Publications by authors named "Joseph Benevenia"

73 Publications

Does the Use of Intraoperative Angiography Reduce the Incidence of Postoperative Wound and Flap Complications in Complex Lower Extremity Oncologic Reconstruction?

Ann Plast Surg 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

From the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery Division of Orthopedic Oncology, Department of Orthopedics, Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ.

Introduction: Intraoperative laser angiography via indocyanine green (ICG) has become a valuable tool in objectively assessing tissue perfusion in reconstructive procedures. Studies have demonstrated the utility of ICG angiography (ICGA) for decreasing both mastectomy skin flap necrosis and wound healing complications in abdominal wall reconstruction. This tool has not been studied in lower extremity oncologic reconstruction. The objective of this study was to compare postoperative complications in lower extremity oncologic reconstruction managed with or without laser-assisted ICGA.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of patients undergoing complex lower extremity oncologic reconstruction at a single institution between 2000 and 2018. Patient information regarding demographics, comorbidities, operative procedures, and postoperative complications was analyzed.

Results: Sixty-one patients were identified in our study. As some patients underwent multiple reconstructive surgeries, a total of 76 reconstructive procedures were analyzed. Patients with plastic surgery reconstruction using ICGA (n = 36) were compared with those without, non-ICGA (n = 40). No significant differences in age, sex, smoking status, chemotherapy, or radiation history were identified between cohorts. The total number of postoperative complications did not statistically differ between cohorts. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of required reoperation because of a postoperative complication between the ICGA and non-ICGA groups (0.44 vs 0.4).

Conclusions: The incidence of postoperative wound complications after complex lower extremity oncologic reconstruction remains high. The findings of our study suggest that clinical judgment of flap and soft tissue viability, as compared with ICGA, may lead to comparable operative outcomes and be more cost-effective. Long-term follow-up and prospective studies are needed to further investigate this trend.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000002800DOI Listing
March 2021

Local insulin application has a dose-dependent effect on lumbar fusion in a rabbit model.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2021 May 12;15(5):442-452. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine if locally applied insulin has a dose-responsive effect on posterolateral lumbar fusion. Adult male New Zealand White rabbits underwent posterolateral intertransverse spinal fusions (PLFs) at L5-L6 using suboptimal amounts of autograft. Fusion sites were treated with collagen sponge soaked in saline (control, n = 11), or with insulin at low (5 or 10 units, n = 13), mid (20 units, n = 11), and high (40 units, n = 11) doses. Rabbits were euthanized at 6 weeks. The L5-L6 spine segment underwent manual palpation and radiographic evaluation performed by two fellowship trained spine surgeons blinded to treatment. Differences between groups were evaluated by analysis of variance on ranks followed by post-hoc Dunn's tests. Forty-three rabbits were euthanized at the planned 6 weeks endpoint, while three died or were euthanized prior to the endpoint. Radiographic evaluation found bilateral solid fusion in 10%, 31%, 60%, and 60% of the rabbits from the control and low, mid, and high-dose insulin-treated groups, respectively (p < 0.05). As per manual palpation, 7 of 10 rabbits in the mid-dose insulin group were fused as compared to 1 of 10 rabbits in the control group (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that insulin enhanced the effectiveness of autograft to increase fusion success in the rabbit PLF model. The study indicates that insulin or insulin-mimetic compounds can be used to promote bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/term.3182DOI Listing
May 2021

Management of Large Segmental Bone Defects at the Knee With Intramedullary Stabilized Antibiotic Spacers During Two-Stage Treatment of Endoprosthetic Joint Infection.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ.

Background: Following debridement of infected prostheses that require reconstruction with an endoprosthetic replacement (EPR), instability related to segmental residual bone defects present a challenge in management with 2-stage reimplantation.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients treated for revision total joint or endoprosthetic infection at the knee from 1998 to 2018. At our institution, patients with skeletal defects >6 cm following explant of prosthesis and debridement (stage 1) were managed with intramedullary nail-stabilized antibiotic spacers. Following stage 1, antimicrobial therapy included 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics and a minimum of 6 weeks of oral antibiotics. Following resolution of inflammatory markers and negative tissue cultures, reimplantation (stage 2) of an EPR was performed.

Results: Twenty-one patients at a mean age of 54 ± 21 years were treated for prosthetic joint infection at the knee. Polymicrobial growth was detected in 38% of cases, followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci (24%) and Staphylococcus aureus (19%). Mean residual skeletal defect after stage 1 treatment was 20 cm. Prosthetic joint infection eradication was achieved in 18 (86%) patients, with a mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score of 77% and mean knee range of motion of 100°. Patients with polymicrobial infections had a greater number of surgeries prior to infection (P = .024), and were more likely to require additional debridement prior to EPR (odds ratio 12.0, P = .048).

Conclusion: Management of large segmental skeletal defects at the knee following explant using intramedullary stabilized antibiotic spacers maintain stability and result in high rates of limb salvage with conversion to an endoprosthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.01.026DOI Listing
January 2021

Risk factors of venous thromboembolism in patients with benign and malignant musculoskeletal tumors: a dual database analysis.

Int Orthop 2020 10 11;44(10):2147-2153. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, 140 Bergen Street, ACC D1610, Newark, NJ, 07103, USA.

Purpose: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with both orthopaedic surgery and tumour growth. In this study, we identify risk factors associated with VTE in patients with musculoskeletal tumours using two national datasets.

Methods: The ACS-NSQIP and NIS databases were queried for patients undergoing surgery with a diagnosis of benign or malignant musculoskeletal tumours. Chi-square and binary logistic regression analyses were used to determine risk factors for VTE.

Results: The incidence of VTE was 2% in both databases. Patients with malignant tumours, those with tumours of the pelvis, sacrum, or coccyx, obesity, arrhythmias, paralysis, metastatic disease, coagulopathy, and recent weight loss were at increased risk for VTE. In patients with benign tumours, those who were African American, those with tumours of the pelvis, sacrum, or coccyx, diabetes, anaemia, and coagulopathy were at increased risk of VTE.

Conclusions: Patients with malignant or benign lesion are at greater risk of VTE if they are age 30 and over, of the African American population, or with tumors of the pelvis/sacrum/coccyx, or any of the following comorbidities: pulmonary disease, paralysis, other neurological disorders, or coagulopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-020-04707-6DOI Listing
October 2020

Outcomes following periacetabular tumor resection: A 25-year institutional experience.

J Surg Oncol 2020 Oct 28;122(5):949-954. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey.

Backgrounds And Objectives: Following tumor resection involving the acetabulum (periacetabular), various methods of reconstruction exist. The objective of this study was to analyze functional outcomes and complication rates by extent of periacetabular tumor resection, as well as by method of reconstruction.

Methods: Twenty-three patients underwent periacetabular resection for a primary pelvic bone tumor from 1993-2018 at a single institution. Complications were documented and functional outcomes were assessed using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scoring system.

Results: Mean age was 42.8 ± 22.6 years. Mean follow-up was 107 ± 75 months. MSTS scores were highest in patients with allograft reconstruction (80.2%) and lowest in saddle reconstruction (38.0%). MSTS scores were higher in patients with Type II periacetabular resection alone compared with Type II + additional resection (78.6% vs 60.3%; P = .019). Complications were lower in patients with Type II periacetabular resection alone (75% vs 28.6%; P = .036). Complications were highest following allograft reconstruction (78%) and lowest following hemipelvectomy without reconstruction (20%).

Conclusion: Patients who underwent allograft/APC or nonsaddle metallic reconstruction experienced the highest functional outcome scores, but also sustained a higher complication rate than patients with hemipelvectomy without reconstruction. Patients with resection of ilium and/or pubis in addition to the periacetabular region had lower functional outcome scores and higher risk for complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26088DOI Listing
October 2020

Surgical Reconstruction of the Acetabulum and Pelvis in Metastatic Bone Disease.

Instr Course Lect 2019 ;68:593-606

Management of a painful metastatic acetabular lesion is complex and requires the assessment of tumor size and location, remaining integrity of the acetabulum, analgesic requirements, ability to use postoperative radiation, and projected patient survival. Patients presenting with suspected periacetabular metastasis frequently have groin pain aggravated by weight bearing. After a complete physical examination, advanced imaging and a complete laboratory workup should be performed to assess the extent of local and systemic disease. If a patient has a previously identified metastatic lesion, it is beneficial to communicate with the patient's medical oncologist to gather information on responses to chemotherapeutic agents, hormonal agents, and radiation therapy. Management may be nonsurgical, interventional, or surgical. Despite the limited life expectancy of patients with periacetabular metastasis, when performed in the appropriate setting, reconstruction by using anti-protrusio cages, screws, and cemented hip arthroplasty can improve quality of life by aiding independent ambulation and decreasing pain.
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February 2020

Reconstruction with Custom Unicondylar Hemiarthroplasty following Tumor Resection: A Case Series and Review of the Literature.

J Knee Surg 2020 Aug 8;33(8):818-824. Epub 2019 May 8.

Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey.

For patients with tumors of the distal femur, options for limb salvage include tumor resection followed by reconstruction. While reconstruction commonly involves a distal femoral replacement, careful selection of patients with tumor involvement limited to a single condyle may be candidates for reconstruction with distal femur hemiarthroplasty. In these procedures, resection spares considerably more native anatomy. Three consecutive patients who underwent resection and reconstruction at the distal femur with custom unicondylar hemiarthroplasty are presented in this case series at a mean follow-up of 45 months (range, 26-78). In two cases, prostheses were utilized as a secondary procedure after failure of initial reconstruction. In one case, the custom prosthesis was utilized as the primary method of reconstruction. Mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society disease-specific scores were 26.7 (range, 25-28). All patients achieved a return to full weight bearing, activities of daily living, and functional range of motion. In appropriately selected patients with tumors of the distal femur, reconstruction with custom unicondylar hemiarthroplasty provides benefits including optimal function postoperatively via preservation of tumor-free bone and ligamentous structures. Additionally, maintenance of greater bone stock may confer benefits to patients with pathology at a high likelihood for recurrence and need for subsequent procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1688556DOI Listing
August 2020

Sterile particle-induced inflammation is mediated by macrophages releasing IL-33 through a Bruton's tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway.

Nat Mater 2019 03 21;18(3):289-297. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Medicine, Rutgers - New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA.

Initiation of the innate sterile inflammatory response that can develop in response to microparticle exposure is little understood. Here, we report that a potent type 2 immune response associated with the accumulation of neutrophils, eosinophils and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages was observed in response to sterile microparticles similar in size to wear debris associated with prosthetic implants. Although elevations in interleukin-33 (IL-33) and type 2 cytokines occurred independently of caspase-1 inflammasome signalling, the response was dependent on Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). IL-33 was produced by macrophages and BTK-dependent expression of IL-33 by macrophages was sufficient to initiate the type 2 response. Analysis of inflammation in patient periprosthetic tissue also revealed type 2 responses under aseptic conditions in patients undergoing revision surgery. These findings indicate that microparticle-induced sterile inflammation is initiated by macrophages activated to produce IL-33. They further suggest that both BTK and IL-33 may provide therapeutic targets for wear debris-induced periprosthetic inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-018-0271-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6581031PMC
March 2019

Complications following allograft reconstruction for primary bone tumors: Considerations for management.

J Orthop 2019 Jan-Feb;16(1):49-54. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Rutgers New Jersey Medical School Department of Orthopaedics, 140 Bergen Street, ACC D1610, Newark, NJ, 07103, USA.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate complication rates and types following allograft reconstruction and discuss unique considerations for management.

Methods: Seventy-four consecutive patients underwent large segment allograft reconstruction following resection of primary musculoskeletal tumors from 1991 to 2016. Mean patient age was 32 ± 20 years (range, 5-71 years). Minimum follow-up was 2 years unless patients were lost to disease prior. Mean follow-up was 105 months.

Results: Thirty-five patients had complications requiring subsequent surgery at a mean of 30 months (range, 1-146 months) post-operatively. Individual complication rates were 29%, 50%, and 42% for Allograft Prosthetic Composite, Intercalary, and Osteoarticular allograft reconstruction, respectively. Risk factors for complication included age less than 30 (OR 4.5; p = 0.002), male gender (OR 2.8; p = 0.031), chemotherapy (OR 4.4; p = 0.003), lower extremity disease (OR 3.4; p = 0.025). In patients with complications, limb-retention rate was 91% and mean MSTS scores were 23.6.

Conclusion: Despite considerable complication rates, management with a systematic approach results in successful outcomes with limb-retention greater than 90% and mean MSTS scores of 79%. In carefully selected patients, allografts provide a reliable method of reconstruction with treatable complications occurring at a mean of 30 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jor.2018.12.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6324760PMC
December 2018

Dealing with the loss of a resident: An analysis of burnout rates in a reduced complement training program.

Work 2018 ;60(4):567-571

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey - New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA.

Background: Residents in all fields of medicine experience high levels of burnout and less job-related satisfaction due to the stress experienced during training. Reduced complement residency classes often experience increased workloads due to the need to compensate for the fewer number of classmates.

Objective: The goal of this study was to examine whether residency classes of reduced size experience higher levels of burnout.

Methods: The Maslach Burnout Inventory Survey was distributed to all orthopaedic residents at our institution for four consecutive years. Emotional exhaustion≥27 and depersonalization≥10 correlate with high levels of burnout. At our institution, two residents were lost during their second year of training. Group 1 (n = 56) consisted of residents with reduced-size classes, while group 2 (n = 60) consisted of residents with full complement classes.

Results: Mean emotional exhaustion (29 vs. 30) and depersonalization (17 vs. 17) scores were comparable between reduced and full complement classes. The Maslach data from our study showed no statistical difference in burnout levels between classes of full complement and reduced complement.

Conclusions: When compared to a previous study on burnout conducted in large orthopaedic residency programs, our entire residency program did demonstrate similar levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-182764DOI Listing
January 2019

Overall survival advantage of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the perioperative management of large extremity and trunk soft tissue sarcoma; a large database analysis.

Radiother Oncol 2017 08 1;124(2):277-284. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.

Purpose: Intergroup 9514 reported promising outcomes with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for large extremity/trunk soft tissue sarcoma (ESTS). One decade later, optimum integration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy into the perioperative management of ESTS remains to be defined.

Methods: The National Cancer Data Base was used to identify 3422 patients who underwent resection for large (>8cm) high-grade STS between 2004 and 2013. Chi-square analysis was used to evaluate distribution of patient and tumor related factors within treatment groups while multivariate analyses were used to determine the impact of these factors on patient outcome. The Kaplan Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were utilized to evaluate overall survival according to treatment regimen, with a secondary analysis based on propensity score matching to control for prescription bias and potential confounders imbalance.

Results: Hazard ratio for death was reduced by 35% with radiotherapy and 24% with chemotherapy, compared to surgery alone. Combination therapy incorporating both modalities improved 5-yr survival (62.1%) compared to either treatment alone (51.4%). The sequencing of chemotherapy and radiotherapy or whether they were delivered as adjuvant vs. as neoadjuvant therapy did not affect their efficacy. Age>50years, tumor size>11cm, and tumor location on the trunk/pelvis were poor prognostic factors.

Conclusion: Our analysis suggests that adjunctive modalities are both critical in the treatment of large high-grade ESTS, improving survival when used individually and demonstrating synergy in combination, regardless of sequencing relative to each other or relative to surgery; thus providing a framework for future randomized trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2017.07.021DOI Listing
August 2017

Effects of local vanadium delivery on diabetic fracture healing.

J Orthop Res 2017 10 8;35(10):2174-2180. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, 90 Bergen Street, Suite 7300, Newark, New Jersey 07101.

This study evaluated the effect of local vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAC), an insulin mimetic agent, upon the early and late parameters of fracture healing in rats using a standard femur fracture model. Mechanical testing, and radiographic scoring were performed, as well as histomorphometry, including percent bone, percent cartilage, and osteoclast numbers. Fractures treated with local 1.5 mg/kg VAC possessed significantly increased mechanical properties compared to controls at 6 weeks post-fracture, including increased torque to failure (15%; p = 0.046), shear modulus (89%; p = 0.043), and shear stress (81%; p = 0.009). The radiographic scoring analysis showed increased cortical bridging at 4 weeks and 6 weeks (119%; p = 0.036 and 209%; p = 0.002) in 1.5 mg/kg VAC treated groups. Histomorphometry of the fracture callus at days 10 and 14 showed increased percent cartilage (121%; p = 0.009 and 45%; p = 0.035) and percent mineralized tissue (66%; p = 0.035 and 58%; p = 0.006) with local VAC treated groups compared to control. Additionally, fewer osteoclasts were observed in the local VAC treated animals as compared to controls at day 14 (0.45% ± 0.29% vs. 0.83% ± 0.36% of callus area; p = 0.032). The results suggest local administration of VAC acts to modulate osteoclast activity and increase percentage of early callus cartilage, ultimately enhancing mechanical properties comparably to non-diabetic animals treated with local VAC. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2174-2180, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.23521DOI Listing
October 2017

Local Zinc Chloride Release From a Calcium Sulfate Carrier Enhances Fracture Healing.

J Orthop Trauma 2017 Mar;31(3):168-174

*Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ; †Department of Biological Sciences, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ; and ‡Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ.

Background: This study examined the efficacy of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) as a carrier for intramedullary delivery of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) to treat fracture healing in a BB Wistar rat model. A non-carrier-mediated injection of 3.0 mg/kg of ZnCl2 has previously been shown to enhance fracture healing.

Methods: A heterogeneous mixture of ZnCl2 and CaSO4 was administered into the intramedullary femoral canal and a mid-diaphyseal femur fracture was created unilaterally. Early and late parameters of fracture healing were assessed using biomechanical testing, radiographic scoring, quantitative histomorphometry (for percentage of new cartilage and bone within the fracture callus), and long-term histologic evaluation.

Results: Fractures treated with 1.0 mg/kg of ZnCl2/CaSO4 demonstrated a significantly higher maximum torque to failure compared with both CaSO4 (P = 0.048) and saline (P = 0.005) controls at 4 weeks postfracture (396.4 versus 251.3 versus 178.7 N mm, respectively). Statistically significant increases in torsional rigidity, effective shear modulus, and effective shear stress were also found, as well as a 3.5 times increase in radiographic score (based on bone union). Histologic examination of the fracture callus indicated enhanced chondrogenesis at day 14 postfracture, with increased percent cartilage for the ZnCl2/CaSO4 group compared with saline (P = 0.0004) and CaSO4 (P = 0.0453) controls. Long-term radiographic and histologic evaluation revealed no abnormal bone formation or infection up to 12 weeks postoperatively.

Conclusions: The effective dose of ZnCl2 augmentation for the enhancement of fracture healing in rats was reduced 3-fold in this study compared with previous findings. Furthermore, CaSO4 acted synergistically with ZnCl2 to increase the mechanical strength and stability at the fracture site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOT.0000000000000748DOI Listing
March 2017

Radial Shaft Reconstruction With an Intercalary Endoprosthesis Following Resection of Metastatic Tumor.

Orthopedics 2017 Mar 9;40(2):e242-e247. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Improvements in imaging and treatment of musculoskeletal tumors have increased the variety of options for reconstruction following joint-sparing diaphyseal resection. The purpose of this case series was to show that reconstruction of malignant tumors of the radial shaft with an intercalary prosthesis may be an option for patients with segmental bone loss. Three consecutive patients underwent wide resection of the radial diaphysis followed by reconstruction with a custom intercalary prosthesis. A custom intercalary prosthesis with lap joint design was used in all 3 cases. Mean follow-up was 18 months (range, 9-25 months). All patients were weight bearing as tolerated 1 week postoperatively. At the most recent follow-up, patients' mean elbow flexion and extension arc was 137° (range, 130°-140°). At the forearm, mean supination was 60° (range, 30°-90°) and mean pronation was 70° (range, 60°-90°). At the wrist, mean palmar flexion was 80° (range, 70°-90°) and mean dorsiflexion was 80° (range, 70°-90°). All patients reported minimal to no pain and no significant functional limitations. Mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score was 26/30 (87%). Reconstruction with an intercalary prosthesis is a viable option for patients with metastatic disease of the radial shaft. All patients had satisfactory results and early return to function; none required return to the operating room. Possible advantages of reconstruction with an intercalary prosthesis compared with reconstruction with a bone graft or polymethylmethacrylate osteosynthesis include early return to function and minimal weight-bearing restrictions postoperatively. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e242-e247.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20160901-03DOI Listing
March 2017

Customizable orthopaedic oncology implants: one institution's experience with meeting current IRB and FDA requirements.

Springerplus 2016 4;5(1):967. Epub 2016 Jul 4.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, 140 Bergen Street, ACC Building, Suite D-1610, Newark, NJ 07103 USA.

Background: Customizable orthopaedic implants are often needed for patients with primary malignant bone tumors due to unique anatomy or complex mechanical problems. Currently, obtaining customizable orthopaedic implants for orthopaedic oncology patients can be an arduous task involving submitting approval requests to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). There is great potential for the delay of a patient's surgery and unnecessary paperwork if the submission pathways are misunderstood or a streamlined protocol is not in place.

Purpose: The objective of this study was to review the existing FDA custom implant approval pathways and to determine whether this process was improved with an institutional protocol.

Methods: An institutional protocol for obtaining IRB and FDA approval for customizable orthopaedic implants was established with the IRB at our institution in 2013. This protocol was approved by the IRB, such that new patients only require submission of a modification to the existing protocol with individualized patient information. During the two-year period of 2013-2014, eight patients were retrospectively identified as having required customizable implants for various orthopaedic oncology surgeries. The dates of request for IRB approval, request for FDA approval, and total time to surgery were recorded, along with the specific pathway utilized for FDA approval.

Results: The average patient age was 12 years old (7-21 years old). The average time to IRB approval of a modification to the pre-approved protocol was 14 days (7-21 days). Average time to FDA approval after submission of the IRB approval to the manufacturer was 12.5 days (7-19 days). FDA approval was obtained for all implants as compassionate use requests in accordance with Section 561 of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act's expanded access provisions.

Conclusions: Establishment of an institutional protocol with pre-approval by the IRB can expedite the otherwise time-consuming and complicated process of obtaining customizable orthopaedic implants for orthopaedic oncology patients.

Level Of Evidence: Retrospective case series, Level IV. See the Guidelines for authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2696-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4932010PMC
July 2016

Linea Aspera as Rotational Landmark for Tumor Endopostheses: A Computed Tomography Study.

Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 2016 May-Jun;45(4):E198-203

Division of Musculoskeletal Oncology, Department of Orthopaedics, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, NJ.

This computed tomography study examined the reliability of the linea aspera as a rotational landmark in tumor endoprosthetic replacement by determining its cross-sectional location on the femur.
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February 2017

Supplemental Bone Grafting in Giant Cell Tumor of the Extremity Reduces Nononcologic Complications.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2017 Mar;475(3):776-783

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, 140 Bergen Street, ACC Building, Suite D-1610, Newark, NJ, 07103, USA.

Background: Giant cell tumors (GCTs) are treated with resection curettage and adjuvants followed by stabilization. Complications include recurrence, fracture, and joint degeneration. Studies have shown treatment with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) may increase the risk of joint degeneration and fracture. Other studies have suggested that subchondral bone grafting may reduce these risks.

Questions/purposes: Following standard intralesional resection-curettage and adjuvant treatment, is the use of bone graft, with or without supplemental PMMA, (1) associated with fewer nononcologic complications; (2) associated with differences in tumor recurrence between patients treated with versus those treated without bone grafting for GCT; and (3) associated with differences in Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scores?

Methods: Between 1996 and 2014, 49 patients presented with GCT in the epiphysis of a long bone. Six patients were excluded, four who were lost to followup before 12 months and two because they presented with displaced, comminuted, intraarticular pathologic fractures with a nonreconstructable joint surface. The remaining 43 patients were included in our study at a mean followup of 59 months (range, 12-234 months). After resection-curettage, 21 patients were reconstructed using femoral head allograft with or without PMMA (JB) and 22 patients were reconstructed using PMMA alone (FRP, KSB); each surgeon used the same approach (that is, bone graft or no bone graft) throughout the period of study. The primary study comparison was between patients treated with bone graft (with or without PMMA) and those treated without bone graft.

Results: Nononcologic complications occurred less frequently in patients treated with bone graft than those treated without (10% [two of 21] versus 55% [12 of 22]; odds ratio, 0.088; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02-0.47; p = 0.002). Patients with bone graft had increased nononcologic complication-free survival (hazard ratio, 4.59; 95% CI, 1.39-15.12; p = 0.012). With the numbers available, there was no difference in tumor recurrence between patients treated with bone graft versus without (29% [six of 21] versus 32% [seven of 22]; odds ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.1936-2.531; p = 0.586) or in recurrence-free survival among patients with bone graft versus without (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.30-2.98; p = 0.920). With the numbers available, there was no difference in mean MSTS scores between patients treated with bone graft versus without (92% ± 2% versus 93% ± 1.4%; mean difference 1.0%; 95% CI, -3.9% to 6.0%; p = 0.675).

Conclusions: Compared with PMMA alone, the use of periarticular bone graft constructs reduces postoperative complications apparently without increasing the likelihood of tumor recurrence.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999-016-4755-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5289159PMC
March 2017

Analysis of Unmatched Orthopaedic Residency Applicants: Options After the Match.

J Grad Med Educ 2016 Feb;8(1):91-5

Background: Orthopaedic surgery is one of the most competitive specialties, resulting in many applicants going unmatched. Many unmatched applicants pursue a preliminary internship or research fellowship, but whether these activities make them more successful in subsequent match cycles has not been studied.

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of activities during the intervening period on match success in a subsequent cycle.

Methods: After reviewing rank order lists for our program and National Resident Matching Program correspondence from 1994 to 2013, we identified 198 of 1216 ranked applicants (16.3%) who did not initially match. Of these, 57 applicants who matched through the Supplemental Offer and Acceptance Program did not reapply to orthopaedics or trained overseas.

Results: Of 141 reapplicants, 56 matched into orthopaedic surgery, with 87.5% (P < .001) matching at a program in the same region where they had either completed their medical degree or postgraduate year, and 37.5% matching at their home institution (P < .001). Successful reapplicants after a research fellowship had a significantly higher number of publications than unsuccessful reapplicants (P < .05). There was no significant difference in success after research or internship (P = .80) and no significant difference in success rates for US versus international reapplicants (P =  .43).

Conclusions: Success of reapplication into orthopaedic surgery may be less dependent on the route taken during the interim period, and more dependent on developing relationships with faculty at a local or regional institution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4300/JGME-D-15-00176.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4763390PMC
February 2016

Zinc has insulin-mimetic properties which enhance spinal fusion in a rat model.

Spine J 2016 06 2;16(6):777-83. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers University, New Jersey Medical School, 90 Bergen St, Suite 7300, Newark, NJ 07101, USA.

Background Context: Previous studies have found that insulin or insulin-like growth factor treatment can stimulate fracture healing in diabetic and normal animal models, and increase fusion rates in a rat spinal fusion model. Insulin-mimetic agents, such as zinc, have demonstrated antidiabetic effects in animal and human studies, and these agents that mimic the effects of insulin could produce the same beneficial effects on bone regeneration and spinal fusion.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of locally applied zinc on spinal fusion in a rat model.

Study Design/setting: Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee-approved animal study using Sprague-Dawley rats was used as the study design.

Methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats (450-500 g) underwent L4-L5 posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF). After decortication and application of approximately 0.3 g of autograft per side, one of three pellets were added to each site: high-dose zinc calcium sulfate (ZnCaSO4), low-dose ZnCaSO4 (half of the high dose), or a control palmitic acid pellet (no Zn dose). Systemic blood glucose levels were measured 24 hours postoperatively. Rats were sacrificed after 8weeks and the PLFs analyzed qualitatively by manual palpation and radiograph review, and quantitatively by micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis of bone volume and trabecular thickness. Statistical analyses with p-values set at .05 were accomplished with analysis of variance, followed by posthoc tests for quantitative data, or Mann-Whitney rank tests for qualitative assessments.

Results: Compared with controls, the low-dose zinc group demonstrated a significantly higher manual palpation grade (p=.011), radiographic score (p=.045), and bone formation on micro-CT (172.9 mm(3) vs. 126.7 mm(3) for controls) (p<.01). The high-dose zinc also demonstrated a significantly higher radiographic score (p=.017) and bone formation on micro-CT (172.7 mm(3) vs. 126.7 mm(3)) (p<.01) versus controls, and was trending toward higher manual palpation scores (p=.058).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates the potential benefit of a locally applied insulin-mimetic agent, such as zinc, in a rat lumbar fusion model. Previous studies have demonstrated the benefits of local insulin application in the same model, and it appears that zinc has similar effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2016.01.190DOI Listing
June 2016

Results of 20 consecutive patients treated with the Repiphysis expandable prosthesis for primary malignant bone.

Springerplus 2015 22;4:793. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, 140 Bergen Street, ACC Building, Suite D-1610, Newark, NJ 07103 USA.

Limb-salvage for primary malignant bone tumors in pediatric patients presents a unique challenge when resection includes an active physis. Early expandable prostheses required open surgical procedures to achieve lengthening. Newer prostheses are capable of achieving expansion without open procedures through the use of an electromagnetic field. This study reports our results with 90 consecutive expansion procedures using the Repiphysis(®) prosthesis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 20 patients (22 limbs) who underwent limb-salvage using the Repiphysis(®) prosthesis from 2003 to 2015. There were 9 males and 11 females with a mean age of 9 years and 9 months (6-16 years). Reconstruction included the distal femur in 11 cases, total femur in four, proximal tibia in three, proximal humerus in three, and total humerus in one. Complications were reviewed and functional scores were recorded using the MSTS/ISOLS system. Five patients had a second prosthesis implanted during the course of the study for a total of 27 prostheses. The mean follow-up was 57 (6-148) months. Four patients have not been expanded: three due to death prior to lengthening, and one patient who has not yet developed a leg length discrepancy. Ninety consecutive expansion procedures were performed in 18 limbs in 16 patients. A mean of 9 (5-20) mm was gained per expansion and 4.8 cm per patient who has undergone expansion to date. Seven patients have reached skeletal maturity and have been converted to an adult endoprosthesis. These patients averaged 8 expansions per patient and a mean of 7.4 (1.8-12.9) cm in length gained. There were 15 complications in 11 patients including one dislocation, one contracture, four cases of aseptic loosening, five structural failures (three expansion mechanism failures and two tibial fractures), three deep infections, and one case of local recurrence. The mean MSTS score was 80 % (37-97 %) and the limb retention rate was 95 %. The results of this study are comparable to previous studies involving non-invasive prostheses. This study hopefully provides additional data for clinicians to consider when faced with limb threatening sarcomas in the immature skeleton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-015-1582-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4688289PMC
December 2015

Outcomes of a Modular Intercalary Endoprosthesis as Treatment for Segmental Defects of the Femur, Tibia, and Humerus.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2016 Feb;474(2):539-48

Background: Resection of diaphyseal bone tumors for local tumor control and stabilization often results in an intercalary skeletal defect and presents a reconstructive challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Although many options for reconstruction have been described, relatively few studies report on the functional outcomes and complications of patients treated with modular intercalary endoprostheses.

Questions/purposes: The objectives of this study were to examine clinical outcomes after reconstruction with a modular intercalary endoprosthesis with a specific focus on (1) the rate of complication or failure; (2) differences in complication rates by anatomic site; (3) functional results as assessed by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society System (MSTS); and (4) differences in complication rate between patients treated with cemented versus noncemented fixation.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients treated with a modular intercalary endoprosthesis from three musculoskeletal oncology centers from 2008 to 2013. The indication for use of this intercalary endoprosthesis was segmental bone loss from aggressive or malignant tumor with sparing of the joint above and below and deemed unsuitable for biologic reconstruction. No other implant was used for this indication during this period. During this period, 41 patients received a total of 44 intercalary implants, which included 18 (40%) humeri, 5 (11%) tibiae, and 21 (48%) femora. There were 27 (66%) men and 14 (34%) women with a mean age of 63 years (range, 18–91 years). Eight patients (20%) had primary bone tumors and 33 (80%) had metastatic lesions. Thirty-five (85%) patients were being operated on as an initial treatment and six (15%) for revision of a previous reconstruction. Twenty-nine (66%) procedures had cemented stem fixation and 15 (34%) were treated with noncemented fixation. The overall mean followup was 14 months (range, 1–51 months). Patients with primary tumors had a mean followup of 19 months (range, 4–48 months) and patients with metastatic disease had a mean followup of 11 months (range, 1–51 months). Causes of implant failure were categorized according to Henderson et al. [19] into five types as follows: Type I (soft tissue failure), Type II (aseptic loosening), Type III (structural failure), Type IV (infection), and Type V (tumor progression). At 2 years of followup, 38 (93%) of these patients were accounted for with three (7%) lost to followup. MSTS functional assessment was available for 39 of 41 patients (95%).

Results: At latest followup of these 41 patients, 14 (34%) patients were dead of disease, two patients (5%) dead of other causes, seven (17%) are continuously disease-free, one (2%) shows no evidence of disease, and 17 (41%) are alive with disease. There were 12 (27%) nononcologic complications. Five (11%) of these were Type II failures occurring in noncemented implants between the stem and bone, and six (14%) were Type III failures occurring in cemented implants at the clamp-rod implant interface. One patient developed a deep infection (2%, Type IV failure) and underwent removal of the implant. Additionally, one patient (2%, Type V failure) was treated by amputation after local progression of his metastatic disease. Complications were more common in femoral reconstructions than in tibial or humeral reconstructions. Twelve of 21 patients (57%) with femoral reconstructions had complications versus 0% of tibial or humeral reconstructions (0 of 23; odds ratio [OR], 62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3–1154; p < 0.0001). The mean overall MSTS score was 77%. Implants with cemented fixation (29) had higher mean MSTS scores when compared with implants with noncemented (15) fixation (84% versus 66%, p = 0.0017). The complication rate was 33% in noncemented cases and 21% in cemented cases (p = 0.39); however, Type II failure at the bone-stem interface was associated with noncemented fixation and Type III failure at the clamp-rod interface was associated with cemented fixation (OR, 143; 95% CI, 2.413–8476; p = 0.0022).

Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that this modular intercalary endoprosthesis yields equivalent results to other studies of intercalary endoprostheses in terms of MSTS scores. We found that patients treated with intercalary endoprostheses in the femur experienced more frequent complications than those treated for lesions in either the humerus or tibia and that the femoral complication rate of this endoprosthesis is higher when compared with other studies of intercalary endoprostheses for femoral reconstruction. Further studies are still needed to determine the long-term outcomes of this endoprosthesis in patients with primary tumors where longevity of the implant is of more importance than in the metastatic setting. We recommend cemented fixation for this intercalary modular endoprostheses because this provides improved MSTS scores and allows immediate return to weightbearing, which is of advantage to metastatic patients with limited lifespans. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999-015-4588-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4709281PMC
February 2016

"Caval Reconstruction for Lower-Extremity Sarcoma Metastasis Trapped within Inferior Vena Cava Filter".

Ann Vasc Surg 2016 Jan 14;30:158.e1-4. Epub 2015 Sep 14.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ. Electronic address:

This report describes the management of a hematogenously spread metastasis from a lower-extremity sarcoma found trapped within an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Although endovascular techniques for treating thrombosed IVC filters are successful in a majority of cases, the malignant nature of this lesion required a novel approach. In this unique case, the segment of infrarenal IVC with the thrombosed filter was resected and reconstruction performed with an interposition prosthetic graft. There were no early or late complications, and the patient remains clinically free of recurrence at 24-month follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2015.06.099DOI Listing
January 2016

Does Residency Selection Criteria Predict Performance in Orthopaedic Surgery Residency?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2016 Apr;474(4):908-14

Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ, 07103, USA.

Background: More than 1000 candidates applied for orthopaedic residency positions in 2014, and the competition is intense; approximately one-third of the candidates failed to secure a position in the match. However, the criteria used in the selection process often are subjective and studies have differed in terms of which criteria predict either objective measures or subjective ratings of resident performance by faculty.

Questions/purposes: Do preresidency selection factors serve as predictors of success in residency? Specifically, we asked which preresidency selection factors are associated or correlated with (1) objective measures of resident knowledge and performance; and (2) subjective ratings by faculty.

Methods: Charts of 60 orthopaedic residents from our institution were reviewed. Preresidency selection criteria examined included United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 scores, Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores, number of clinical clerkship honors, number of letters of recommendation, number of away rotations, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) honor medical society membership, fourth-year subinternship at our institution, and number of publications. Resident performance was assessed using objective measures including American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) Part I scores and Orthopaedics In-Training Exam (OITE) scores and subjective ratings by faculty including global evaluation scores and faculty rankings of residents. We tested associations between preresidency criteria and the subsequent objective and subjective metrics using linear correlation analysis and Mann-Whitney tests when appropriate.

Results: Objective measures of resident performance namely, ABOS Part I scores, had a moderate linear correlation with the USMLE Step 2 scores (r = 0.55, p < 0.001) and number of clinical honors received in medical school (r = 0.45, p < 0.001). OITE scores had a weak linear correlation with the number of clinical honors (r = 0.35, p = 0.009) and USMLE Step 2 scores (r = 0.29, p = 0.02). With regards to subjective outcomes, AOA membership was associated with higher scores on the global evaluation (p = 0.005). AOA membership also correlated with higher global evaluation scores (r = 0.60, p = 0.005) with the strongest correlation existing between AOA membership and the "interpersonal and communication skills" subsection of the global evaluations.

Conclusions: We found that USMLE Step 2, number of honors in medical school clerkships, and AOA membership demonstrated the strongest correlations with resident performance. Our goal in analyzing these data was to provide residency programs at large a sense of which criteria may be "high yield" in ranking applicants by analyzing data from within our own pool of residents. Similar studies across a broader scope of programs are warranted to confirm applicability of our findings. The continually emerging complexities of the field of orthopaedic surgery lend increasing importance to future work on the appropriate selection and training of orthopaedic residents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999-015-4317-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4773357PMC
April 2016

Local manganese chloride treatment accelerates fracture healing in a rat model.

J Orthop Res 2015 Jan 17;33(1):122-30. Epub 2014 Sep 17.

Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School, 90 Bergen Street, Suite 7300, Newark, New Jersey, 07103.

This study investigated the effects of local delivery of manganese chloride (MnCl2), an insulin-mimetic compound, upon fracture healing using a rat femoral fracture model. Mechanical testing, histomorphometry, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess early and late parameters of fracture healing. At 4 weeks post-fracture, maximum torque to failure was 70% higher (P<0.05) and maximum torsional rigidity increased 133% (P<0.05) in animals treated with 0.125 mg/kg MnCl2 compared to saline controls. Histological analysis of the fracture callus revealed percent new mineralized tissue was 17% higher (P<0.05) at day 10. Immunohistochemical analysis of the 0.125 mg/kg MnCl2 treated group, compared to saline controls, showed a 379% increase in the density of VEGF-C+ cells. In addition, compared to saline controls, the 0.125 mg/kg MnCl2 treated group showed a 233% and 150% increase in blood vessel density in the subperiosteal region at day 10 post-fracture as assessed by detection of PECAM and smooth muscle α actin, respectively. The results suggest that local MnCl2 treatment accelerates fracture healing by increasing mechanical parameters via a potential mechanism of amplified early angiogenesis leading to increased osteogenesis. Therefore, local administration of MnCl2 is a potential therapeutic adjunct for fracture healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.22733DOI Listing
January 2015

Contemporary management of metastatic bone disease: tips and tools of the trade for general practitioners.

Instr Course Lect 2014 ;63:431-41

Professor and Chair, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas.

Metastatic bone disease has a significant effect on a patient's mortality and health-related quality of life. An aging US population and improved survival rates of patients with cancer have led to an increase in the incidence of symptomatic bony metastatic lesions that may require orthopaedic care. Skeletal-related events in neoplastic disease include pain, pathologic fracture, hypercalcemia, and neural compression, including spinal cord compression. The clinical evaluation and diagnostic study of a patient with a skeletal lesion of unknown etiology should be approached carefully. In patients with widespread metastatic disease, the treatment of a skeletal-related event may be limited to stabilization of the pathologic fracture or local disease control. The treatment of metastatic bone disease is guided by the nature of the skeletal-related event, the responsiveness of the lesion to adjuvant care, and the overall condition and survival expectations of the patient. Impending pathologic fractures are often more easily treated, with less morbidity and easier recovery for patients, than completed fractures. Quality of life is the most important outcome measure in these patients. When surgery is indicated, the approach, choice of fixation, and use of adjuvant should allow for immediate and unrestricted weight bearing. Because metastatic lesions to the skeleton have a limited capacity for spontaneous healing, surgical fixation should be durable for the life expectancy of the patient. In the epiphyseal region of long bones, replacement arthroplasty is generally preferred over internal fixation. Metaphyseal and diaphyseal regions can generally be addressed with intramedullary nailing or plate fixation with adjuvant. The specific treatment of acetabular lesions is dictated by the anatomy and the degree of bone loss. Spinal stability and neural compromise are important considerations in choosing a strategy for managing spine tumors. Effective surgical approaches to metastatic disease of the spine may include vertebral augmentation or open decompression and realignment of the spinal column with internal fixation. Radiation therapy is an important adjunctive modality in the treatment of metastatic bone disease. Medical management consists of symptom control, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Emerging technologies, including radiofrequency ablation, cementoplasty, and advances in intraoperative imaging and navigation, show promise in the treatment of metastatic bone disease.
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September 2014

Medical and legal considerations in managing patients with musculoskeletal tumors.

Instr Course Lect 2014 ;63:421-30

Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Weill Cornell School of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

At some point in their careers, many orthopaedic surgeons will have to navigate the legal system as it pertains to medical malpractice. An orthopaedic surgeon will find it helpful to review information on the basic legal elements of medical malpractice law along with suggestions on how he or she can assist the legal defense team if a lawsuit is filed. Surgeons who face litigation within the context of managing patients with musculoskeletal tumors should be aware of the common pitfalls in managing these patients. Knowledge of complementary strategies can provide good patient care and reduce legal risks when caring for patients with musculoskeletal neoplasms.
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September 2014

Local ZnCl2 accelerates fracture healing.

J Orthop Res 2014 Jun 26;32(6):834-41. Epub 2014 Feb 26.

Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Department of Orthopaedics, 90 Bergen Street, Suite 7300, Newark, New Jersey, 07103.

This study evaluated the effect of local zinc chloride (ZnCl2 ), an insulin mimetic agent, upon the early and late parameters of fracture healing in rats using a standard femur fracture model. Mechanical testing, radiographic scoring, histomorphometry, qualitative histological scoring, PCNA immunohistochemistry, and local growth factor analysis were performed. Fractures treated with local ZnCl2 possessed significantly increased mechanical properties compared to controls at 4 weeks post fracture. The radiographic scoring analysis showed increased cortical bridging at 4 weeks in the 1.0 (p=0.0015) and 3.0 (p<0.0001) mg/kg ZnCl2 treated groups. Histomorphometry of the fracture callus at day 7 showed 177% increase (p=0.036) in percent cartilage and 133% increase (p=0.002) in percent mineralized tissue with local ZnCl2 treatment compared to controls. Qualitative histological scoring showed a 2.1× higher value at day 7 in the ZnCl2 treated group compared to control (p = 0.004). Cell proliferation and growth factors, VEGF and IGF-I, within fracture calluses treated with local ZnCl2 were increased at day 7. The results suggest local administration of ZnCl2 increases cell proliferation, causing increased growth factor production which yields improved chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Ultimately, these events lead to accelerated fracture healing as early as 4 weeks post fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.22593DOI Listing
June 2014

Predictors of career choice in academic medicine among orthopaedic surgery residents.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2014 Jan;96(1):e6

Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, 90 Bergen Street, DOC 7300, Newark, NJ 07103. E-mail address for B. Fan: E-mail address for W. Berberian:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.L.01430DOI Listing
January 2014

Local vanadium release from a calcium sulfate carrier accelerates fracture healing.

J Orthop Res 2014 May 30;32(5):727-34. Epub 2013 Dec 30.

Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, 90 Bergen Street, Suite 7300, Newark, New Jersey, 07103.

This study evaluated the efficacy of using calcium sulfate (CaSO4 ) as a carrier for intramedullary delivery of an organic vanadium salt, vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAC) after femoral fracture. VAC can act as an insulin-mimetic and can be used to accelerate fracture healing in rats. A heterogenous mixture of VAC and CaSO4 was delivered to the fracture site of BB Wistar rats, and mechanical testing, histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) were performed to measure healing. At 4 weeks after fracture, maximum torque to failure, effective shear modulus, and effective shear stress were all significantly higher (p < 0.05) in rats treated with 0.25 mg/kg VAC-CaSO4 as compared to carrier control rats. Histomorphometry found a 71% increase in percent cartilage matrix (p < 0.05) and a 64% decrease in percent mineralized tissue (p < 0.05) at 2 weeks after fracture in rats treated with 0.25 mg/kg of VAC-CaSO4 . Micro-CT analyses at 4 weeks found a more organized callus structure and higher trending maximum connected z-ray. fraction for VAC-CaSO4 groups. Evaluation of radiographs and serial histological sections at 12 weeks did not show any evidence of ectopic bone formation. As compared to previous studies, CaSO4 was an effective carrier for reducing the dose of VAC required to accelerate femoral fracture healing in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.22570DOI Listing
May 2014