Publications by authors named "Josefina Bressan"

122 Publications

Adiposity and insulin resistance mediate the inverse association between legume intake and blood pressure in individuals: a cross-sectional analysis in secondary cardiovascular prevention.

Br J Nutr 2021 Dec 23:1-27. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Departamento de Nutrição e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Viçosa.

The legume food group has important bioactive components and amino acids that have beneficial effects on blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association between legume intake and blood pressure, as well as the mediating role of cardiometabolic risk factors in patients in secondary cardiovascular prevention. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical, and food intake data were collected from the baseline of the multicenter study Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program Trial - BALANCE (RCT: NCT01620398). The relationships between variables were explored through path analysis. In total, 2,247 individuals with a median age of 63.0 (45 - 91) years, 58.8% (n= 1,321) male, and 96.5% (n= 2,168) with diagnosis of hypertension were included. Negative associations were observed between histidine intake and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (SC= -0.057; p= 0.012), and between legume intake and body mass index (BMI) (SC= -0.061; p= 0.006). BMI was positively associated with TyG index (SC= 0.173; p< 0.001), SBP (SC= 0.144; p< 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (SC= 0.177; p< 0.001), and TyG index was positively associated with DBP (SC= 0.079; p= 0.001). A negative indirect effect was observed between the intake of legumes, SBP and DBP, mediated by BMI (SC = -0.009; p = 0.011; SC = -0.011; p = 0.010, respectively). In addition, an indirect negative effect was found between the intake of legumes and the DBP, mediated simultaneously by BMI and TyG index (SC = -0.001; p = 0.037). In conclusion, legume intake presented a negative indirect association with blood pressure, mediated by insulin resistance (TyG) and adiposity (BMI) in individuals of secondary care in cardiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521005018DOI Listing
December 2021

Effects of whole peanut within an energy-restricted diet on inflammatory and oxidative processes in obese women: a randomized controlled trial.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Nov 27. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Department of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Alegre, Brazil.

Background: Peanut consumption has little effect on body weight, despite its high energy density and is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that the consumption of whole peanut would be associated with greater improvements in body composition, lipid profile, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

Methodology: Twenty-four women with obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg m ], 33.1 ± 8.7 years old, were assigned to three groups and consumed 56 g of whole peanut (WP), skinned peanut (SP), and no peanut (NP) and consumed energy-restricted diets (250 kcal d less than their customary diet) for 8 weeks.

Results: WP group lost an average of 3.2 kg, while SP group lost 2.6 kg and the NP group 1.8 kg. However, only the groups that consumed peanuts showed a significant reduction in BMI. WP group presented lower body weight, BMI, waist circumference, total lean mass, and total body fat than the SP group in the eighth week. There was a significant reduction in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) after 4 weeks of intervention, which was maintained in week-8 for the WP and SP groups. In addition, there was an improvement in platelets and plasma homocysteine with WP group.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the regular intake of the whole peanut as part of an energy-restricted diet showed health benefits since it enhanced body weight loss, besides improving body composition and reducing cholesterol, platelets, and homocysteine concentrations. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11692DOI Listing
November 2021

Alcohol consumption and overweight in Brazilian adults - CUME Project.

Cien Saude Colet 2021 15;26(suppl 3):4835-4848. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição e Saúde, Escola de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Belo Horizonte MG Brasil.

This is a cross-sectional study with 2,909 participants (aged ≥18 years) from the baseline of the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais [CUME - Coorte de Universidades Mineiras] which verified the association between alcohol consumption and overweight. Data on sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, eating habits, anthropometric factors and clinical conditions were collected through an online questionnaire. Body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m² was considered an indicator of overweight. The daily consumption of alcohol was evaluated in grams (alcohol) and according to type in milliliters (beer, wine, hard liquor). The prevalence of alcohol consumption and overweight was 73.6% and 40.8%, respectively. There was a significant tendency of an increase in overweight with higher beer consumption (tendency p value of 0.038), which was not observed for the other types of alcohol. After sensitivity analyses, alcohol consumption was associated to overweight, with a tendency of increase in prevalence with higher daily consumption. There is a crucial need to curb the widely accepted idea that a low or moderate alcohol consumption is not harmful to one's health, and to be cautious of such a proposition. The influence of alcohol consumption regarding weight gain must be considered in public health policies and policies of alcohol consumption control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-812320212611.3.20192019DOI Listing
November 2021

Total Polyphenol Intake, Polyphenol Subtypes, and Prevalence of Hypertension in the CUME Cohort.

J Am Coll Nutr 2021 Oct 14:1-12. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Clinical and Social Nutrition, School of Nutrition, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Epidemiological studies have shown associations between polyphenol consumption and reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to assess the association between polyphenol intake and the prevalence of hypertension.This cross-sectional study was performed on data from the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME) project. Participants completed an online food frequency questionnaire, and polyphenol intake was assessed using the and articles. Hypertension was determined by a medical diagnosis, having a blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg/80 mmHg, or using antihypertensive drugs. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the prevalence of hypertension.The prevalence of hypertension was 39.57%, and the average intake of total polyphenols was 860.79 mg/day. The highest (5 quintile) intake of flavonoids (mean: 368.46mg/day; OR: 0.83; 95%CI 0.70; 0.97), hydroxybenzoic acids (mean: 379.38mg/day; OR: 0.77; 95%CI: 0.66;0.91), and flavonols (mean: 44.13mg/day; OR: 0.79; 95%CI: 0.67; 0.93) was inversely associated with hypertension prevalence, compared to the lowest intake (1 quintile).Our findings demonstrate that the intake of flavonoids, hydroxybenzoic acids, and flavonols is associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2021.1977735DOI Listing
October 2021

Online Food Frequency Questionnaire From the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME Project, Brazil): Construction, Validity, and Reproducibility.

Front Nutr 2021 23;8:709915. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Maternal and Child Nursing and Public Health, School of Nursing, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is usually used in epidemiological studies to assess food consumption. However, the FFQ must have good accuracy, requiring its validation and reproducibility for the target population. Thus, this study aimed to describe the construction of the online Food Frequency Questionnaire (oFFQ) used at the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME project, Brazil) and evaluate its validity and reproducibility. The oFFQ was answered two times in 1 year (March/August 2018-March/April 2019; = 108 participants-reproducibility), and four 24-h dietary recalls (24hRs) were applied in two seasons of the southern hemisphere [two 24hRs in autumn (March/June 2018) and two 24hRs in winter (August/September 2018); = 146 participants-validity]. To assess the validity and reproducibility, the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were estimated. The oFFQ had 144 food items separated into eight groups (dairy products; meat and fish; cereals and legumes; fruits; vegetables; fats and oils; drinks; other foods). In assessing the validity, ICCs for energy and macronutrients were considered moderate, ranging from 0.41 (energy) to 0.59 (protein), while the ICCs for micronutrients were considered low to moderate, ranging from 0.25 (fibers) to 0.65 (vitamin B6). Regarding reproducibility assessment, ICCs for energy and all the assessed items were considered moderate to excellent, ranging from 0.60 (vegetables) to 0.91 (vitamin E and retinol). The self-reported oFFQ had satisfactory validity and reproducibility. So, it can be used to analyze the association between food consumption and chronic diseases in the participants of the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME project-Brazil).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.709915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8495245PMC
September 2021

Effects of acute and chronic nuts consumption on energy metabolism: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2021 Oct 4:1-11. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Departamento de Nutrição e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Nuts are high-energy density foods and are associated with beneficial effects on health, including weight control. Effects on resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, and diet-induced thermogenesis are suggested mechanisms behind the effects of nuts consumption on weight control. Thus, we revised the randomised clinical trials that assessed acute and chronic nuts consumption effects on energy metabolism. Walnuts (22.1 g to 56 g) consumption appears to modulate energy metabolism markers differently depending on the dose and profile of the evaluated subject. In its turn, 56 g of high-oleic peanuts increased postprandial energy expenditure and thermic effect of food after three hours postprandial compared to consumption of conventional peanuts. Almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, and a mix of nuts were the nuts studies in the chronic studies, which does not seem to influence energy metabolism markers. Further studies are needed to elucidate the effects of other types of nuts consumption on energy metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2021.1984401DOI Listing
October 2021

Influence of dietary patterns on the metabolically healthy obesity phenotype: A systematic review.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 09 26;31(10):2779-2791. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aims: In many individuals (35%) obesity is not accompanied by cardiometabolic disorders, a condition referred to as metabolically healthy obesity. Since the effectiveness of dietary interventions for this condition is not well established, this study reviews the influence of dietary patterns on the phenotype of metabolically healthy obesity in adults and elderly.

Data Synthesis: The review was carried out following the PRISMA guidelines and registered in the PROSPERO. The search was conducted in the MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Science Direct, LILACS, and SciELO databases. A total of 236 articles were identified, seven of which were selected for synthesis after application of the eligibility criteria.

Conclusions: The overall result found out in this synthesis was that the greater adherence to healthy eating patterns was considered a preventive to the transition from metabolically healthy obesity to metabolic unhealthy obese phenotypes, by improving metabolic health, and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality from all causes. In contrast, unhealthy eating patterns resulted in increased inflammation and risks of developing noncommunicable diseases. This review indicates that adherence to healthy eating patterns may interfere with metabolic phenotypes of obesity and positively affect metabolically healthy obesity.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration number CRD42020159783.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.05.007DOI Listing
September 2021

Applicability of machine learning techniques in food intake assessment: A systematic review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 29:1-18. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.

The evaluation of food intake is important in scientific research and clinical practice to understand the relationship between diet and health conditions of an individual or a population. Large volumes of data are generated daily in the health sector. In this sense, Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools have been increasingly used, for example, the application of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms to extract useful information, find patterns, and predict diseases. This systematic review aimed to identify studies that used ML algorithms to assess food intake in different populations. A literature search was conducted using five electronic databases, and 36 studies met all criteria and were included. According to the results, there has been a growing interest in the use of ML algorithms in the area of nutrition in recent years. Also, supervised learning algorithms were the most used, and the most widely used method of nutritional assessment was the food frequency questionnaire. We observed a trend in using the data analysis programs, such as R and WEKA. The use of ML in nutrition is recent and challenging. Therefore, it is encouraged that more studies are carried out relating these themes for the development of food reeducation programs and public policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1956425DOI Listing
July 2021

Can resveratrol modulate sirtuins in obesity and related diseases? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Sep 12;60(6):2961-2977. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Body Composition, Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Av. PH Rolfs s/n, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-900, Brazil.

Purpose: Human sirtuins can be a powerful therapeutic target in preventing and treating obesity and age-related diseases. Some dietary components can modulate sirtuins' activity, such as resveratrol. This systematic review aimed to assess whether resveratrol (RSV), without other interventions, can stimulate sirtuins in the treatment of excess weight and its comorbidities.

Methods: MEDLINE/Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were used for search eligible articles. Randomized clinical trials assessing RSV supplementation on changes in the sirtuins' gene expression/protein levels was the primary outcome. Other possible changes in cardiometabolic markers were considered the second outcome. Following PRISMA guidelines and using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers independently and in parallel screened, assessed the studies' quality, and compiled data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus or consulting a third author.

Results: This review included seven randomized control trials. Four articles demonstrated a significant increase in SIRT-1 with different RSV dosages and interventions time. The secondary outcomes showed improvements in insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, metabolic flexibility, total antioxidant capacity, energy expenditure changes, and reduction of ectopic accumulation of fat.

Conclusion: Data from RCTs studies showed that RSV supplementation could stimulate SIRT-1 in humans, and therefore contribute to the treatment of excess weight and its comorbidities. However, more research is needed because it was not possible to confirm this effect truly. [PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020205571].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02623-yDOI Listing
September 2021

Influence of dietary total antioxidant capacity on the association between smoking and hypertension in Brazilian graduates (CUME project).

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 08 3;31(9):2628-2636. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Background And Aims: Hypertension (HTN) is a chronic non-communicable disease influenced by non-modifiable risk factors, such as sex and age, as well as modifiable risk factors such as lifestyle, including diet and smoking. Moreover, diet quality among smokers is worse than that of non-smokers, mainly in terms of antioxidant content. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate whether dietary total antioxidant capacity (dTAC) influences the association between smoking and HTN.

Methods And Results: This cross-sectional study included 4303 graduates (69.35% women) from the Cohort of Minas Gerais Universities (CUME) project. An online food frequency questionnaire was administered to participants, and dTAC was estimated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power method. In the questionnaires, individuals reported smoking status, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values, previous HTN diagnosis, and use of antihypertensive drugs. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval between smoking and HTN, stratified by the median dTAC. Current and former smokers had higher dTAC values despite their lower fruit intake. Moreover, coffee was the main contributor to dTAC among them. Smoking was associated with a higher likelihood of HTN, mainly among individuals with a higher dTAC. However, after exclusion of coffee antioxidant capacity, there was an association between only smoking and HTN in individuals with lower dTAC.

Conclusions: The controversial association between higher dTAC and HTN can result from high coffee intake. Higher dTAC without coffee intake may mitigate the association between smoking and HTN in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.05.025DOI Listing
August 2021

Dietary Selenium Intake and Type-2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study on CUME Project.

Front Nutr 2021 28;8:678648. Epub 2021 May 28.

Faculty of Biological and Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, Brazil.

Previous studies have suggested that the specific association between selenium (Se) and diabetes remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se and type-2 diabetes (T2D) in the Brazilian cohort [Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME)]. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a large sample comprising 4,106 participants of the CUME project, a concurrent open cohort restricted to a highly educated population group, composed of graduates of federal institutions of higher education located in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data on socioeconomic and dietary characteristics, as well as anthropometric measures, were collected from each subject for analysis. The sample was classified into energy-adjusted tertiles of dietary Se intake (μg/day). Differences in the continuous data were evaluated by the Kruskal-Wallis -test (abnormal data), and the χ-test assessed differences in qualitative data. As there was no relationship between T2D and Se intake in the bivariate analysis, multivariate analysis was not performed. The prevalence of T2D in the studied population was 2.8%. The mean age was 36 years. Regarding gender, 1,209 are males and 2,807 are females. Among females, the mean Se intake was 165.12 μg/day and the mean intake was 157.4 μg/day. Among males, it was 168.4 μg/day. Significant differences were observed across all Se intake tertiles in terms of age, gender, activity level, alcohol intake, energy intake, sugar, carbohydrates, lipids, fiber, and energy-adjusted meat intake. However, no significant differences were observed across all Se intake tertiles in terms of BMI, smoking status, and T2D. The results indicated that there was no significant association between dietary Se intake and the prevalence of T2D. Dietary Se intake was not associated with the prevalence of T2D, despite the high intake of this micronutrient in the sample. These results contradict studies that identified the association between Se intake and T2D, with values of Se intake much lower than those observed in this study. Thus, this relationship seems to remain controversial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.678648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193350PMC
May 2021

Acute consumption of a shake containing cashew and Brazil nuts did not affect appetite in overweight subjects: a randomized, cross-over study.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Dec 26;60(8):4321-4330. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida PH Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa, MG, 36570-900, Brazil.

Purpose: Evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies suggests that nut consumption provides satiety and may contribute to the management of obesity. However, the effect of acute intake of nuts on appetite responses remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of a shake containing 30 g of cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale L.) and 15 g of Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K) on appetite responses in overweight subjects.

Methods: This was a clinical, randomized, controlled, single-blind, cross-over, pilot study. On two non-consecutive test days, 15 subjects received a shake containing nuts, and a shake absent of nuts matched for energy and macronutrient content. Subjective appetite sensation was evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS). Food intake was measured by weighing the lunch served at the end of each morning-test, which subjects ate ad libitum. Total energy intake was estimated by food records. This study is registered on the Brazilian Registers of Clinical Trials-ReBEC (protocol: U1111-1203-9891).

Results: We observed no significant difference in subjective appetite sensations between the groups. Food intake at lunch, as well as energy intake throughout the day also did not differ between the treatments.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the acute intake of a shake containing nuts was not able to enhance satiety, compared to a shake matched for energy and macronutrient content. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the satiety mechanisms of nuts intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02560-wDOI Listing
December 2021

Ultra-processed foods consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease and cardiometabolic risk factors in Brazilians with established cardiovascular events.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2021 Dec 11;72(8):1128-1137. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.

The consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) has been associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. However, there is scarce literature on the association between UPF consumption, cardiovascular events, and cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects undergoing secondary care for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Thus, we aimed to evaluate the association between UPF consumption, CVD, and cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with established CVD. Baseline data from 2,357 subjects participating in a Brazilian multicenter study were analysed finding a mean UPF consumption of 18.7% of their energy intake. Higher figures of UPF consumption were founded associated with an increased presence of high waist circumference, overweight, peripheral arterial disease, and with a decreased odds of the simultaneous presence of coronary arterial disease, peripheral arterial diseases, and stroke when comparing among tertiles of UPF contribution to energy intake. These associations were observed when analyzing the whole sample and women but not men. Thus, these findings should help improve strategies for CVD patients in secondary care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2021.1908963DOI Listing
December 2021

Dietary total antioxidant capacity is inversely associated with cardiovascular events and cardiometabolic risk factors: A cross-sectional study.

Nutrition 2021 09 19;89:111140. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Body Composition, Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: Dietary total antioxidant capacity (dTAC) has been introduced as a useful tool to quantify the antioxidant content of a diet. However, few studies have evaluated the association of dTAC with cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurrence and cardiometabolic risk factors in people with established CVD events. Thus, we aimed to investigate the presence of an association between dTAC values, cardiovascular events, and cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with previous CVD in a Brazilian multicenter study.

Methods: This study has a cross-sectional design. We evaluated baseline data from the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program Trial. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical, and food-consumption data were collected in face-to-face interviews. We estimated dTAC from the mean of two 24-h dietary recalls by values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power.

Results: We evaluated 2346 participants, most of whom were men (58.4%), older adults (64.2%), and overweight (68.6%), and had coronary artery disease (92.4%). The mean dTAC was equal to 5.6 (interquartile range, 3.9-7.8) mmol/1000 kcal. Participants in the third dTAC tertile (9.2 mmol/1000 kcal) had a 22%, 59%, and 69% lower chance, respectively, of having hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and amputation due to arterial disease in comparison to the first tertile (3.4 mmol/1000 kcal).

Conclusions: The dTAC was inversely associated with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and amputation due to arterial disease in individuals undergoing secondary care for CVD. Our results can guide strategies for the prevention of new CVD and its consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111140DOI Listing
September 2021

Pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines are associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in Brazilian schoolchildren.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Sep 9;180(9):2931-2941. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Av. P.H. Rolfs s/n, Centro de Ciências Biológicas II, Campus Universitário, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-900, Brazil.

Pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines have been regarded as potential markers of obesity and cardiometabolic comorbidities. However, few studies have evaluated this association in children. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between adipokine concentrations and cardiometabolic risk markers in Brazilian schoolchildren. This was a cross-sectional study with 378 children aged 8-9 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We measured adipokines (leptin, retinol-binding protein 4, adiponectin, and chemerin) and cardiometabolic risk markers (fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, and blood pressure). Cardiometabolic risk markers were compared by quintiles of adipokines with linear regression adjusted for potential confounders. Leptin was positively associated with diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.03) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.01), and retinol-binding protein 4 was positively associated with total cholesterol (P = 0.04). Each standard deviation of leptin and retinol-binding protein 4 was associated to, respectively, a 0.1 (95%CI: 0.1; 0.2), 0.3 (95%CI: 0.1; 0.6), and 2.5 (95%CI: 0.1; 4.9) units increase in diastolic blood pressure, HOMA-IR, and total cholesterol. Adiponectin was negatively associated with diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.01) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.01), and chemerin was negatively associated with glucose (P = 0.001). Each standard deviation of adiponectin and chemerin was associated to, respectively, a -0.1 (95%CI: -0.2; -0.1), -0.2 (95%CI: -0.3; -0.1), and -1.2 (95%CI: -1.9; -0.5) units decrease in diastolic blood pressure, HOMA-IR, and glucose.Conclusion: Pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines were positively and negatively associated with cardiometabolic risk markers, respectively, among schoolchildren, indicating this relationship may be identified at earlier ages. What is Known: • Although leptin, retinol-binding protein 4, and adiponectin are well-known adipokines, a consensus regarding their relationship with cardiometabolic risk markers, especially in schoolchildren, has not yet been reached. • Chemerin is an adipokine that has been studied recently. Yet, due to its dependence on the target cell type, its functions are still a controversial topic. What is New: • Leptin was positively associated with diastolic blood pressure and HOMA-IR, and retinol-binding protein 4 was positively associated with total cholesterol. • Adiponectin was negatively associated with diastolic blood pressure and HOMA-IR, and chemerin was negatively associated with glucose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-021-04040-zDOI Listing
September 2021

Pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a high number of cardiovascular events and ultra-processed foods consumption in patients in secondary care.

Public Health Nutr 2021 08 5;24(11):3331-3340. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida PH Rolfs s/n, Viçosa, Minas Gerais36570-900, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the association of dietary inflammatory index (DII®) with the occurrence of cardiovascular events, cardiometabolic risk factors and with the consumption of processed, ultra-processed, unprocessed or minimally processed foods and culinary ingredients.

Design: This was a cross-sectional study that analysed the baseline data from 2359 cardiac patients. Data on socio-demographic, anthropometric, clinical and food consumption were collected. Energy-adjusted food intake data were used to calculate DII, and the foods were classified according to the NOVA classification. Furthermore, the patients were grouped according to the number (1, 2 or ≥ 3) of manifested cardiovascular events. The data were analysed using linear and multinomial logistic regression.

Settings: Multicentre study from Brazil.

Participants: Patients with established cardiovascular events from the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program Trial evaluated at baseline.

Results: Most of the patients were male (58·8 %), older adults (64·2 %) and were overweight (68·8 %). Patients in the third tertile of DII (DII > 0·91) had were more likely to have 2 (OR 1·27, 95 % CI: 1·01-1·61) and ≥ 3 (OR 1·39, 95 % CI: 1·07-1·79) cardiovascular events, with poor cardiometabolic profile. They also were more likely to consume a higher percentage of processed, ultra-processed and culinary ingredients foods consumption compared with the patients in the first DII tertile (DII ≤ 0·91).

Conclusion: A more pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a greater chance of having 2 and ≥ 3 cardiovascular events and cardiometabolic risk factors and were more likely to consume processed, ultra-processed and culinary ingredients compared to those with a more anti-inflammatory diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S136898002000378XDOI Listing
August 2021

Effect of chronic consumption of nuts on oxidative stress: a systematic review of clinical trials.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2022 12;62(3):726-737. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.

Nuts consumption has been associated with a protective effect against cardiovascular diseases and oxidative stress-related disorders. We aimed to perform a systematic review with clinical trials to assess the impact of chronic nuts consumption on oxidative stress and the possible mechanisms involved. Studies were identified by searching in three electronic databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and LILACS, and selected following PRISMA guidelines. Two authors perform searching and data extraction. A total of 16 articles were included (12 randomized clinical trials and 4 one or two-arm clinical trials). Nut doses were generally high (> 30 g/d), except for Brazil nuts (5-13 g/d). The follow-up time ranges between four weeks and six months, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) was the most assessed biomarker. Eight articles reported improvement in oxidative stress biomarkers after nuts supplementation. Pathways regulated by selenium (e.g. glutathione peroxidase activity and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulation), monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g. reduction of LDL oxidation), and bioactive compounds (e.g. antioxidant activity) were described as mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects. No studies reported harmful effects of nut consumption, even in high doses. The chronic consumption of nuts seemed to be effective to change some oxidative stress biomarkers, however, this topic remains controversial because the benefits depends on nut type, nut dose, and population characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1828262DOI Listing
October 2020

Triglyceride-glucose index predicts independently type 2 diabetes mellitus risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Prim Care Diabetes 2020 12 12;14(6):584-593. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Departamento de Nutrição e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Objective: Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies evaluating the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index as a tool for type 2 diabetes (T2D) prediction in adults and older adults.

Methods: Studies were identified in PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, and Lilacs. Studies with cohort design, which evaluated the T2D incidence through the hazard ratio (HR) or relative risk (RR) or odds ratio values were included. Were included both studies that evaluated the incidence of T2D from tertiles, quartiles, quintiles, or single TyG index values. First, a meta-analysis only for studies that reported data in HR values was performed. Additionally, given the different association measurements used, the number of T2D cases, non-T2D cases, and the total number of participants were extracted from exposed and non-exposed groups when available. Then the risk ratio was calculated. A meta-analysis using the inverse variance method and the random-effects model was performed. Heterogeneity was assessed by I statistics and by inspecting funnel plots.

Results: Thirteen cohort studies with a total of 70,380 subjects, both sexes, adults, and older adults were included in the meta-analysis. Ten studies showed a significant association of the TyG index with T2D risk through HR estimative (overall HR: 2.44, 95% CI: 2.17-2.76). After estimating RR for nine studies, we also observed a significant association of the TyG index with T2D risk (RR: 3.12, 95 CI: 2.31-4.21). For all analyses, high heterogeneity was verified by I and visual inspection of funnel plots.

Conclusions: TyG index has a positive and significant association with T2D risk, suggesting that the TyG index may become an applicable tool to identify subjects with T2D risk. However, due to the high heterogeneity observed in overall HR and RR analysis, more studies could be necessary to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2020.09.001DOI Listing
December 2020

Dietary intake of specific amino acids and liver status in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: fatty liver in obesity (FLiO) study.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jun 28;60(4):1769-1780. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Physiology and Centre for Nutrition Research, Faculty of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Navarra, Irunlarrea 1, 31008, Pamplona, Spain.

Purpose: Identification of dietary factors involved in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is relevant to the current epidemics of the disease. Dietary amino acids appear to play a key role in the onset and progression of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to analyze potential associations between specific dietary amino acids and variables related to glucose metabolism and hepatic status in adults with overweight/obesity and NAFLD.

Methods: One hundred and twelve individuals from the Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study were evaluated. Liver assessment was carried out by ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and analysis of biochemical parameters. Dietary amino acid intake (aromatic amino acids (AAA); branched-chain amino acids (BCAA); sulfur amino acids (SAA)) was estimated by means of a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire.

Results: Higher consumption of these amino acids was associated with worse hepatic health. Multiple adjusted regression models confirmed that dietary AAA, BCAA and SAA were positively associated with liver fat content. AAA and BCAA were positively associated with liver iron concentration. Regarding ferritin levels, a positive association was found with BCAA. Dietary intake of these amino acids was positively correlated with glucose metabolism (glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride and glucose index) although the significance disappeared when potential confounders were included in the model.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that the consumption of specific dietary amino acids might negatively impact on liver status and, to a lesser extent on glucose metabolism in subjects with overweight/obesity and NAFLD. A control of specific dietary amino acid composition should be considered in the management of NAFLD and associated insulin resistance. NCT03183193; June 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02370-6DOI Listing
June 2021

High-saturated fatty meals with orange juice intake have subjective appetite sensations suppressed: Acute, postprandial study.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2020 12;92(2):e20191085. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Departamento de Nutrição e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

Objective: To elucidate the acute effect of different high-fat meals accompanied by water or orange juice on subjective appetite sensations.

Methods: This acute, postprandial study included 39 healthy women (aged 20 to 40 years): 22 participants received a high-monounsaturated fat meal (MUFA) (≈1000 kcal, 56.3% Energy from MUFA) and 17 participants received a high-saturated fat meal (SFA) (≈1000 kcal, 37.6% Energy from SFA). Both interventions were accompanied by 500 ml of water or orange juice. The subjective appetite sensations were evaluated before (fasting) and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hours after the meal intake using the visual analog scale.

Results: The subjective area under curve (AUC) appetite sensations and AUC appetite scores were equal after the consumption of high-fat meals from SFA and MUFA. Moreover, the consumption of a high-SFA meal raises the prospective desire to eat something fatty. In addition, the high-SFA meal consumption reduces subjective AUC appetite sensations and AUC appetite scores along the time, compared to a high-MUFA meal, when orange juice consumption followed those meals.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that high-MUFA meal consumption decreased the desire to intake something fatty, and the high-SFA meal, when followed by orange juice intake, has postprandial appetite sensations suppressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202020191085DOI Listing
October 2020

Food processing and risk of hypertension: Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais, Brazil (CUME Project).

Public Health Nutr 2021 09 6;24(13):4071-4079. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Maternal-Child Nursing and Public Health, School of Nursing, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Objective: To analyse the association between food consumption according to the degree of processing and incidence of hypertension in CUME project participants.

Design: Longitudinal study in which food consumption was evaluated according to the percentage contribution of daily energetic intake (%/d) of each NOVA classification group (unprocessed/minimally processed foods and culinary preparations (U/MPF&CP); processed foods and ultra-processed foods (UPF)). Hypertension was defined according to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) criteria. Adjusted relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95 % CI) were estimated by Poisson regression models with robust variances.

Setting: Brazil.

Participants: 1221 graduates classified as non-hypertensive at baseline and monitored for 2 years.

Results: Daily energetic percentage from each group according to degree of processing was 64·3 (sd 12) % for U/MPF&CP; 9·9 (sd 5·8) % for processed foods and 25·8 (sd 11) % for UPF. Incidence of hypertension was high (152/1000 person-years; n 113, 193/1000 person-years in males and n 257, 138/1000 person-years in females). After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the upper quintile of daily energetic intake of U/MPF&CP presented a reduced risk of hypertension (RR: 0·72; 95 % CI 0·52, 0·98), while those in the upper quintile of daily energetic intake of UPF presented an increased risk of the outcome (RR: 1·35; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·81).

Conclusions: In this prospective cohort of Brazilian middle-aged adult university graduates, the highest consumptions of U/MPF&CP and UPF were associated with, respectively, reduced and increased risk of hypertension. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020002074DOI Listing
September 2021

Dietary intake, clinical-nutritional status, and homocysteine in hemodialysis subjects: the mediating role of inflammation (NUGE-HD study).

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2020 Aug 17;45(8):845-850. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG 36570-900, Brazil.

The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that inflammation mediates the associations among food intake, clinical-nutritional status, and plasma homocysteine (Hcys) in hemodialysis (HD) subjects. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data on 129 subjects undergoing HD (58.9% male, 61.8 ± 15.5 years of age) from the cohort Nutrition and Genetics on HD outcomes (NUGE-HD study). Sociodemographic, anthropometric, and metabolic data were collected, and food intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) was used as an inflammatory marker. Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling. Regarding the direct effects, complex B vitamin intake was negatively associated with body mass index, and diabetes mellitus was positively associated with CRP. Plasma CRP also showed a negative association with Hcys, and the ratio of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids intake showed a positive association with Hcys. Regarding indirect effects, the results showed that the relationship between the presence of diabetes mellitus and Hcys is mediated by plasma CRP. In conclusion, the ratio of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids had a direct effect on plasma Hcys, whereas inflammation had a direct and mediating effect on the relationship between Hcys and diabetes mellitus in HD subjects. In end-stage renal disease, CRP influences plasma Hcys directly and also indirectly through its mediating effect. The quantity and quality of dietary fatty acids influence plasma Hcys concentrations in HD subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2019-0800DOI Listing
August 2020

Weight Loss After RYGB Is Associated with an Increase in Serum Vitamin D in a Population with Low Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D at Low Latitude.

Obes Surg 2020 11 18;30(11):4187-4191. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Federal University of Viçosa, University Campus, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Purpose: In Brazil and worldwide, few studies have investigated vitamin D deficiency in patients with severe obesity who underwent bariatric surgery associated with latitude and level of solar radiation. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the predictive factors of serum level changes after 12 months of RYGB in a low latitude region.

Materials And Methods: This study included 50 patients from a low-latitude city (10° 10' 8″ S) in the north of Brazil. We collected data before surgery and after 3 and 12 months of surgery. The level of vitamin D was classified as deficiency (< 20 ng/ml), insufficiency (20-30 ng/ml), and sufficiency (≥ 30 ng/ml).

Results: The mean age of the patients was 38.7 ± 8.9 years, 69% were women, and percent excess weight loss (% EWL) was 83% after 1 year of surgery. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the preoperative period was 14%, and after 3 and 12 months of surgery, it decreased to 4% and 6%, respectively. The variation in vitamin D after 12 months of surgery was positively associated with changes in BMI, body fat, and % EWL.

Conclusions: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is low in patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the northern region of Brazil, which is possibly related to low latitude. Weight loss was positively associated with an increase in serum vitamin D after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04780-1DOI Listing
November 2020

The Preoperative Dietary Inflammatory Index Predicts Changes in Cardiometabolic Risk Factors After 12 Months of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

Obes Surg 2020 10;30(10):3932-3939

Department of Nutrition and Health, Federal University of Viçosa/MG, University Campus, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-900, Brazil.

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) in the preoperative period as well as 3 and 12 months post-surgery and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors after RYGB.

Materials And Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of 50 patients (both sexes) who underwent RYGB. All data were collected in 3 phases: before surgery, 3, and 12 months post-surgery. To calculate DII scores, we utilized mean nutrients from three 24-h recalls at each time point.

Results: The patients had median age of 39.1 ± 7.9 years (70% women). Mean preoperative DII® score of 0.39 ± 1.49 was slightly pro-inflammatory. Mean DII score reduced to - 1.52 ± 1.27 after 3 months post-surgery and was classified anti-inflammatory. This value rebounded to - 0.88 ± 1.49 at 12 months but was still anti-inflammatory. From the adjusted linear regression analysis, we observed that preoperative DII score was statistically associated with variations in neck circumference (β = - 0.50; p = 0.03), waist-hip ratio (β = 0.01; p = 0.02), total cholesterol (β = 6.47; p = 0.002), and LDL cholesterol (β = 6.42; p = 0.001) after 12 months post-surgery. Changes in DII® at 3 and 12 months were not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors.

Conclusion: We observe significant changes in the inflammation potential of diet after 3 and 12 months of RYGB. Patients with higher preoperative E-DII scores have a greater metabolic improvement after 12 months of surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04756-1DOI Listing
October 2020

Binge drinking and overweight in brazilian adults - CUME Project.

Rev Bras Enferm 2020 1;73 Suppl 1:e20190316. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Objective: To verify the association between heavy episodic alcohol consumption [binge drinking (BD)] and overweight in 2,909 adults from the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME Project) baseline, Brazil.

Method: Cross-sectional study in which sociodemographic, anthropometric (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 = overweight) and dietary intake data were collected. This study evaluated the occurrence and monthly frequency of BD (≥ 4 drinks at one time for women; ≥ 5 drinks at one time for men, in the last 30 days).

Results: The prevalence of BD and overweight were 41.3% and 40.8%, respectively. BD increased the prevalence of overweight by 19%, and, BD exposure by ≥ 5 days / month increased it by 31%.

Conclusion: BD on a single or multiple occasion during the month was associated with a higher prevalence of overweight. Therefore, such a lifestyle should be considered in weight gain prevention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2019-0316DOI Listing
February 2021

Dietary fatty acids as nutritional modulators of sirtuins: a systematic review.

Nutr Rev 2021 01;79(2):235-246

Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Context: The sirtuins (SIRT1 to SIRT7) constitute a family of highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent proteins. When activated, sirtuins control essential cellular processes to maintain metabolic homeostasis, while lack of expression of sirtuins has been related to chronic disease.

Objective: The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the role of fat consumption as a modulator of human sirtuins.

Data Sources: This review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Studies were identified by searches of the electronic databases PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science.

Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials assessing the effect of fatty acid consumption on sirtuin mRNA expression, sirtuin protein expression, or sirtuin protein activity were eligible for inclusion.

Data Extraction: Two authors screened and determined the quality of the studies; disagreements were resolved by the third author. All authors compared the compiled data.

Results: Seven clinical studies with 3 different types of interventions involving healthy and nonhealthy participants were selected. Only SIRT1 and SIRT3 were evaluated. Overall, the evidence from clinical studies to date is insufficient to understand how lipid consumption modulates sirtuins in humans. The best-characterized mechanism highlights oleic acid as a natural activator of SIRT1.

Conclusion: These results draw attention to a new field of interest in nutrition science. The possible activation of sirtuins by dietary fat manipulation may represent an important nutritional strategy for management of chronic and metabolic disease.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration number CRD42018114456.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuaa007DOI Listing
January 2021

The fatty acid profile of adipose tissue as a predictor of the ponderal and inflammatory response in adult women six years after bariatric surgery.

Lipids Health Dis 2020 Mar 16;19(1):45. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Background: Adipose tissue is involved in several metabolic changes. This study investigated the association between the fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue pre-surgery and the postsurgical response regarding the evolution of weight and concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in adult women who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB, n = 14) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG, n = 19) at one (T1), three (T3) and six (T6) years after surgery.

Methods: Blood samples were collected to obtain plasma for the measurement of IL-6 and TNF. Anthropometric measurements were performed, collecting samples of VAT and SAT during surgery to assess the FA profiles.

Results: Weight loss had a positive correlation with the percentage of VAT-C17:0 (T1, T3) and SAT-C18:2 (T1, T3, T6), and it had a negative correlation with SAT-C22:0 (T1, T3) and VAT-C22:0 (T3). Regarding the inflammatory response, SAT-C14:0 (T6), VAT-C14:0 (T6), SAT-C14:1 (baseline), SAT-C15:0 (T6), SAT-C16:1 (T6), VAT-C16:1 (baseline), SAT-C17:1 (T6), VAT-C17:1 (baseline), VAT-C18:1 (T6), and VAT-C20:1 (T6) exhibited positive correlations with the concentration of IL-6, which were different from the correlations of IL-6 concentrations with SAT-C18:2, VAT-C18:2 (T6), and VAT-C18:3 (T6). The FA SAT-C18:0 (T1) was negatively correlated with TNF concentrations.

Conclusions: Saturated FAs were predominantly proinflammatory, primarily in the late postoperative period. Alternately, the polyunsaturated FAs exhibited anti-inflammatory potential and predicted weight loss. Thus, the FA profile of the adipose tissue of obese adult women may be a predictor of the ponderal and inflammatory response 6 years after bariatric surgery.

Trial Registration: This study was approved by the ethics committee of Federal University of Viçosa; Registration n. 17287913.2.0000.5153; Date: 07/05/2013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-020-01229-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7077013PMC
March 2020

Food consumption by degree of processing and cardiometabolic risk: a systematic review.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2020 Sep 13;71(6):678-692. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Federal University of Viçosa (UFV), Viçosa, Brazil.

Processed and ultra-processed foods (UPF) consumption has been associated with development of noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCD). This systematic review aims to summarise and discuss evidence of the relationship between food consumption according to degree of food processing and cardiometabolic risk. Data search was conducted in databases as PubMed, Bireme and Science Direct until July 2018. Studies have shown a positive association of UPF consumption with excess body weight, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome features. However, disparities found in the studies analysed regarding dietary assessment, confounding factors and differences in food classifications makes comparisons between studies difficult. In conclusion, current evidences indicate the need to monitor UPF intake in global population. However, more studies are necessary to interpret better these associations with similar methodologies used in the studies. As well as longitudinal analyses can help to improve comparisons between outcomes and establish cause-effect relationship between UPF intake and cardiometabolic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2020.1725961DOI Listing
September 2020

Dietary inflammatory index and prevalence of overweight and obesity in Brazilian graduates from the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME project).

Nutrition 2020 03 1;71:110635. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent association of the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) score with overweight and obesity in Brazilian participants of the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME project).

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study consisting of 3,151 graduates and postgraduates (2197 women) with a mean (SD) age of 36.3 y (±9.4 y). Sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were assessed via online self-reported questionnaire. Additionally, a validated food frequency questionnaire with 144 food items was used to generate energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores, which evaluated the inflammatory potential of the diet.

Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 28.2% and 11%, respectively. Participants in the highest E-DII quartile (most proinflammatory diet) were more likely to be smokers/former smokers; sedentary; and consumers of red and ultra-processed meats, fats and oils (excluding olive oil), bottled fruit juices and soft drinks, sugars, sweets, and higher overall caloric intake, compared with the first quartile of E-DII. Both men and women in the fourth E-DII quartile had the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-1.59 and PR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.20-3.22, respectively, in men; PR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.65 and PR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.31-2.90, respectively, in women).

Conclusion: The most proinflammatory dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and other unhealthy lifestyles including being sedentary, smoking, and consuming a obesogenic diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2019.110635DOI Listing
March 2020

Metabolic Syndrome Among Young Health Professionals in the Multicenter Latin America Metabolic Syndrome Study.

Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2020 03 17;18(2):86-95. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Unidad de Nutrición Humana, Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salut, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain.

Metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components increase the risk of a number of chronic diseases. Evidence regarding its prevalence among health professionals, particularly in Latin America, is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the overall prevalence of MS and its components among health professionals and students from five Latin American countries. A cross-sectional multicenter study entitled LATIN America METabolic Syndrome (LATINMETS) was conducted on five groups of apparently healthy volunteer subjects. Sociodemographic factors, lifestyle variables (smoking and physical activity), anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist circumference), standard biochemical analyses [triglycerides, glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], and blood pressure measurements were assessed. MS was diagnosed based on internationally harmonized criteria. Associations between MS components and sociodemographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 1,032 volunteers ( = 316-Mexico,  = 285-Colombia,  = 223-Brazil,  = 132-Paraguay, and  = 76-Argentina) were recruited. The majority of them were women (71.9%), students (55.4%), and younger than 28 years (67.2%). The overall prevalence of age-standardized MS was 15.5% (23.1% men and 12.2% women). The majority (59.3%) presented at least one MS component, mainly abdominal obesity (29.7%) and low HDL-C levels (27.5%). After adjusting for age and sex, MS and its components were positively associated with being overweight or obese. MS prevalence in this study was similar to that generally found among young populations in Latin-American countries. More than half of the sample had at least one MS component, suggesting that preventive measures and treatments aimed at achieving low-risk health status are essential in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/met.2019.0086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047249PMC
March 2020
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