Publications by authors named "Joseph D Santangelo"

9 Publications

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An inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine is safe and immunogenic in healthy adults: A phase I, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, study of two dosages.

Vaccine 2019 07 20;37(31):4344-4353. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Takeda Vaccines, Inc., Takeda Pharmaceuticals USA, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), especially that caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection, is a public health concern in the Asia-Pacific region. We report a phase I clinical trial of an EV71 candidate vaccine (INV21) based on a binary ethylenimine inactivated B2 sub-genotype formulated with aluminum hydroxide.

Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, dose escalation study adult volunteers received two vaccinations 28 days apart of low or high dose formulations of the candidate vaccine and were then monitored for safety and reactogenicity for four weeks after each dose, and for their immune responses up to 28 weeks.

Results: Of 36 adults enrolled, 35 completed the study as planned. Either no or mild adverse events were observed, mainly injection site pain and tiredness. Seroconversion was 100% after two vaccinations. High geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers (GMT) were observed 14 days post first dose, peaking 14 days post second dose (at Day 42) in both high and low dose groups; GMTs on days 14, 28, 42, and 56 were 128, 81, 323, 203 and 144, 100, 451, 351 in low- and high-dose groups, respectively. Titers for both doses declined gradually to Day 196 but remained higher than baseline and the placebo groups, which had low GMTs throughout the duration of the study. Cross-neutralizing antibody activity against heterologous sub-genotypes was demonstrated.

Conclusion: These data show that the EV71 candidate vaccine is safe and immunogenic in adults and supports further clinical development as a potential pediatric vaccine by initiating a dose-escalation study for determining the dose-dependent safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine in young naïve children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.06.023DOI Listing
July 2019

Safety and immunogenicity of different doses and schedules of a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) in healthy adults: A Phase 1b randomized study.

Vaccine 2015 Nov 15;33(46):6351-9. Epub 2015 Sep 15.

Scientific Affairs and Policy, Takeda Vaccines, Inc., Deerfield, IL, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: A safe, effective dengue vaccine that can simultaneously induce immunity to all four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1-4) is a public health priority. A chimeric tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) based on an attenuated DENV-2 serotype backbone was evaluated in healthy, flavivirus-seronegative adults.

Methods: In this randomized, multicenter, Phase 1b study conducted in the United States, the safety and immunogenicity of TDV were evaluated in 140 participants aged 18-45 years in six dosing regimen study groups. Participants were injected subcutaneously on Days 0 and 90; placebo (saline) was injected where appropriate to maintain double blinding. Three different TDV dosages (TDV, a vaccine in which TDV-4 had been increased three-fold, and a one-tenth TDV dose), and single or double dosing were evaluated in one and/or both arms. Primary endpoints were solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) and seroconversion rates to DENV-1-4 at Day 120.

Results: The severity of all AEs was generally mild. The most common unsolicited AEs were headache (52%), fatigue (43%) and myalgia (29%). The incidence of injection site pain ranged from 29 to 64% and 5 to 52% among study groups after the first and second doses, respectively. At Day 120, the ranges of seroconversion rates among the groups were DEN-1: 84-100%; DEN-2: 96-100%; DEN-3: 83-100%; and DEN-4: 33-77%. More than 80% of participants in each group seroconverted to at least three dengue serotypes. Substantial GMT increases from baseline were observed for DEN-1-3 at all time points from Day 30 onward; DEN-4 GMT increases were lower. Increasing TDV-4 slightly increased DEN-4 GMT, did not impact DEN-2 and DEN-3 GMT, but reduced DEN-1 GMT. Neither multiple dosing in both arms, nor one-tenth TDV dosing meaningfully impacted GMT increases relative to TDV.

Conclusions: All TDV doses and dosing schedules were well tolerated and immunogenic in healthy flavivirus-naive adults (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01511250).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.09.008DOI Listing
November 2015

Preclinical evaluation of the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated enterovirus 71 candidate vaccine.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013 Nov 7;7(11):e2538. Epub 2013 Nov 7.

Inviragen (Singapore) Pte. Ltd., Singapore, Singapore.

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality from Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and neurological complications, particularly in young children in the Asia-Pacific region. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies currently available for prevention or treatment of HFMD caused by EV71. Therefore, the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies against HFMD is of growing importance. We report the immunogenic and safety profile of inactivated, purified EV71 preparations formulated with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in preclinical studies in mice and rabbits. In mice, the candidate vaccine formulations elicited high neutralizing antibody responses. A toxicology study of the vaccine formulations planned for human use performed in rabbits showed no vaccine-related pathological changes and all animals remained healthy. Based on these preclinical studies, Phase 1 clinical testing of the EV71 inactivated vaccine was initiated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820736PMC
November 2013

Adaptation of enterovirus 71 to adult interferon deficient mice.

PLoS One 2013 19;8(3):e59501. Epub 2013 Mar 19.

Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.

Non-polio enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71), have caused severe and fatal cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-Pacific region. The development of a vaccine or antiviral against these pathogens has been hampered by the lack of a reliable small animal model. In this study, a mouse adapted EV71 strain was produced by conducting serial passages through A129 (α/β interferon (IFN) receptor deficient) and AG129 (α/β, γ IFN receptor deficient) mice. A B2 sub genotype of EV71 was inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) into neonatal AG129 mice and brain-harvested virus was subsequently passaged through 12 and 15 day-old A129 mice. When tested in 10 week-old AG129 mice, this adapted strain produced 100% lethality with clinical signs including limb paralysis, eye irritation, loss of balance, and death. This virus caused only 17% mortality in same age A129 mice, confirming that in the absence of a functional IFN response, adult AG129 mice are susceptible to infection by adapted EV71 isolates. Subsequent studies in adult AG129 and young A129 mice with the adapted EV71 virus examined the efficacy of an inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine and determined the role of humoral immunity in protection. Passive transfer of rabbit immune sera raised against the EV71 vaccine provided protection in a dose dependent manner in 15 day-old A129 mice. Intramuscular injections (i.m.) in five week-old AG129 mice with the alum adjuvanted vaccine also provided protection against the mouse adapted homologous strain. No clinical signs of disease or mortality were observed in vaccinated animals, which received a prime-and-boost, whereas 71% of control animals were euthanized after exhibiting systemic clinical signs (P<0.05). The development of this animal model will facilitate studies on EV71 pathogenesis, antiviral testing, the evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates, and has the potential to establish correlates of protection studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0059501PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3602422PMC
September 2013

The seroprevalence and seroincidence of enterovirus71 infection in infants and children in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam.

PLoS One 2011 12;6(7):e21116. Epub 2011 Jul 12.

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam.

Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot and mouth disease has emerged as a serious public health problem in South East Asia over the last decade. To better understand the prevalence of EV71 infection, we determined EV71 seroprevalence and seroincidence amongst healthy infants and children in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. In a cohort of 200 newborns, 55% of cord blood samples contained EV71 neutralizing antibodies and these decayed to undetectable levels by 6 months of age in 98% of infants. The EV71 neutralizing antibody seroconversion rate was 5.6% in the first year and 14% in the second year of life. In children 5-15 yrs of age, seroprevalence of EV71 neutralizing antibodies was 84% and in cord blood it was 55%. Taken together, these data suggest EV71 force of infection is high and highlights the need for more research into its epidemiology and pathogenesis in high disease burden countries.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0021116PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3134465PMC
November 2011

Novel protein vaccine candidates against Group B streptococcal infection identified using alkaline phosphatase fusions.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2003 May;222(2):263-71

Microscience Ltd., 545 Eskdale Road, Winnersh Triangle, Berks RG41 5TU, Wokingham, UK

Using an alkaline phosphatase-based genetic screening method, we identified a number of proteins that are potentially located on the outer surface of Group B streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae). In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antisera raised against two of the proteins, the streptococcal yutD homologue and a subunit of an ABC transporter, recognised clinically important serotypes of Group B streptococcus. In a neonatal rat model, purified IgG from the sera conferred significant levels of protection against a lethal challenge infection. The proteins identified show potential as protein subunit candidates for vaccines against Group B streptococcal disease in neonates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1097(03)00310-0DOI Listing
May 2003

Characterization of Salmonella enterica derivatives harboring defined aroC and Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system (ssaV) mutations by immunization of healthy volunteers.

Infect Immun 2002 Jul;70(7):3457-67

Microscience, Wokingham Berkshire RG41 5TU, United Kingdom.

The attenuation and immunogenicity of two novel Salmonella vaccine strains, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Ty2 Delta aroC Delta ssaV, designated ZH9) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (TML Delta aroC Delta ssaV, designated WT05), were evaluated after their oral administration to volunteers as single escalating doses of 10(7), 10(8), or 10(9) CFU. ZH9 was well tolerated, not detected in blood, nor persistently excreted in stool. Six of nine volunteers elicited anti-serovar Typhi lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody-secreting cell (ASC) responses, with three of three vaccinees receiving 10(8) and two of three receiving 10(9) CFU which elicited high-titer LPS-specific serum IgG. WT05 was also well tolerated with no diarrhea, although the administration of 10(8) and 10(9) CFU resulted in shedding in stools for up to 23 days. Only volunteers immunized with 10(9) CFU of WT05 mounted detectable serovar Typhimurium LPS-specific ASC responses and serum antibody responses were variable. These data indicate that mutations in type III secretion systems may provide a route to the development of live vaccines in humans and highlight significant differences in the potential use of serovars Typhimurium and Typhi.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC128087PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.70.7.3457-3467.2002DOI Listing
July 2002

Identification of major outer surface proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae.

Infect Immun 2002 Mar;70(3):1254-9

Microscience Ltd, Wokingham, Berks, United Kingdom.

To identify the major outer surface proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus), a proteomic analysis was undertaken. An extract of the outer surface proteins was separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The visualized spots were identified through a combination of peptide sequencing and reverse genetic methodologies. Of the 30 major spots identified as S. agalactiae specific, 27 have been identified. Six of these proteins, previously unidentified in S. agalactiae, were sequenced and cloned. These were ornithine carbamoyltransferase, phosphoglycerate kinase, nonphosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, enolase, and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. Using a gram-positive expression system, we have overexpressed two of these proteins in an in vitro system. These recombinant, purified proteins were used to raise antisera. The identification of these proteins as residing on the outer surface was confirmed by the ability of the antisera to react against whole, live bacteria. Further, in a neonatal-animal model system, we demonstrate that some of these sera are protective against lethal doses of bacteria. These studies demonstrate the successful application of proteomics as a technique for identifying vaccine candidates.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC127763PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.70.3.1254-1259.2002DOI Listing
March 2002

Cloning and Expression of a Clostridium acetobutylicum Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene in Escherichia coli.

Appl Environ Microbiol 1988 Mar;54(3):676-682

Department of Microbiology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa.

An alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene from Clostridium acetobutylicum was cloned on a recombinant plasmid, pCADH100. Escherichia coli HB101, and an allyl alcohol-resistant mutant, HB101-adh1, containing this plasmid were unable to grow aerobically or anaerobically on agar media containing sublethal concentrations of allyl alcohol. E. coli HB101 and HB101-adh1 transformed with the plasmid pCADH100 produced increased levels of ethanol when grown anaerobically under alkaline conditions in the absence of nitrate. Cell extracts from aerobically and anaerobically grown E. coli HB101(pCADH100) and HB101-adhl(pCADH100) cells exhibited increased levels of NADP-dependent ADH activity with either ethanol or butanol as the substrate. The inability of E. coli HB101(pCADH100) to grow in the presence of allyl alcohol correlated with the appearance of an NADP-dependent ADH activity band on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with either ethanol or butanol as the substrate. The position of the cloned NADP-dependent ADH activity bands in E. coli HB101(pCADH100) cell extracts with either ethanol or butanol as the substrate coincided with the position of a single NADP-dependent ADH activity band in extracts of C. acetobutylicum cells. E. coli HB101(pCADH100) cell extracts prepared from both aerobically and anaerobically grown cells exhibited an additional protein band with an apparent M(r) of approximately 33,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis which was absent in cell extracts of E. coli HB101. A protein band with a similar apparent M(r) was observed in cell extracts of C. acetobutylicum, and in vitro transcription and translation experiments with pCADH100 produced a major protein product with a similar apparent M(r).
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC202524PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/aem.54.3.676-682.1988DOI Listing
March 1988
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