Publications by authors named "Josep Rodés-Cabau"

533 Publications

Managing Conduction Disturbances After TAVR: Toward a Tailored Strategy.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 May;14(9):992-994

Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.03.053DOI Listing
May 2021

Stroke Complicating Infective Endocarditis After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 May;77(18):2276-2287

Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Stroke is one of the most common and potentially disabling complications of infective endocarditis (IE). However, scarce data exist about stroke complicating IE after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients with definite IE after TAVR complicated by stroke during index IE hospitalization.

Methods: Data from the Infectious Endocarditis after TAVR International Registry (including 569 patients who developed definite IE following TAVR from 59 centers in 11 countries) was analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to stroke occurrence during IE admission (stroke [S-IE] vs. no stroke [NS-IE]).

Results: A total of 57 (10%) patients had a stroke during IE hospitalization, with no differences in causative microorganism between groups. S-IE patients exhibited higher rates of acute renal failure, systemic embolization, and persistent bacteremia (p < 0.05 for all). Previous stroke before IE, residual aortic regurgitation ≥moderate after TAVR, balloon-expandable valves, IE within 30 days after TAVR, and vegetation size >8 mm were associated with a higher risk of stroke during the index IE hospitalization (p < 0.05 for all). Stroke rate in patients with no risk factors was 3.1% and increased up to 60% in the presence of >3 risk factors. S-IE patients had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (54.4% vs. 28.7%; p < 0.001) and overall mortality at 1 year (66.3% vs. 45.6%; p < 0.001). Surgical treatment was not associated with improved outcomes in S-IE patients (in-hospital mortality: 46.2% in surgical vs. 58.1% in no surgical treatment; p = 0.47).

Conclusions: Stroke occurred in 1 of 10 patients with IE post-TAVR. A history of stroke, short time between TAVR and IE, vegetation size, valve prosthesis type, and residual aortic regurgitation determined an increased risk. The occurrence of stroke was associated with increased in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates, and surgical treatment failed to improve clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.03.233DOI Listing
May 2021

Permanent Pacemaker Implantation Following Valve-in-Valve Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: VIVID Registry.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 May;77(18):2263-2273

Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) remains one of the main drawbacks of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), but scarce data exist on PPI after valve-in-valve (ViV) TAVR, particularly with the use of newer-generation transcatheter heart valves (THVs).

Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine the incidence, factors associated with, and clinical impact of PPI in a large series of ViV-TAVR procedures.

Methods: Data were obtained from the multicenter VIVID Registry and included the main baseline and procedural characteristics, in-hospital and late (median follow-up: 13 months [interquartile range: 3 to 41 months]) outcomes analyzed according to the need of periprocedural PPI. All THVs except CoreValve, Cribier-Edwards, Sapien, and Sapien XT were considered to be new-generation THVs.

Results: A total of 1,987 patients without prior PPI undergoing ViV-TAVR from 2007 to 2020 were included. Of these, 128 patients (6.4%) had PPI after TAVR, with a significant decrease in the incidence of PPI with the use of new-generation THVs (4.7% vs. 7.4%; p = 0.017), mainly related to a reduced PPI rate with the Evolut R/Pro versus CoreValve (3.7% vs. 9.0%; p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in PPI rates between newer-generation balloon- and self-expanding THVs (6.1% vs. 3.9%; p = 0.18). In the multivariable analysis, older age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.05 for each increase of 1 year; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 to 1.07; p = 0.001), larger THV size (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.20; p = 0.02), and previous right bundle branch block (OR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.00 to 4.17; p = 0.05) were associated with an increased risk of PPI. There were no differences in 30-day mortality between the PPI (4.7%) and no-PPI (2.7%) groups (p = 0.19), but PPI patients exhibited a trend toward higher mortality risk at follow-up (hazard ratio: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.91; p = 0.04; p = 0.08 after adjusting for age differences between groups).

Conclusions: In a contemporary large series of ViV-TAVR patients, the rate of periprocedural PPI was relatively low, and its incidence decreased with the use of new-generation THV systems. PPI following ViV-TAVR was associated with a trend toward increased mortality at follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.03.228DOI Listing
May 2021

Outcomes of transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention by right ventricular function: a multicentre propensity-matched analysis.

EuroIntervention 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Internal Medicine/Cardiology, Heart Center Leipzig at University of Leipzig and Leipzig Heart Institute, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) has a poor prognosis and limited treatment options and is frequently accompanied by right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Transcatheter tricuspid valve interventions (TTVI) to reduce TR have been shown to be safe and feasible with encouraging early results. Patient selection for TTVI remains challenging, with the role of right ventricular (RV) function being unknown.

Aims: The aims of this study were 1) to investigate survival in a TTVI-treated patient population and a conservatively treated TR population, and 2) to evaluate the outcome of TTVI as compared to conservative treatment stratified according to the degree of RV function.

Methods: We studied 684 patients from the multicentre TriValve cohort (TTVI cohort) and compared them to 914 conservatively treated patients from two tertiary care centres. Propensity matching identified 213 pairs of patients with severe TR. As we observed a non-linear relationship of RV function and TTVI outcome, we stratified patients according to tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) to preserved (TAPSE >17 mm), mid-range (TAPSE 13-17 mm) and reduced (TAPSE <13 mm) RV function. The primary outcome was one-year all-cause mortality.

Results: TTVI was associated with a survival benefit in patients with severe TR when compared to matched controls (one-year mortality rate: 13.1% vs 25.8%; p=0.031). Of the three RV subgroups, only in patients with mid-range RV function was TTVI associated with an improved survival (p log-rank 0.004). In these patients, procedural success was associated with a reduced hazard ratio for all-cause mortality (HR 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.57).

Conclusions: TTVI is associated with reduced mortality compared to conservative therapy and might exert its highest treatment effect in patients with mid-range reduced RV function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-21-00191DOI Listing
May 2021

ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 May;77(17):2187-2199

Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Among patients with acute coronary syndrome following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), those presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are at highest risk.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of STEMI after TAVR.

Methods: This was a multicenter study including 118 patients presenting with STEMI at a median of 255 days (interquartile range: 9 to 680 days) after TAVR. Procedural features of STEMI after TAVR managed with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were compared with all-comer STEMI: 439 non-TAVR patients who had primary PCI within the 2 weeks before and after each post-TAVR STEMI case in 5 participating centers from different countries.

Results: Median door-to-balloon time was higher in TAVR patients (40 min [interquartile range: 25 to 57 min] vs. 30 min [interquartile range: 25 to 35 min]; p = 0.003). Procedural time, fluoroscopy time, dose-area product, and contrast volume were also higher in TAVR patients (p < 0.01 for all). PCI failure occurred more frequently in patients with previous TAVR (16.5% vs. 3.9%; p < 0.001), including 5 patients in whom the culprit lesion was not revascularized owing to coronary ostia cannulation failure. In-hospital and late (median of 7 months [interquartile range: 1 to 21 months]) mortality rates were 25.4% and 42.4%, respectively (20.6% and 38.2% in primary PCI patients), and estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42 to 6.43; p = 0.004), Killip class ≥2 (HR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.37 to 5.49; p = 0.004), and PCI failure (HR: 3.23; 95% CI: 1.42 to 7.31; p = 0.005) determined an increased risk.

Conclusions: STEMI after TAVR was associated with very high in-hospital and mid-term mortality. Longer door-to-balloon times and a higher PCI failure rate were observed in TAVR patients, partially due to coronary access issues specific to the TAVR population, and this was associated with poorer outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.03.014DOI Listing
May 2021

Valve Academic Research Consortium 3: Updated Endpoint Definitions for Aortic Valve Clinical Research.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Columbia University Irving Medical Center/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital and Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Aims: The Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC), founded in 2010, was intended to (i) identify appropriate clinical endpoints and (ii) standardize definitions of these endpoints for transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical trials. Rapid evolution of the field, including the emergence of new complications, expanding clinical indications, and novel therapy strategies have mandated further refinement and expansion of these definitions to ensure clinical relevance. This document provides an update of the most appropriate clinical endpoint definitions to be used in the conduct of transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical research.

Methods And Results: Several years after the publication of the VARC-2 manuscript, an in-person meeting was held involving over 50 independent clinical experts representing several professional societies, academic research organizations, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and industry representatives to (i) evaluate utilization of VARC endpoint definitions in clinical research, (ii) discuss the scope of this focused update, and (iii) review and revise specific clinical endpoint definitions. A writing committee of independent experts was convened and subsequently met to further address outstanding issues. There were ongoing discussions with FDA and many experts to develop a new classification schema for bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure. Overall, this multi-disciplinary process has resulted in important recommendations for data reporting, clinical research methods, and updated endpoint definitions. New definitions or modifications of existing definitions are being proposed for repeat hospitalizations, access site-related complications, bleeding events, conduction disturbances, cardiac structural complications, and bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure (including valve leaflet thickening and thrombosis). A more granular 5-class grading scheme for paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) is being proposed to help refine the assessment of PVR. Finally, more specific recommendations on quality-of-life assessments have been included, which have been targeted to specific clinical study designs.

Conclusions: Acknowledging the dynamic and evolving nature of less-invasive aortic valve therapies, further refinements of clinical research processes are required. The adoption of these updated and newly proposed VARC-3 endpoints and definitions will ensure homogenous event reporting, accurate adjudication, and appropriate comparisons of clinical research studies involving devices and new therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.02.038DOI Listing
April 2021

Valve Academic Research Consortium 3: updated endpoint definitions for aortic valve clinical research.

Eur Heart J 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Columbia University Irving Medical Center/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital and Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, NY, USA.

Aims: The Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC), founded in 2010, was intended to (i) identify appropriate clinical endpoints and (ii) standardize definitions of these endpoints for transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical trials. Rapid evolution of the field, including the emergence of new complications, expanding clinical indications, and novel therapy strategies have mandated further refinement and expansion of these definitions to ensure clinical relevance. This document provides an update of the most appropriate clinical endpoint definitions to be used in the conduct of transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical research.

Methods And Results: Several years after the publication of the VARC-2 manuscript, an in-person meeting was held involving over 50 independent clinical experts representing several professional societies, academic research organizations, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and industry representatives to (i) evaluate utilization of VARC endpoint definitions in clinical research, (ii) discuss the scope of this focused update, and (iii) review and revise specific clinical endpoint definitions. A writing committee of independent experts was convened and subsequently met to further address outstanding issues. There were ongoing discussions with FDA and many experts to develop a new classification schema for bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure. Overall, this multi-disciplinary process has resulted in important recommendations for data reporting, clinical research methods, and updated endpoint definitions. New definitions or modifications of existing definitions are being proposed for repeat hospitalizations, access site-related complications, bleeding events, conduction disturbances, cardiac structural complications, and bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure (including valve leaflet thickening and thrombosis). A more granular 5-class grading scheme for paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) is being proposed to help refine the assessment of PVR. Finally, more specific recommendations on quality-of-life assessments have been included, which have been targeted to specific clinical study designs.

Conclusions: Acknowledging the dynamic and evolving nature of less-invasive aortic valve therapies, further refinements of clinical research processes are required. The adoption of these updated and newly proposed VARC-3 endpoints and definitions will ensure homogenous event reporting, accurate adjudication, and appropriate comparisons of clinical research studies involving devices and new therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa799DOI Listing
April 2021

Aspirin Alone Versus Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A Systematic Review and Patient-Level Meta-Analysis.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Apr 16;10(8):e019604. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Cardiology St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein The Netherlands.

Background In patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation without an indication for oral anticoagulation, it is unclear whether single or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is necessary to minimize both the bleeding and thromboembolic risk. In this patient-level meta-analysis, we further investigate the effect of aspirin alone compared with DAPT for preventing both thromboembolic and bleeding events after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Methods and Results We conducted a systematic review of all available randomized controlled trials comparing aspirin with DAPT. In total, 1086 patients were included across 4 eligible trials. The primary outcomes were the composite of all-cause mortality, major or life-threatening bleeding, stroke or myocardial infarction (first composite outcome), and the same composite excluding bleeding (second composite outcome), both tested at 30 days and 3 months. The first composite outcome occurred significantly less in the aspirin-alone group at 30 days (10.3% versus 14.7%, odds ratio [OR], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.46-0.97, =0.034) and 3 months (11.0% versus 16.5%, hazard ratio [HR], 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47-0.94, =0.02), compared with the DAPT group. The second composite outcome occurred in 5.5% and 6.6% at 30 days (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.50-1.38, =0.47) and in 6.9% and 8.5% at 3 months in the aspirin-alone group compared with the DAPT group (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.52-1.29, =0.39), respectively. Conclusions In patients without an indication for oral anticoagulation undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation, aspirin alone significantly reduced the composite of thromboembolic and bleeding events, and does not increase the composite of thromboembolic events after transcatheter aortic valve implantation, compared with DAPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019604DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical impact of the heart team on the outcomes of surgical aortic valve replacement among octogenarians.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary heart team in the management of patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis is unknown. This study evaluated the impact of a heart team on the outcomes of surgical aortic valve replacement in octogenarians.

Methods: Between May 2007 and January 2016, 528 patients aged 80 years or more were referred to our institutional heart team for a transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Among these, 101 were redirected to surgical aortic valve replacement (heart team group). These patients were compared with a surgical aortic valve replacement cohort (n = 506) without prior heart team screening (non-heart team group), taken from the same time period. Propensity score matching with bootstrap analysis was performed; 76 heart team patients were matched to 76 non-heart team patients. Early and late outcomes including survival and readmission for cardiovascular causes were compared.

Results: Matched subgroups were largely comparable; congestive heart failure and echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension were more prevalent in the heart team group. In-hospital mortality was significantly lower in the matched heart team group (0% vs 6.0%, bootstrap mean difference 6.0%, 95% confidence interval, 2.2-9.8). The risk of stroke, low cardiac output state, reexploration for bleeding, pneumonia, and prolonged ventilation was also significantly lower in the heart team group. There was no significant between-group difference regarding late survival (hazard ratio, 0.86, 95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.33, P = .49) or readmission for cardiovascular reasons (hazard ratio, 0.70, 95% confidence interval, 0.41-1.20, P = .19).

Conclusions: Preoperative multidisciplinary assessment of octogenarians by a heart team was associated with lower in-hospital mortality and adverse events after surgical aortic valve replacement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2021.03.030DOI Listing
March 2021

Temporal Trends, Characteristics, and Outcomes of Infective Endocarditis After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Procedural improvements combined with the contemporary clinical profile of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) may have influenced the incidence and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) following TAVR. We aimed to determine the temporal trends, characteristics, and outcomes of IE post-TAVR.

Methods: Observational study including 552 patients presenting definite IE post-TAVR. Patients were divided in 2 groups according to the timing of TAVR (historical cohort [HC]: before 2014; contemporary cohort [CC]: after 2014).

Results: Overall incidence rates of IE were similar in both cohorts (CC vs HC: 5.45 vs 6.52 per 1000 person-years; P = .12), but the rate of early IE was lower in the CC (2.29‰ vs 4.89‰, P < .001). Enterococci were the most frequent microorganism. Most patients presented complicated IE ( CC: 67.7%; HC: 69.6%; P = .66), but the rate of surgical treatment remained low (CC: 20.7%; HC: 17.3%; P = .32). The CC exhibited lower rates of in-hospital acute kidney injury (35.1% vs 44.6%; P = .036) and in-hospital (26.6% vs 36.4%; P = .016) and 1-year (37.8% vs 53.5%; P < .001) mortality. Higher logistic EuroScore, Staphylococcus aureus etiology, and complications (stroke, heart failure, and acute renal failure) were associated with in-hospital mortality in multivariable analyses (P < .05 for all).

Conclusions: Although overall IE incidence has remained stable, the incidence of early IE has declined in recent years. The microorganism, high rate of complications, and very low rate of surgical treatment remained similar. In-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were high but progressively decreased over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1941DOI Listing
March 2021

Ambulatory Electrocardiogram Monitoring in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Mar;77(10):1344-1356

Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada; Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has changed the treatment of patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, the occurrence of conduction disturbances has not decreased significantly over time and remains the main drawback of the procedure. In addition, new-onset atrial fibrillation is the most frequent tachyarrhythmia during the hospitalization period and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, little is known regarding the incidence and clinical impact of arrhythmic events beyond the periprocedural TAVR period. Ambulatory electrocardiogram (AECG) monitoring has recently emerged as a tool to unravel the complex issue of arrhythmic disorders (bradyarrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias) before and after TAVR. To date, the preliminary results from the initial experience using AECG monitoring systems showed the safety, usefulness, and potential clinical implications of this diagnostic tool in TAVR recipients. This review provides an overview of the current status, clinical implications, and future perspectives of AECG monitoring in the TAVR setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.12.062DOI Listing
March 2021

Short-term direct oral anticoagulation or dual antiplatelet therapy following left atrial appendage closure in patients with relative contraindications to chronic anticoagulation therapy.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Biological data suggest that short-term anticoagulation would be more effective than dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) to reduce the thrombotic risk following left atrial appendage closure (LAAC). This study sought to assess the safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulation (DOAC) versus DAPT immediately post-LAAC.

Methods: Multicenter study including 592 consecutive patients with relative contraindication to chronic anticoagulation who underwent LAAC and received either DAPT or DOAC for 1-3 months. Each patient receiving DOAC was matched with 2 patients on DAPT based on propensity-score (propensity-matched population of 285 patients). Outcomes recorded were death, stroke, non-procedural related severe bleeding, serious adverse event (SAE: composite of death, stroke, bleeding) and early (within 3 months post-LAAC) device-related thrombosis (DRT).

Results: Early outcomes (within 3-month post-LAAC) did not significantly differ between groups, but a numerically higher rate of early death (3.7% vs. 1.1%), non-procedural related severe bleeding (7.4% vs. 3.2%), and SAE (11.1% vs. 5.3%) were observed in patients receiving DAPT. After a median follow-up of 22 (8-38) months, similar outcomes were observed in DAPT and DOAC groups regarding death (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.58-2.37; p = 0.652), stroke (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.22-5.45; p = 0.908), non-procedural related severe bleeding (HR: 1.68; 95% CI: 0.69-4.12; p = 0.257), and SAE (HR: 1.28; 95% CI: 0.73-2.24; p = 0.383). DRT was identified in 4 patients (2.6%) receiving DAPT versus 0 patient receiving DOAC (p = 0.162).

Conclusions: Short-term DOAC following LAAC in patients with contraindications to chronic anticoagulation was safe and tended to associate with a lower rate of SAE and DRT compared to DAPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.02.054DOI Listing
February 2021

Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Intervention in Patients with Previous Left Valve Surgery.

Can J Cardiol 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Cardiology Department, Department of Cardiology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Scarce data exist on patients with previous left valve surgery (PLVS) undergoing transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention (TTVI).

Objectives: This study sought to investigate the procedural and early outcomes in patients with PLVS undergoing TTVI.

Methods: This was a sub-analysis of the multicenter TriValve registry including 462 patients, 82 (18%) with PLVS. Data were analyzed according to the presence of PLVS in the overall cohort and in a propensity score-matched population including 51 and 115 patients with and without PLVS, respectively.

Results: Patients with PLVS were younger (72±10 vs. 78±9 years, p <0.01) and more frequently women (67.1% vs 53.2%, p = 0.02). Similar rates of procedural success (PLVS: 80.5%, no-PLVS: 82.1%, p=0.73), and 30-day mortality (PLVS:2.4%, no-PLVS:3.4% , p=0.99 ) were observed. After matching, there were no significant differences in both all-cause rehospitalization (PLVS: 21.1%, non-PLVS: 26.5%, p=0.60) and all-cause mortality (PLVS: 9.8%, non-PLVS: 6.7%, p=0.58). At last follow-up (median time 5.7 [1.4-11.9] months after the procedure), most patients (81.8%) in the PLVS group were in NYHA class I-II (p= 0.12 vs. no-PLVS group), and TR grade was ≤2 in 82.6% of patients (p= 0.096 vs. no-PVLS group).

Conclusions: In patients with PLVS, TTVI was associated with high rates of procedural success and low early mortality. However, about one third of patients required rehospitalization or died at midterm follow-up. These results would support TTVI as a reasonable alternative to redo-surgery in patients with PLVS, and suggest the importance of earlier treatment in order to improve clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2021.02.010DOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical Impact of Crossover Techniques for Primary Access Hemostasis in Transfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Procedures.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Apr 18;33(4):E302-E311. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, 2725, Chemin Sainte-Foy, Québec, Canada G1V 4G5.

Objectives: To determine the occurrence of vascular complications (VCs) following transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with new-generation devices according to the use of a crossover technique (COT).

Background: The use of a COT (with/without balloon) has been associated with a reduction of VCs in TAVR patients. However, scarce data support its use with second-generation devices. Also, its potential benefit in obese patients (at high-risk of VCs) has not been elucidated.

Methods: A multicenter study including 2214 patients who underwent full percutaneous transfemoral TAVR (COT, 1522 patients; no COT, 692 patients). Thirty-day events were evaluated according to the use of a COT using a multivariate logistic regression model. A subanalysis was performed in obese patients.

Results: Primary access major VCs (3.5% COT vs 3.9% no COT; P=.19), major/life-threatening bleeding (3.4% COT vs 2.0% no COT; P=.33), and mortality rates (2.4% COT vs 2.6% no COT; P=.23) were similar between groups. However, minor VCs (11.7% COT vs 5.9% no COT; P<.001) and postprocedural acute renal failure (8.9% COT vs 3.9% no COT; P<.001) were higher in patients undergoing the COT. In the overall cohort, percutaneous closure device failure was more frequent in obese patients (4.0% in the obese group vs 1.9% in the non-obese group; P<.01), but these differences were no longer significant in those undergoing a COT (3.4% in the obese group vs 2.0% in the non-obese group; P=.12). Indeed, in the subset of obese patients, the COT tended to be associated with fewer VCs (3.4% COT vs 5.9% no COT; P=.09).

Conclusions: The use of a COT was not associated with a reduction of major VCs or improved outcomes. However, some patient subsets, such as those with higher body mass index, may benefit from the use of a COT. These findings would suggest the application of a tailored strategy, following a risk-benefit assessment in each TAVR candidate.
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April 2021

Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Intervention in Patients With Right Ventricular Dysfunction or Pulmonary Hypertension: Insights From the TriValve Registry.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Feb 5;14(2):e009685. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Cardiology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, Spain (R.E.-L., V.M.).

Background: Scarce data exist on patients with right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) or pulmonary hypertension (PH) undergoing transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention. This study aimed to determine the early and midterm outcomes and the factors associated with mortality in this group of patients.

Methods: This subanalysis of the multicenter TriValve (Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Therapies) registry included 300 patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation with RVD (n=244), PH (n=127), or both (n=71) undergoing transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention. RVD was defined as a tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion <17 mm, and PH as an estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure ≥50 mm Hg.

Results: Mean age of the patients was 77±9 years (54% women). Procedural success was 80.7%, and 9 patients (3%) died during the hospitalization. At a median follow-up of 6 (interquartile range, 2-12) months, 54 patients (18%) died, and the independent associated factors were higher gamma-glutamyl transferase values at baseline (hazard ratio, 1.02 for each increase of 10 u/L [95% CI, 1.002-1.04]), poorer renal function defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 mL/min (hazard ratio, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.22-4.33]), and the lack of procedural success (hazard ratio, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.17-3.81]). The grade of RVD and the amount of PH at baseline were not found to be predictors of mortality. Most patients alive at follow-up improved their functional class (New York Heart Association I-II in 66% versus 7% at baseline, <0.001).

Conclusions: In patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation and RVD/PH, transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention was associated with high procedural success and a relatively low in-hospital mortality, along with significant improvements in functional status. However, about 1 out of 5 patients died after a median follow-up of 6 months, with hepatic congestion, renal dysfunction, and the lack of procedural success determining an increased risk. These results may improve the clinical evaluation of transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention candidates and would suggest a closer follow-up in those at increased risk. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03416166.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.009685DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of Glomerular Filtration Rates on Outcomes Following Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Closure.

Am J Cardiol 2021 04 27;145:77-84. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada; Institut Clínic Cardiovascular, Hospital Clínic, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Scarce data support the prescription of oral anticoagulation in patients with concomitant advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and atrial fibrillation, and left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) may provide a favorable risk-benefit ratio in this population. However, outcomes of LAAC in CKD patients are unknown. We aimed to investigate the impact of moderate-to-severe CKD on clinical outcomes following percutaneous LAAC. This was a multicenter study including 1094 patients who underwent LAAC. Moderate-to-severe CKD was defined as an eGFR<45 mL/min. Death, ischemic stroke, severe bleeding (≥BARC 3a) and serious adverse event (SAE; composite of death, stroke or severe bleeding) were recorded. A total of 300 patients (27.4%) had moderate-to-severe CKD. There were no differences between groups in periprocedural complications or device related thrombosis. At a median follow-up of 2 (1 to 3) years, patients with moderate-to-severe CKD did not present an increased risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22 to 1.92; p = 0.435) but were at a higher risk of death (HR: 2.84; 95% CI: 2.22 to 3.64; p <0.001), severe bleeding (HR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.36 to 2.81; p <0.001) and SAE (HR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.80 to 2.77; p <0.001). By multivariable analysis, an eGFR<45 ml/min (HR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.34 to 2.76; p <0.001) and previous bleeding (HR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.27 to 4.17; p = 0.006) were associated with an increased risk of severe bleeding. In conclusion, patients with moderate-to-severe CKD who underwent LAAC had very high thrombotic and bleeding risks. Although the rates of device related thrombosis or ischemic stroke after-LAAC were not influenced by kidney dysfunction, patients with moderate-to-severe CKD remained at higher risk of severe bleeding events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.12.081DOI Listing
April 2021

Transcatheter Interventions for Tricuspid Valve Disease: What to Do and Who to Do it On.

Can J Cardiol 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Tricuspid valve disease, and particularly the management of severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR), has gained momentum in recent years. Although it is well known that this frequent condition is associated with poor clinical outcomes, these patients have been classically managed medically, leading to end-stage right ventricular heart failure. Moreover, late referral to surgery has contributed to a high rate of periprocedural complications and in-hospital surgical mortality. Thus, the development of a less-invasive catheter-based therapy would be of high clinical relevance in this context. Several transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention (TTVI) devices have been developed in recent years. The particular characteristics of the tricuspid valve (large non-calcific annulus, presence of chief surrounding structures such as the conduction system or the right coronary artery) make multimodality imaging (e.g. transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomographic) key in the preprocedural assessment of TTVI. According to their mechanism of action and therapeutic target, TTVI includes transcatheter repair either with coaptation or annuloplasty systems, caval valve devices, and transcatheter tricuspid valve replacement. The initial TTVI experience showed that most procedures were well-tolerated, with high procedural success and low in-hospital and early mortality. Also, most TTVI recipients improved their functional status and recent data suggested improved outcomes compared to medical management. However, the rate of significant residual TR following transcatheter TV repair remains high and very scarce data exist on longer term (beyond 6-12 months) outcomes. The present review provides an overview regarding the framework of chronic TR and TTVI therapeutic options, describing the updated current evidence in this challenging field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.12.029DOI Listing
January 2021

To Take One's Breath Away: Echocardiography-Guided Aspiration of an Air Embolism During a MitraClip Procedure.

CJC Open 2021 Jan 3;3(1):115-117. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada.

An air embolism (AE) is a rare but dreaded complication during endovascular procedures. Current guidance recommends hyperbaric oxygen therapy and aspiration for the management of a venous AE. However, the management of an arterial AE is much less described. We report a case of a 79-year-old man with symptomatic mitral regurgitation who underwent a MitraClip procedure. During the intervention, a massive AE was detected in the ascending aorta on transesophageal echocardiography. The AE was successfully aspirated while the patient remained hemodynamically stable. This report demonstrates the efficacy of an arterial AE's aspiration with a real-time echocardiography recording of the technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjco.2020.08.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801202PMC
January 2021

Understanding important factors for arrhythmogenicity associated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation including left bundle branch block: Authors' reply.

Europace 2021 Feb;23(2):323-324

Department of Cardiology, Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, 2725, chemin Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, Quebec G1V 4G5, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa409DOI Listing
February 2021

Aortic Valve Replacement in Low-Risk Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis Outside Randomized Trials.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jan;77(2):111-123

Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Recent randomized trials including low-risk patients showed positive results for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) compared to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), but patients with non-tricuspid aortic valve (NTAV), severe coronary artery disease (SevCAD), and those requiring concomitant mitral/tricuspid valve (CMTV) or concomitant ascending aorta replacement (CAAR) interventions were excluded.

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the presence and impact of the main clinical variables not evaluated in TAVR versus SAVR trials (NTAV, SevCAD, and CMTV or CAAR intervention) in a large series of consecutive low-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (SAS) undergoing SAVR.

Methods: Single-center study including consecutive patients with SAS and low surgical risk (Society of Thoracic Surgeons score of <4%) undergoing SAVR. Baseline, procedural characteristics, and 30-day outcomes were prospectively collected.

Results: Of 6,772 patients with SAS who underwent SAVR between 2000 and 2019, 5,310 (78.4%) exhibited a low surgical risk (mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score: 1.94 ± 0.87%). Of these, 2,165 patients (40.8%) had at least 1 of the following: NTAV (n = 1,468, 27.6%), SevCAD (n = 307, 5.8%), CMTV (n = 306, 5.8%), and CAAR (n = 560, 10.5%). The 30-day mortality and stroke rates for the overall low-risk SAS cohort were 1.9% and 2.4%, respectively. The mortality rate was similar in the SevCAD (2.6%) and CAAR (2.1%) groups versus the rest of the cohort (odds ratio [OR]: 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85 to 3.75, and OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 0.88 to 3.05, respectively), lower in the NTAV group (0.9%; OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.81), and higher in the CMTV group (5.9%; OR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.51 to 4.5).

Conclusions: In a real-world setting, close to one-half of the low-risk patients with SAS undergoing SAVR exhibited at least 1 major criterion not evaluated in TAVR versus SAVR randomized trials. Clinical outcomes were better than or similar to those predicted by surgical scores in all groups but those patients requiring CMTV intervention. These results may help determine the impact of implementing the results of TAVR-SAVR trials in real practice and may inform future trials in specific groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.10.056DOI Listing
January 2021

Transcatheter Replacement of Transcatheter Versus Surgically Implanted Aortic Valve Bioprostheses.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jan;77(1):1-14

Herzzentrum Duisburg, Duisburg, Germany.

Background: Surgical aortic valve replacement and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are now both used to treat aortic stenosis in patients in whom life expectancy may exceed valve durability. The choice of initial bioprosthesis should therefore consider the relative safety and efficacy of potential subsequent interventions.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare TAVR in failed transcatheter aortic valves (TAVs) versus surgical aortic valves (SAVs).

Methods: Data were collected on 434 TAV-in-TAV and 624 TAV-in-SAV consecutive procedures performed at centers participating in the Redo-TAVR international registry. Propensity score matching was applied, and 330 matched (165:165) patients were analyzed. Principal endpoints were procedural success, procedural safety, and mortality at 30 days and 1 year.

Results: For TAV-in-TAV versus TAV-in-SAV, procedural success was observed in 120 (72.7%) versus 103 (62.4%) patients (p = 0.045), driven by a numerically lower frequency of residual high valve gradient (p = 0.095), ectopic valve deployment (p = 0.081), coronary obstruction (p = 0.091), and conversion to open heart surgery (p = 0.082). Procedural safety was achieved in 116 (70.3%) versus 119 (72.1%) patients (p = 0.715). Mortality at 30 days was 5 (3%) after TAV-in-TAV and 7 (4.4%) after TAV-in-SAV (p = 0.570). At 1 year, mortality was 12 (11.9%) and 10 (10.2%), respectively (p = 0.633). Aortic valve area was larger (1.55 ± 0.5 cm vs. 1.37 ± 0.5 cm; p = 0.040), and the mean residual gradient was lower (12.6 ± 5.2 mm Hg vs. 14.9 ± 5.2 mm Hg; p = 0.011) after TAV-in-TAV. The rate of moderate or greater residual aortic regurgitation was similar, but mild aortic regurgitation was more frequent after TAV-in-TAV (p = 0.003).

Conclusions: In propensity score-matched cohorts of TAV-in-TAV versus TAV-in-SAV patients, TAV-in-TAV was associated with higher procedural success and similar procedural safety or mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.10.053DOI Listing
January 2021

Safety and effects of volume loading during transesophageal echocardiography in the pre-procedural work-up for left atrial appendage closure.

Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2021 Jan 2;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Cardiology, Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, 2725, chemin Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, G1V 4G5, Quebec, Canada.

Background: In patients undergoing left atrial appendage (LAA) closure, an accurate sizing of the LAA is key to optimize device sizing, procedural success and reduce complications. Previous studies have shown that intraprocedural volume loading increases LAA dimensions and improves device sizing. However, the safety and effects on LAA and device sizing of administering a fluid bolus during pre-procedural transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and impact on LAA dimensions and device sizing of an intravenous (IV) fluid bolus administered during TEE in the setting of the pre-procedural work-up for LAA closure.

Methods: The study included a total of 72 patients who underwent TEE to assess suitability for LAAC and received a 500 ml IV bolus of normal saline. The LAA landing zone (LZ) and depth were measured by TEE before and after volume loading, and these measurements were used to predict the device size implanted during a subsequent percutaneous LAAC procedure.

Results: There were no complications associated with volume loading. The baseline mean LZ was 19.6 ± 3.6 mm at 90, and 20.2 ± 4.1 mm at 135. Following fluid bolus, the maximum diameter increased 1.5 ± 1.0 mm at 90 (p<0.001), and 1.3 ± 1.0 mm at 135 (p<0.001). The baseline mean depth of the LAA was 26.5 ± 5.5 mm at 90, and 23.9 ± 5.8 mm at 135. After fluid bolus, the mean depth increased by 1.5 ± 1.8 mm (p<0.001) and 1.6 ± 2.0 (p<0.001), at 90 and 135, respectively. Sizing based on post-bolus measurements of the LZ significantly improved the agreement with the final device size selection during the procedure in 71.0% of cases (vs. 42.0% with pre-bolus measurements).

Conclusions: Volume loading during ambulatory TEE as part of the pre-procedural work-up of LAAC is safe and significantly increases LAA dimensions. This strategy may become the new standard, particularly in centers performing LAAC with no TEE guidance, as it improves LAA sizing and more accurately predicts the final device size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12947-020-00230-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7778814PMC
January 2021

Overcoming the transcatheter aortic valve replacement Achilles heel: conduction abnormalities-a systematic review.

Ann Cardiothorac Surg 2020 Nov;9(6):429-441

Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been shown to be a good alternative to surgery for treating severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) across the whole range of surgical risk patients. Whereas most periprocedural TAVR complications have significantly decreased over time, conduction disturbances remain high. Approaches to decrease this shortcoming are under continuous investigation.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review focusing on modifiable factors impacting post-TAVR conduction disturbances, such as balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV), type of new-generation transcatheter valve and implantation depth (ID). Search strategies were based on the best available evidence from each study. Primary endpoints were post-TAVR need of permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) and new onset left bundle branch block (NOLBBB).

Results: Data from 35 studies with a total of 29,982 patients were analyzed. BAV did not negatively impact PPI rates after TAVR. In propensity-matched and randomized trials, the Evolut R valve was associated with higher rates of PPI compared to the Sapien 3 valve (25% 19.2% in propensity-matched studies; 22.9% 19% in a randomized trial). The Acurate Neo valve was associated with the lowest PPI rate in observational studies (10.4%), but a PPI rate similar to Sapien 3 was reported in a randomized trial (10% 9%). The Portico valve system was associated with a higher PPI risk (PPI rate of 21.9% and 27.7% in propensity-matched and randomized studies, respectively). ID and its relation with the membranous septum (MS) length predicted post-TAVR conduction disturbances, particularly with Evolut R and Sapien 3 valves.

Conclusions: Pre-TAVR BAV did not increase the risk of conduction disturbances post-TAVR. Among the new-generation transcatheter valve systems, Sapien 3 and Acurate Neo valves were associated with the lowest PPI rates followed by the Evolut and Portico valves. A deeper valve implantation and a shorter MS length determined an increased risk of conduction disturbances post-TAVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/acs-2020-av-40DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724069PMC
November 2020

Predictors of pacemaker implantation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation according to kind of prosthesis and risk profile: a systematic review and contemporary meta-analysis.

Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2021 Mar;7(2):143-153

Division of Cardiology, Cardiovascular and Thoracic Department, Città della Salute e della Scienza Hospital and University of Turin, Italy.

Aims: Permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) may be required after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Evidence on PPI prediction has largely been gathered from high-risk patients receiving first-generation valve implants. We undertook a meta-analysis of the existing literature to examine the incidence and predictors of PPI after TAVI according to generation of valve, valve type, and surgical risk.

Methods And Results: We made a systematic literature search for studies with ≥100 patients reporting the incidence and adjusted predictors of PPI after TAVI. Subgroup analyses examined these features according to generation of valve, specific valve type, and surgical risk. We obtained data from 43 studies, encompassing 29 113 patients. Permanent pacemaker implantation rates ranged from 6.7% to 39.2% in individual studies with a pooled incidence of 19% (95% CI 16-21). Independent predictors for PPI were age [odds ratio (OR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.09], left bundle branch block (LBBB) (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.12-1.77), right bundle branch block (RBBB) (OR 4.15, 95% CI 3.23-4.88), implantation depth (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11-1.26), and self-expanding valve prosthesis (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.39-4.59). Among subgroups analysed according to valve type, valve generation and surgical risk, independent predictors were RBBB, self-expanding valve type, first-degree atrioventricular block, and implantation depth.

Conclusions: The principle independent predictors for PPI following TAVI are age, RBBB, LBBB, self-expanding valve type, and valve implantation depth. These characteristics should be taken into account in pre-procedural assessment to reduce PPI rates. PROSPERO ID CRD42020164043.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjqcco/qcaa089DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparison of Early Surgical or Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Versus Conservative Management in Low-Flow, Low-Gradient Aortic Stenosis Using Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting: Results From the TOPAS Prospective Observational Cohort Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 12 8;9(24):e017870. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec-Université Laval Québec Canada.

Background No randomized comparison of early (ie, ≤3 months) aortic valve replacement (AVR) versus conservative management or of transcatheter AVR (TAVR) versus surgical AVR has been conducted in patients with low-flow, low-gradient (LFLG) aortic stenosis (AS). Methods and Results A total of 481 consecutive patients (75±10 years; 71% men) with LFLG AS (aortic valve area ≤0.6 cm/m and mean gradient <40 mm Hg), 72% with classic LFLG and 28% with paradoxical LFLG, were prospectively recruited in the multicenter TOPAS (True or Pseudo Severe Aortic Stenosis) study. True-severe AS or pseudo-severe AS was adjudicated by flow-independent criteria. During follow-up (median [IQR] 36 [11-60] months), 220 patients died. Using inverse probability of treatment weighting to address the bias of nonrandom treatment assignment, early AVR (n=272) was associated with a major overall survival benefit (hazard ratio [HR], 0.34 [95% CI, 0.24-0.50]; <0.001). This benefit was observed in patients with true-severe AS but also with pseudo-severe AS (HR, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.18-0.81]; =0.01), and in classic (HR, 0.33 [95% CI, 0.22-0.49]; <0.001) and paradoxical LFLG AS (HR, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.20-0.92]; =0.03). Compared with conservative management in the conventional multivariate model, trans femoral TAVR was associated with the best survival (HR, 0.23 [95% CI, 0.12-0.43]; <0.001), followed by surgical AVR (HR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.23-0.56]; <0.001) and alternative-access TAVR (HR, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.31-0.82]; =0.007). In the inverse probability of treatment weighting model, trans femoral TAVR appeared to be superior to surgical AVR (HR [95% CI] 0.28 [0.11-0.72]; =0.008) with regard to survival. Conclusions In this large prospective observational study of LFLG AS, early AVR appeared to confer a major survival benefit in both classic and paradoxical LFLG AS. This benefit seems to extend to the subgroup with pseudo-severe AS. Our findings suggest that TAVR using femoral access might be the best strategy in these patients. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01835028.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955363PMC
December 2020

Safety and efficacy of repeat transcatheter aortic valve replacement for the treatment of transcatheter prosthesis dysfunction.

Expert Rev Med Devices 2020 Dec 31;17(12):1303-1310. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Cardiology Department, Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University , Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has recently expanded toward the treatment of younger patients with lower surgical risk and longer life expectancy. Thus, transcatheter heart valve (THV) durability has become a central issue, and an important increase in the number of TAVR-in-TAVR is expected in the coming years. : Overview of the current status of TAVR-in-TAVR for the treatment of THV dysfunction, focusing on safety and efficacy of repeat TAVR procedures. : An accurate analysis of the pre-procedure cardiac computed tomography, incorporating new parameters such as the position of the top of the first THV in relation to the sinotubular-junction, will be necessary to assess the risk of coronary occlusion. Subsequent coronary angiography will be necessary in a proportion of TAVR-in-TAVR patients, but coronary access may be very difficult or even impossible in some of them. Therefore, the choice between TAVR and SAVR in young low-risk patients should incorporate the potential need for treating coronary events at mid- to long-term follow-up. Likewise, the choice of the valve type and the implantation position at the time of the first TAVR procedure should take into account the possibility of TAVR-in-TAVR in the future. ACS: acute coronary syndrome; CO: coronary obstruction; EOA: effective orifice area; SAVR: surgical aortic valve replacement; SVD: structural valve degenerationTAVR: transcatheter aortic valve replacement; THV: transcatheter heart valve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17434440.2020.1848540DOI Listing
December 2020

Meta-analysis Comparing Early Outcomes Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation With the Evolut Versus Sapien 3 Valves.

Am J Cardiol 2021 01 24;139:87-96. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

We aimed to compare the early (in-hospital/30-day) outcomes (major periprocedural complications, device success/valve performance, and mortality) following transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the Sapien 3 versus Evolut transcatheter valve systems. This was a systematic review from PubMed and EMBASE databases for studies reporting raw data or estimates. The outcomes analyzed were (1) in-hospital/30-day major periprocedural complications, (2) device success and valve performance, and (3) mortality. The outcomes were defined according to VARC-2 criteria. A total of 24,628 transcatheter aortic valve implantation patients from 9 studies (1 randomized, 8 observational [5 case- or propensity-matched analyses]) were included: 12,411 and 12,217 patients had Sapien 3 and Evolut valve implantation, respectively. There were no differences between devices regarding in-hospital/30-day stroke (risk ratio [RR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34 to 2.66), major vascular complications (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.68), acute kidney injury (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.77), device success (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.04) and moderate-severe residual aortic regurgitation (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.17). Sapien 3 recipients exhibited lower risk of permanent pacemaker implantation (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.80), a higher risk of life-threatening bleeding (RR 1.82, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.80), and higher residual transvalvular gradients (mean difference 3.95 mmHg, 95% CI 3.37 to 4.56). A lower risk of in-hospital/30-day mortality was observed for Sapien 3 (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.90). In conclusion, the similarities in device success rate and major periprocedural complications (except for a higher and lower risk of permanent pacemaker implantation and life-threatening bleeding, respectively, with the Evolut system) support the lack of a valve type effect accounting for the increased mortality risk observed with the Evolut valve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.10.041DOI Listing
January 2021

F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake Pattern in Noninfected Transcatheter Aortic Valves.

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 11 10;13(11):e011749. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Cardiology (D.d.V., A.A., G.M.-C., L.F., R.D., J.-M.P., M.C., J.R.-C.), Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.120.011749DOI Listing
November 2020