interview about their perceptions of the PAT and the feedback process. The reliability and validity of the PAT-HCT total and subscale scores were tested using Kuder-Richardson-20 (KR-20) and Pearson correlations. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative interview data. Internal consistency for the total score (KR-20 = .88) and the Child Problems, Sibling Problems, Family Problems, and Stress Reactions subscales were strong (KR-20 >.70). Family Structure, Social Support, and Family Beliefs subscales were adequate (KR-20 = .55 to .63). Moderate to strong correlations with the criteria measures provided validation for the total and subscale scores. Feedback was provided to 97.14% of the families who completed the PAT-HCT, and the mean rating of acceptability was >4.00 (on a 5-point scale). The qualitative data indicate that families appreciate the effort to provide screening and feedback. The PAT-HCT is a psychometrically sound screener for use in HCT. Feedback can be given to families. Both the screener and the feedback process are acceptable to caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.03.012DOI Listing
July 2019

Extramedullary Relapse of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Presenting as Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A Case Report.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2017 Jun 4;30(3):431-434. Epub 2017 Jan 4.

Division of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama. Electronic address:

Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy. Relapse of ALL occurs in 15%-20% of patients, with 2%-6% occurring exclusively in extramedullary sites. Relapse of ALL in gynecologic organs is extremely rare.

Case: We present a case of a 12-year-old girl with a history of ALL who was referred to the pediatric gynecology clinic with abnormal uterine bleeding. She was determined to have an extramedullary uterine relapse of her ALL.

Summary And Conclusion: Abnormal uterine bleeding in the setting of childhood malignancy is a frequent reason for consultation to pediatric and adolescent gynecology services. This bleeding is commonly attributed to thrombocytopenia due to bone marrow suppressive chemotherapeutic agents. However, as shown in this report, abnormal uterine bleeding might be a manifestation of an extramedullary relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2016.12.004DOI Listing
June 2017

Development and survival of Th17 cells within the intestines: the influence of microbiome- and diet-derived signals.

J Immunol 2014 Nov;193(10):4769-77

Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294.

Th17 cells have emerged as important mediators of host defense and homeostasis at barrier sites, particularly the intestines, where the greatest number and diversity of the microbiota reside. A critical balance exists between protection of the host from its own microbiota and pathogens and the development of immune-mediated disease. Breaches of local innate immune defenses provide critical stimuli for the induction of Th17 cell development, and additional cues within these tissues promote Th17 cell survival and/or plasticity. Normally, this results in eradication of the microbial threat and restitution of homeostasis. When dysregulated, however, Th17 cells can cause a range of immune-mediated diseases, whether directed against Ags derived from the microbiota, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, or against self-Ags in a range of autoimmune diseases. This review highlights recent discoveries that provide new insights into ways in which environmental signals impact Th17 cell development and function in the intestines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1401835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6007010PMC
November 2014

NK cell tolerance of self-specific activating receptor KIR2DS1 in individuals with cognate HLA-C2 ligand.

J Immunol 2013 May 3;190(9):4650-60. Epub 2013 Apr 3.

Immunology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, New York, NY 10065, USA.

NK cells are regulated by inhibiting and activating cell surface receptors. Most inhibitory receptors recognize MHC class I Ags and protect healthy cells from NK cell-mediated autoaggression. However, certain activating receptors, including the human activating killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) 2DS1, also recognize MHC class I. This fact raises the question of how NK cells expressing such activating receptors are tolerized to host tissues. We investigated whether the presence of HLA-C2, the cognate ligand for 2DS1, induces tolerance in 2DS1-expressing NK cells. Anti-HLA-C2 activity could be detected in vitro in some 2DS1 positive NK clones irrespective of the presence or absence of HLA-C2 ligand in the donor. The frequency of anti-HLA-C2 reactivity was high in donors homozygous for HLA-C1. Surprisingly, no significant difference was seen in the frequency of anti-HLA-C2 cytotoxicity in donors heterozygous for HLA-C2 and donors without HLA-C2 ligand. However, donors homozygous for HLA-C2, compared with all other donors, had significantly reduced frequency of anti-HLA-C2 reactive clones. The 2DS1 positive clones that express inhibitory KIR for self-HLA class I were commonly noncytotoxic, and anti-HLA-C2 cytotoxicity was nearly exclusively restricted to 2DS1 single positive clones lacking inhibitory KIR. 2DS1 single positive NK clones with anti-HLA-C2 reactivity were also present posttransplantation in HLA-C2 positive recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplants from 2DS1 positive donors. These results demonstrate that many NK cells with anti-HLA-C2 reactivity are present in HLA-C1 homozygous and heterozygous donors with 2DS1. In contrast, 2DS1 positive clones from HLA-C2 homozygous donors are frequently tolerant to HLA-C2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1202120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3643210PMC
May 2013

Allogeneic Th1 cells home to host bone marrow and spleen and mediate IFNγ-dependent aplasia.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2013 Jun 21;19(6):876-87. Epub 2013 Mar 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Bone marrow graft failure and poor graft function are frequent complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and result in significant morbidity and mortality. Both conditions are associated with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), although the mechanism remains undefined. Here we show, in 2 distinct murine models of GVHD (complete MHC- and class II-disparate) that mimic human peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, that Th1 CD4(+) cells induce bone marrow failure in allogeneic recipients. Bone marrow failure after transplantation of allogeneic naïve CD4(+) T cells was associated with increased CD4(+) Th1 cell development within bone marrow and lymphoid tissues. Using IFNγ-reporter mice, we found that Th1 cells generated during GVHD induced bone marrow failure after transfers into secondary recipients. Homing studies demonstrated that transferred Th1 cells express CXCR4, which was associated with accumulation within bone marrow and spleen. Allogeneic Th1 cells were activated by radiation-resistant host bone marrow cells and induced bone marrow failure through an IFNγ-dependent mechanism. Thus, allogeneic Th1 CD4(+) cells generated during GVHD traffic to hematopoietic sites and induce bone marrow failure via IFNγ-mediated toxicity. These results have important implications for prevention and treatment of bone marrow graft failure after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.03.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683565PMC
June 2013

HLA-C-dependent prevention of leukemia relapse by donor activating KIR2DS1.

N Engl J Med 2012 Aug;367(9):805-16

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.

Background: Of the cancers treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is most sensitive to natural killer (NK)-cell reactivity. The activating killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) 2DS1 has ligand specificity for HLA-C2 antigens and activates NK cells in an HLA-dependent manner. Donor-derived NK reactivity controlled by KIR2DS1 and HLA could have beneficial effects in patients with AML who undergo allogeneic HSCT.

Methods: We assessed clinical data, HLA genotyping results, and donor cell lines or genomic DNA for 1277 patients with AML who had received hematopoietic stem-cell transplants from unrelated donors matched for HLA-A, B, C, DR, and DQ or with a single mismatch. We performed donor KIR genotyping and evaluated the clinical effect of donor KIR genotype and donor and recipient HLA genotypes.

Results: Patients with AML who received allografts from donors who were positive for KIR2DS1 had a lower rate of relapse than those with allografts from donors who were negative for KIR2DS1 (26.5% vs. 32.5%; hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61 to 0.96; P=0.02). Of allografts from donors with KIR2DS1, those from donors who were homozygous or heterozygous for HLA-C1 antigens could mediate this antileukemic effect, whereas those from donors who were homozygous for HLA-C2 did not provide any advantage (24.9% with homozygosity or heterozygosity for HLA-C1 vs. 37.3% with homozygosity for HLA-C2; hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.75; P=0.002). Recipients of KIR2DS1-positive allografts mismatched for a single HLA-C locus had a lower relapse rate than recipients of KIR2DS1-negative allografts with a mismatch at the same locus (17.1% vs. 35.6%; hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.78; P=0.007). KIR3DS1, in positive genetic linkage disequilibrium with KIR2DS1, had no effect on leukemia relapse but was associated with decreased mortality (60.1%, vs. 66.9% without KIR3DS1; hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96; P=0.01).

Conclusions: Activating KIR genes from donors were associated with distinct outcomes of allogeneic HSCT for AML. Donor KIR2DS1 appeared to provide protection against relapse in an HLA-C-dependent manner, and donor KIR3DS1 was associated with reduced mortality. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1200503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3767478PMC
August 2012

Bioluminescence-based visualization of CD4 T cell dynamics using a T lineage-specific luciferase transgenic model.

BMC Immunol 2009 Aug 3;10:44. Epub 2009 Aug 3.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA.

Background: Rapid clonal expansion of T cells occurs in response to antigenic challenges. The kinetics of the T cell response has previously been described using tissue-based studies performed at defined time points. Luciferase bioluminescence has recently been utilized for non-invasive analysis of in vivo biologic processes in real-time.

Results: We have created a novel transgenic mouse model (T-Lux) using a human CD2 mini-gene to direct luciferase expression specifically to the T cell compartment. T-Lux T cells demonstrated normal homing patterns within the intact mouse and following adoptive transfer. Bioluminescent signal correlated with T cell numbers in the whole body images as well as within specific organ regions of interest. Following transfer into lymphopenic (RAG2-/-) recipients, homeostatic proliferation of T-Lux T cells was visualized using bioluminescent imaging. Real-time bioluminescent analysis of CD4+ T cell antigen-specific responses enabled real-time comparison of the kinetics and magnitude of clonal expansion and contraction in the inductive lymph node and tissue site of antigen injection. T cell expansion was dose-dependent despite the presence of supraphysiologic numbers of OVA-specific OT-II transgenic TCR T-Lux T cells. CD4+ T cells subsequently underwent a rapid (3-4 day) contraction phase in the draining lymph node, with a delayed contraction in the antigen delivery site, with bioluminescent signal diminished below initial levels, representing TCR clonal frequency control.

Conclusion: The T-Lux mouse provides a novel, efficient model for tracking in vivo aspects of the CD4+ T cell response to antigen, providing an attractive approach for studies directed at immunotherapy or vaccine design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2172-10-44DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2736162PMC
August 2009

Fludarabine-based conditioning secures engraftment of second hematopoietic stem cell allografts (HSCT) in the treatment of initial graft failure.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2007 Nov 7;13(11):1313-23. Epub 2007 Sep 7.

Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.

Graft failure is associated with a high mortality rate. To date, regimens invoked for second transplants have resulted in inconsistent engraftment with high transplant-related mortality (TRM). We here report 16 consecutive patients, aged 4-59 years, who received second HSCT (HSCT-2) at a median of 45 days following primary or secondary failure of an initial unmodified (N = 3) or T cell-depleted (TCD) (N = 13) HSCT (HSCT-1). HSCT-1 was administered after myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI)- or alkylator-based conditioning for acute leukemias (N = 7), MDS (N = 6), CML (N = 2), and Fanconi anemia (N = 1). All patients experienced 1 or more infectious complications between HSCT-1 and HSCT-2, and 10 patients had active infections at the time of HSCT-2. Cytoreduction regimens used for HSCT-2 included fludarabine (Flu) in combination with cyclophosphamide (CTX) (N = 9), or thiotepa (Thio) (N = 5). In addition, 1 patient received Flu alone and 1 patient Thio combined with CTX. Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) (N = 11) or Alemtuzumab (N = 3) was added pretransplant to prevent rejection. For HSCT-2, donors included HLA-matched (N = 3) or mismatched (N = 8) related, or matched (N = 2) or mismatched (N = 3) unrelated donors. The primary graft donor was used in 6 of 16 cases. The grafts administered were unmodified peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) (N = 5) or bone marrow transplantation (BMT) (N = 3), TCD PBSCT (N = 8). All patients achieved engraftment at a median of 12 days and evaluable patients achieved complete donor chimerism. Six patients are alive with a median follow-up of 49 months, including 4/9 conditioned with Flu/CTX. In this series, outcome was statistically superior for younger patients (
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2007.07.006DOI Listing
November 2007

KIR2DS1-positive NK cells mediate alloresponse against the C2 HLA-KIR ligand group in vitro.

J Immunol 2007 Jul;179(2):854-68

Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.

The inhibitory 2DL1 and activating 2DS1 killer Ig-like receptors (KIR) both have shared ligand specificity for codon sequences in the C2 group HLA-Cw Ags. In this study, we have investigated NK cell activation by allogeneic target cells expressing different combinations of the HLA-KIR ligand groups C1, C2, and Bw4. We demonstrate that fresh NK cells as well as IL-2-propagated NK cells from 2DS1-positive donors that are homozygous for the C1 ligand group are activated in vitro by B lymphoblastoid cell lines expressing the C2 group. This response is, in part, due to the absence of C1 group recognition mediated by the inhibitory receptor 2DL2/3. This "missing self" alloresponse to C2, however, is rarely observed in NK cells from donors lacking 2DS1. Even in presence of 2DS1, the NK alloresponse is dramatically reduced in donors that have C2 group as "self." Analysis of selected NK clones that express 2DS1 mRNA and lack mRNA for 2DL1 demonstrates that activation by the C2 ligand and mAb cross-linking of 2DS1 in these clones induces IFN-gamma. Furthermore, this C2 group-induced activation is inhibited by Abs to both HLA class I and the receptor. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that NK cells from 2DS1-positive donors are activated by target cells that express the C2 group as an alloantigen. This leads to increased IFN-gamma-positive fresh NK cells and induces NK allocytotoxicity in IL2-propagated polyclonal NK cells and NK clones. This study also provides support for the concept that incompatibility for the HLA-KIR ligand groups C1, C2, and Bw4 dominates NK alloactivation in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.179.2.854DOI Listing
July 2007