Publications by authors named "Joseph Allal"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prognosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis in France, a multicenter observational study (2000-2015).

Int J Cardiol 2019 08 17;288:102-106. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France; CHU de Poitiers, Service de maladies infectieuses et tropicales, Poitiers, France; Inserm U1070, Poitiers, France. Electronic address:

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for <2% of infective endocarditis (IE). The aim of this study was to assess the prognosis of pneumococcal IE.

Methods: This multicentric observational retrospective study included adult patients presenting with definite S. pneumoniae IE according to modified Dukes criteria from four French university hospitals over a 15-year period, January 2000-December 2015. Survival rate at 90 days and 2 years after diagnosis, appropriateness of antibiotherapy, and pneumococcal vaccination status were determined. Risk factors for mortality were studied by univariate analysis.

Results: Of 3886 patients admitted with IE during the study period, 50 (1.3%) had pneumococcal IE, mostly males (n = 38, 76%), with a mean age of 60 ± 14 years. Predisposing conditions for IE or for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) involved 24% and 78% of the cases, respectively. Only 2 patients were vaccinated against pneumococcus before IE and 13 (26%) after IE. Antimicrobial strategy was in accordance with the 2015 ESC Guidelines in 28%. Cardiac surgery was performed in 56%, and was associated with better survival (p = 0.012). In the 40 patients followed until 2 years, the survival rate was 67%, deaths occurring mostly before 90 days. Age ≥ 65 was a risk factor for mortality (p = 0.011).

Conclusion: Pneumococcal IE remains rare but with a poor prognosis. Resort to surgery is yet to be determined. Predisposing conditions for IPD are the main factors leading to pneumococcal IE. They could be prevented by vaccine coverage improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.04.048DOI Listing
August 2019

Real three-dimensional assessment of left atrial and left atrial appendage volumes by 64-slice spiral computed tomography in individuals with or without cardiovascular disease.

Int J Cardiol 2010 Apr 23;140(2):189-96. Epub 2008 Dec 23.

Department of Cardiology, Poitiers University Hospital, France.

Context: Left atrial (LA) volume is a prognosis factor of cardiovascular morbidity in patients with cardiovascular disease (CD). Recent developments of multislice computed tomography (MSCT) have made non invasive coronary angiography reliable for selected patients and new software facilitates truly volume measurements without geometrical assumptions.

Objective: To define, by using MSCT, LA and left atrial appendage (LAA) volumes in patients with or without CD.

Methods And Results: In the population of patients referred to our laboratory for a conventional MSCT coronary angiography, 40 individuals without CD (Normal group) and 80 patients with CD (CD group) were prospectively selected. The CD group was constituted from 4 subgroups of patients with either coronary artery disease (n=20), idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (n=20), left ventricular hypertrophy (n=20) or severe mitral regurgitation (MR group, n=20). LAA and LA volumes were measured on a commercially available workstation. LA maximal and minimal volumes were lower in Normal group than in CD group, as LA ejection fraction (54+/-10 versus 67+/-20 ml/m(2), p<0.0001; 31+/-8 versus 46+/-20 ml/m(2), p<0.0001; 43+/-8% versus 33+/- 14%, p<0.001). LAA volume was larger in MR group than in Normal group (15+/-7 ml versus 9+/-3 ml, p<0.0001).

Conclusion: This MSCT study provides normal values of LA and LAA volumes for patients who underwent MSCT coronary angiography and suggests that MSCT is helpful to assess the changes of LA volumes related to various CD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.11.055DOI Listing
April 2010

Left atrial appendage luxation and incomplete ligature demonstrated with 64-slice computed tomography.

Eur Heart J 2008 Dec 9;29(23):2832. Epub 2008 Jun 9.

Département médico-chirurgical de Cardiologie, CHU Poitiers, Univ Poitiers, rue de la milétrie, 86000 Poitiers, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehn260DOI Listing
December 2008

Major clinical vascular events and aspirin-resistance status as determined by the PFA-100 method among patients with stable coronary artery disease: a prospective study.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2008 Apr;19(3):235-9

CHU Poitiers, Department of Cardiology, Research Clinical Center, Laboratory of Hematology, Poitiers, France.

Aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces major vascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease. The extent of platelet inhibition, denoted as aspirin resistance, however, is not always sufficient. A correlation between aspirin resistance as measured by aggregometry and adverse clinical events has been demonstrated. The point-of-care platelet function analyzer PFA-100 is usually used to detect aspirin resistance, but the relation between PFA-100 results and the vascular prognosis is not assessed. We prospectively enrolled 97 patients with stable coronary artery disease who were on aspirin (160 mg per day since 1 month or longer). Aspirin resistance was measured by the PFA-100 analyzer. Median follow-up was 2.5 years and the primary outcome was the composite of death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic cerebral infarction or acute limb ischemia. In our study, 29 patients (29.9%) showed resistance to aspirin, with a higher percentage of female patients (38 vs. 15%; P=0.01). During the follow-up, aspirin resistance was not associated with an increased risk of death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic vascular event compared with the aspirin-sensitive patients (17 vs. 13%; P>0.60). In this cohort of stable coronary artery disease, patients on aspirin dose of 160 mg per day, the aspirin-resistance status based on the PFA-100 results is not associated with a significant increase in major vascular clinical events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MBC.0b013e3282f9ade8DOI Listing
April 2008

A new method for measurement of left atrial volumes using 64-slice spiral computed tomography: comparison with two-dimensional echocardiographic techniques.

Int J Cardiol 2009 Jan 4;131(2):217-24. Epub 2008 Jan 4.

Département de Cardiologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Poitiers, France.

Background: Left atrial (LA) volume, is related to cardiovascular morbidity. LA enlargement is usually assessed using trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE). The association of modern multislice computed tomography (MSCT) imaging and new 3D reconstruction software, allows direct cardiac chamber volume measurement without geometrical assumptions. This study was designed to evaluate the maximal (LAmax) and minimal (LAmin) LA volumes during the cardiac cycle using MSCT and TTE approaches.

Methods: We screened 26 consecutive patients referred for coronary imaging using a 64-MSCT scanner and a TTE within 12 h. Contiguous multiphase images were generated from axial MSCT data and semi-automated 3D segmentation technique was applied to generate LA volumes. Using TTE, LA volumes and LA ejection fraction (LAEF) were obtained using five assumptions methods: cubing equation, diameter-length formula, area-length formula, ellipsoidal formula and biplane Simpson rule.

Results: Five patients were excluded for inadequate TTE visualization and one for ectopic beats during MSCT. The sample consisted in 20 patients (11 men, age: 56+/-14 years). Using MSCT, LA volumes indexed to body surface area were: LAmax=74+/-27 ml/m(2), LAmin=49+/-26 ml/m(2), with close correlations with TTE measurements and a significant underestimation by all TTE approaches. A close correlation was observed between LAEF using MSCT and TTE Simpson's method: 36+/-14% vs. 37+/-14%, r=0.99, p<0.0001.

Conclusion: Theses results suggest that the assessment of LA volumes and ejection fraction was reliable using 64-MSCT in patients referred for coronary computed tomography imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2007.10.020DOI Listing
January 2009

Prospective evaluation of the anatomy of the coronary venous system using multidetector row computed tomography.

Int J Cardiol 2008 May 9;126(2):204-8. Epub 2007 May 9.

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Poitiers, France.

Background: Multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) is a developing technique mainly used to evaluate the coronary arteries, but less attention has been paid to the coronary venous system. However, with the dramatic technological advancement of percutaneous therapies for heart failure or mitral insufficiency, a better knowledge about the anatomy of the coronary venous system may be of great utility. We sought the efficacy of MDCT imaging to delineate the coronary venous system.

Methods: 16 row MDCT scans were performed in 50 consecutive patients (42 men, age 61+/-15 years, all in sinus rhythm). The inter-individual variability in terms of diameter, distance, angle of the main tributaries of the coronary venous system was reported.

Results: The coronary venous system was always visualized. A remnant Thebesian valve was observed in 18 patients, the diameter of the coronary sinus ostium was found 12.2+/-3.6 mm and 15.3+/-3.7 mm respectively in the antero-posterior and supero-inferior directions, the distance between the posterior vein of the left ventricle (PVLV) and the anterior interventricular vein (AIV) was found 108.6+/-15.2 mm with a significant correlation with the mitral annulus diameter (p<.002) and the left ventricular diameter (p<0.01). The left marginal vein (LMV) was more often tortuous when the angle between the LMV and the great cardiac vein was less than 60 degrees (p<0.01).

Conclusion: 16 row MDCT imaging can be used to investigate non-invasively the coronary venous anatomy and may serve as a useful tool before percutaneous therapies involving the coronary veins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2007.03.128DOI Listing
May 2008

Anomalous septal artery originating from the right coronary sinus and detection of the interarterial course using multislice computed tomography (MSCT).

Int J Cardiol 2007 Apr 4;116(3):410-2. Epub 2006 Aug 4.

Anomalies of the coronary arteries are uncommon but may produce life-threatening symptoms and myocardial ischemia. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) has become a major technique for imaging the coronary arteries. We present a case of a patient with a septal and a circumflex arteries originating from the right coronary sinus and a duplicate left anterior descending artery. The interarterial course of the septal branch is clearly demonstrated with MSCT technique as the abnormal circumflex artery that coursed posterior to the aortic root.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2006.03.083DOI Listing
April 2007

Homograft replacement of the calcified aortic root in familial hypercholesterolemia.

Ann Thorac Surg 2006 Jan;81(1):e4-5

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovacular Surgery, Laënnec Hospital, Nantes, France.

A 39-year-old woman with a known history of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia was admitted with chest discomfort. Preoperative echocardiography and coronary angiography showed a heavily stenotic aortic valve as well as a calcific hypoplastic aortic root. Aortic root replacement using an aortic homograft was done.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2005.07.077DOI Listing
January 2006

Tissue Doppler echocardiographic quantification. Comparison to coronary angiography results in Acute Coronary Syndrome patients.

Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2005 Apr 8;3:10. Epub 2005 Apr 8.

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital La Miletrie, 86021 POITIERS - France.

Background: Multiples indices have been described using tissue Doppler imaging (DTI) capabilities. The aim of this study was to assess the capability of one or several regional DTI parameters in separating control from ischemic myocardium.

Methods: Twenty-eight patients with acute myocardial infarction were imaged within 24-hour following an emergent coronary angioplasty. Seventeen controls without any coronary artery or myocardial disease were also explored. Global and regional left ventricular functions were assessed. High frame rate color DTI cineloop recordings were made in apical 4 and 2-chamber for subsequent analysis. Peak velocity during isovolumic contraction time (IVC), ejection time, isovolumic relaxation (IVR) and filling time were measured at the mitral annulus and the basal, mid and apical segments of each of the walls studied as well as peak systolic displacement and peak of strain.

Results: DTI-analysis enabled us to discriminate between the 3 populations (controls, inferior and anterior AMI). Even in non-ischemic segments, velocities and displacements were reduced in the 2 AMI populations. Peak systolic displacement was the best parameter to discriminate controls from AMI groups (wall by wall, p was systematically < 0.01). The combination IVC + and IVR< 1 discriminated ischemic from non-ischemic segments with 82% sensitivity and 85% specificity.

Conclusion: DTI-analysis appears to be valuable in ischemic heart disease assessment. Its clinical impact remains to be established. However this simple index might really help in intensive care unit routine practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-7120-3-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1084356PMC
April 2005

Resistance in vitro to low-dose aspirin is associated with platelet PlA1 (GP IIIa) polymorphism but not with C807T(GP Ia/IIa) and C-5T Kozak (GP Ibalpha) polymorphisms.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2003 Sep;42(6):1115-9

Laboratoire d'Hématologie et des maladies du sang, CHU de Poitiers Hôpital La Miletrie, Poitiers, France.

Objectives: We investigated whether three platelet gene polymorphisms, Pl(A1/A2), C807T, and C-5T Kozak (encoding, respectively, for platelet membrane glycoproteins (GP) IIIa, GP Ia/IIa, GP Ibalpha), could contribute to the resistance to a low dose of aspirin (160 mg/day).

Background: Aspirin antiplatelet effect is not uniform in all patients, and the mechanism by which some patients are in vitro resistant to aspirin remains to be determined. However, it has been suggested that polymorphisms of platelet membrane glycoproteins might contribute to aspirin resistance.

Methods: Ninety-eight patients on aspirin (160 mg/day) for at least one month were enrolled. Aspirin resistance was measured by the platelet function analyzer (PFA)-100 analyzer; genotyping of the three polymorphisms was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis.

Results: Using a collagen/epinephrine-coated cartridge on the PFA-100, the prevalence of aspirin resistance was 29.6% (n = 29). Aspirin-resistant patients were significantly more often Pl(A1/A1) (86.2%; n = 25) than sensitive patients (59.4%; n = 41; p = 0.01). Of the 29 patients, 25 were reevaluated after having taken 300 mg/day aspirin for at least one month. Only 11 patients still have nonprolonged collagen epinephrine closure time, and these were all Pl(A1/A1). No relation was found between resistance status and C-5T Kozak or C807T genotypes.

Conclusions: Platelets homozygous for the Pl(A1) allele appear to be less sensitive to inhibitory action of low-dose aspirin. This differential sensitivity to aspirin may have potential clinical implications whereby specific antiplatelet therapy may be best tailored according to the patient's Pl(A) genotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0735-1097(03)00921-5DOI Listing
September 2003

Prospective comparison of minimally invasive and standard techniques for aortic valve replacement: initial experience in the first hundred patients.

J Card Surg 2003 Mar-Apr;18(2):133-9

Département Médico-Chirurgical de Cardiologie, René Beauchant, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Poitiers, Rue de la Milétrie, Poitiers, France.

Background: Aortic valve replacement (AVR) can be performed through a partial upper sternotomy. In this study we compared the early postoperative outcome in two groups of patients who underwent AVR with a minimally invasive procedure (n = 30) or with a conventional approach (n = 70). The predicted operative mortality (Parsonnet Index) was slightly higher in the conventional group (17.69 +/- 0.85 versus 12.7 +/- 1.02), reflecting the greater mean age of the patients (70.96 +/- 1.17 versus 64.20 +/- 2.57).

Results: The distribution of the different etiologies of aortic valve pathology did not differ between groups. There was no postoperative death in the mini-invasive group. Cardiopulmonary bypass time was longer in the mini-invasive group, but the other operative parameters did not differ between groups. Postoperative morbidity regarding the need for blood transfusion, the duration of assisted ventilation, length of stay in the intensive care unit, and abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and conduction was slightly but not significantly reduced in the mini-invasive group.

Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that a partial upper sternotomy is a safe and effective technique for AVR. Postoperative morbidity is not significantly reduced in patients undergoing AVR by this approach. Further studies in a larger patient population are necessary to assess whether postoperative morbidity is significantly reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1540-8191.2003.02002.xDOI Listing
September 2003
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