Publications by authors named "Jose-Luis Padilla"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Self-Consistent Enhanced S/D Tunneling Implementation in a 2D MS-EMC Nanodevice Simulator.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 May 22;12(6). Epub 2021 May 22.

Device Modelling Group, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8LT, UK.

The implementation of a source to drain tunneling in ultrascaled devices using MS-EMC has traditionally led to overestimated current levels in the subthreshold regime. In order to correct this issue and enhance the capabilities of this type of simulator, we discuss in this paper two alternative and self-consistent solutions focusing on different parts of the simulation flow. The first solution reformulates the tunneling probability computation by modulating the WKB approximation in a suitable way. The second corresponds to a change in the current calculation technique based on the utilization of the Landauer formalism. The results from both solutions are compared and contrasted to NEGF results from NESS. We conclude that the current computation modification constitutes the most suitable and advisable strategy to improve the MS-EMC tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12060601DOI Listing
May 2021

Validation of AQoL-8D: a health-related quality of life questionnaire for adult patients referred for otolaryngology.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

World Hearing Center, Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, ul. Mokra 17, Kajetany, Nadarzyn, 05-830, Warsaw, Poland.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to validate the AQoL-8D questionnaire in the adult population of patients referred to an otolaryngology clinic.

Methods: AQoL-8D was translated into Polish. 463 patients (age18-80 years) with otolaryngological conditions were assessed with the AQoL-8D, SF-6D, and SWLS questionnaires. We investigated the item content-relevance, factor structure by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis, corrected item-total correlations, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlation of the AQoL-8D scores with results from SF-6D and from the SWLS questionnaires. Finally, ANOVA was used to test the AQoL-8D ability to group the HRQoL of patients in terms of their otolaryngological management type.

Results: The median score of item content-relevance was 5.0 for all AQoL-8D items. Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed the following fit indices: Comparative Fit Index = 0.81; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.80; and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.07. Cronbach's alpha for AQoL-8D dimensions ranged from 0.48 to 0.79. Mean item-total correlations over all dimensions, super dimensions, and the instrument overall were higher than 0.3. There was a significant Pearson correlation between the results obtained with AQoL-8D and SF-6D (r = 0.68), and with AQoL-8D and SWLS (r = 0.43). A one-way ANOVA showed a significant effect of management type on HRQoL as measured by AQoL-8D [F(4,458) = 6.12, p < 0.001] CONCLUSION: AQoL-8D provides valid and reliable measures of HRQoL in patients undergoing otolaryngological treatment. Because it is a generic questionnaire, it is possible to make general comparisons of otolaryngology outcomes with those from other subspecialties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-021-06689-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Adaptation of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitudes Scale to Colombian Culture and Colombian Spanish.

Psicothema 2021 Feb;33(1):146-154

Corporación Universitaria Iberoamericana.

Background: Violence against women has been classified as a worldwide public health problem. There are no assessment instruments of attitudes toward violence in couples adapted to the culture and the Spanish spoken in Colombia. The aim of the study is to adapt the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scales (IPVAS) and obtain validity evidence.

Method: Two studies were carried out. Study 1 integrates expert appraisal evidence of content validity with psychometrics of the internal structure and evidence of the relationships between IPVAS measures and theoretically related variables by analyzing responses from a sample of the general population. Using a cross-validation approach, a confirmatory factor analysis was performed in study 2 to test the factor structure proposed in study 1. In addition, evidence of relationships with other variables was provided by analyzing data from another general population sample.

Results: The results from study 2 support a two-dimensional structure with Abuse and Violence subscales for the Colombian IPVAS.

Conclusions: A partial construct overlap was found between the original IPVAS and the Colombian IPVAS adapted to the culture and the Spanish spoken in Colombia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2019.348DOI Listing
February 2021

Individual and societal risk factors of attitudes justifying intimate partner violence against women: a multilevel cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2020 12 10;10(12):e037993. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Methodology for Behavioral Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Objectives: Attitudes justifying intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) can play an essential role in explaining the prevalence of such public health problem. The study aim was to explain attitudes justifying IPVAW identifying individual and societal risk factors.

Design And Setting: A multilevel cross-sectional study of the World Values Survey (WVS) in 54 global countries.

Participants: A representative transnational community-based sample of 81 516 participants (47.8% male, 52.1% female), aged mean of 42.41.

Measures: Attitudes justifying IPVAW, sociodemographic, sexism, self-transcendence and conservation values were measured using questions from WVS. Country and regional gender inequality were assessed by Gender Inequality Index.

Results: Around 16% (intraclass correlation=0.16) of individual differences in attitudes justifying IPVAW are explained by countries. Statistically significant predictors at individual and country level were: sex (B=-0.24, 95% CI -0.27 to -0.22), age (B=-0.08 to -0.25, 95% CI -0.34 to -0.03), marital status (B=0.09 to 0.23, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.33), educational level (B=-0.10 to -0.14, 95% CI -0.20 to -0.04), self-transcendence values (B=-0.10, 95% CI -0.20 to -0.12), sexism (B=0.21, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.28), country (B=2.18, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.26) and regional (B=2.23, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.42) gender inequality. Country gender inequality (B=-0.18, p=0.12) and regional gender inequality (B=-0.21, p=0.10) did not moderate the associations between self-transcendence values and attitudes justifying IPVAW. In the same way for sexism, data did not provide support for a moderating role of country gender inequality (B=0.22, p=0.26) and regional gender inequality (B=0.10, p=0.66).

Conclusions: Individual and country predictors accounted for differences in attitudes justifying IPVAW. However, neither gender inequality of country nor gender inequality of region interacted with sexism and self-transcendence values. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733202PMC
December 2020

The Psychological Consequences of COVID-19 and Lockdown in the Spanish Population: An Exploratory Sequential Design.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 19;17(22). Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Social Psychology and Quantitative Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

The objectives of this study were to analyze the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown in the Spanish population and to identify what population profiles were most affected. The study used a sequential exploratory design. In the qualitative phase, 40 participants were recruited based on theoretically relevant criteria and the saturation of the information provided by the interviews. In the quantitative phase, a large representative sample was applied. The universe considered was the adult population of Spain. A total of 6789 surveys were conducted. Both the analysis of the narratives of the interviews and the responses to the panel survey showed relevant changes in attitudes and mood swings compared to the period prior to lockdown. These changes include dysphoric moods (i.e., experiences of distress such as sadness/depression, anxiety, rage, feeling of unreality, worry, etc.) and also some euphoric moods (i.e., feelings of well-being, happiness, etc.). A higher number of women were affected than men and a greater increase was observed in younger people. The findings of the study may serve as a basis for detecting needs and providing psychological support, as the symptoms detected as the most common are key for the processes of screening at-risk individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699190PMC
November 2020

Public Helping Reactions to Intimate Partner Violence against Women in European Countries: The Role of Gender-Related Individual and Macrosocial Factors.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 08 30;17(17). Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Department of Methodology for Behavioral Sciences, University of Granada, 18011 Granada, Spain.

Public helping reactions are essential to reduce a victim's secondary victimization in intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) cases. Because gender-related characteristics have been linked widely to IPVAW prevalence, the study aimed to examine individual attitudes and perceptions toward different forms of violence against women, as well as gender-related macrosocial ideological and structural factors, in explaining helping reactions to IPVAW across 28 European countries. We performed multilevel logistic regression analysis, taking measures from the Eurobarometer 2016 ( = 7115) and the European Institute for Gender Equality datasets. Our study revealed a greater individual perceived IPVAW prevalence, positive perception about the appropriateness of a legal response to psychological and sexual violence against women partners, and less VAW-supportive attitudes predicted helping reactions (i.e., formal, informal), but not negative reactions to IPVAW. Moreover, individuals from European countries with a greater perceived IPVAW prevalence and gender equality preferred formal reactions to IPVAW. Otherwise, in the European countries with lesser perceived IPVAW prevalence and negative perceptions about the appropriate legal response to psychological and sexual violence, people were more likely to provide informal reactions to IPVAW. Our results showed the role of gender-related characteristics influenced real reactions toward known victim of IPVAW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503533PMC
August 2020

Quantum Enhancement of a S/D Tunneling Model in a 2D MS-EMC Nanodevice Simulator: NEGF Comparison and Impact of Effective Mass Variation.

Micromachines (Basel) 2020 Feb 16;11(2). Epub 2020 Feb 16.

Device Modelling Group, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8LT, UK.

As complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors approach the nanometer scale, it has become mandatory to incorporate suitable quantum formalism into electron transport simulators. In this work, we present the quantum enhancement of a 2D Multi-Subband Ensemble Monte Carlo (MS-EMC) simulator, which includes a novel module for the direct Source-to-Drain tunneling (S/D tunneling), and its verification in the simulation of Double-Gate Silicon-On-Insulator (DGSOI) transistors and FinFETs. Compared to ballistic Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) simulations, our results show accurate I D vs. V G S and subthreshold characteristics for both devices. Besides, we investigate the impact of the effective masses extracted Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, showing that they are the key of not only the general thermionic emission behavior of simulated devices, but also the electron probability of experiencing tunneling phenomena.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi11020204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074633PMC
February 2020

Adaptation of the multidimensional driving styles inventory for Spanish drivers: Convergent and predictive validity evidence for detecting safe and unsafe driving styles.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Mar 31;136:105413. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

The Louis and Gabi Weisfeld School of Social Work, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, 52900, Israel.

The Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory (MDSI; Taubman - Ben-Ari et al., 2004) is a well-known and useful instrument that allows us to identify not only "maladaptive" Driving Styles (DS) in order to modify them, but also "adaptive" DS to encourage safe driving. The aim of this study was to adapt the MDSI to the Spanish spoken in Spain and to the rules and driving habits of Spaniards. The Argentinian version of the MDSI was taken as the source version. The sample consisted of 1173 drivers, who completed the Spanish version of the MDSI. The factor structure was analysed by means of an Exploratory Factor Analysis (AFE) and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (AFC). The 6-factor structure of the Argentinian version of the MDSI was replicated with higher internal consistency values for each of the DS. The original Argentinian and the Spanish versions share 23 items, indicating a relevant overlap in the construct. A cluster analysis grouped the DS into two groups: maladaptive and adaptive. Significant associations were found between DS measures and demographic variables (gender, age, and education level), driving history and theoretically related constructs like the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale (DOSPERT); Lapses, Errors, Violations; Angry Driving; and Sensitivity to Rewards. The Spanish MDSI provides valid measures that could help us understand complex driving behaviours and promote safe driving.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.105413DOI Listing
March 2020

How are distractibility and hazard prediction in driving related? Role of driving experience as moderating factor.

Appl Ergon 2019 Nov 11;81:102886. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, UK.

Distraction constitute one of the 'five fatal' behaviours that contribute to road trauma, and some people may be more susceptible to it than others. It is also known that a greater ability to predict danger is related to a lower probability of suffering accidents. It could be hypothesised that drivers with a higher tendency to distraction are worse at predicting traffic hazards, but to what extent might driving experience serve to mitigate this tendency to distraction? The current study collected self-reported attentional errors from drivers by using the Attention-Related Driving Errors Scale (ARDES-Spain) in order to examine whether novice drivers suffered from inattention more than experienced drivers. The results demonstrated that novice drivers scored more highly on ARDES than experienced drivers. ARDES scores were then related to performance in a Hazard Prediction test, where participants had to report what hazard was about to happen in a series of video clips that occlude just as the hazard begins to develop. While experienced drivers were better at the Hazard Prediction test than novice drivers, those participants who reported fewer attention errors were also better able to detect the upcoming hazard following occlusion. In addition, our results demonstrate a relationship between self-reported attentional errors and the ability to predict upcoming hazards on the road, with driving experience having a moderating role. In the case of novice drivers, as their scores in the Manoeuvring Errors ARDES factor increase, their ability in Hazard Prediction diminishes, while for experienced drivers the increase is not significant. Guidance on how to improve training for drivers in order to mitigate the effects of inattention on driving safety can be addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2019.102886DOI Listing
November 2019

Which drivers are at risk? Factors that determine the profile of the reoffender driver.

Accid Anal Prev 2018 Oct 26;119:237-247. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

CIMCYC: Mind, Brain & Behaviour Research Centre, University of Granada, Campus Cartuja, s/n 18071. Granada, Spain. Electronic address:

Finding appropriate assessment tools to predict recidivism is a difficult aim, which may lead to actions with unintended consequences. Aims don't have consequences. At times, the research has been used to justify penalising reoffenders with punitive measures rather than treating them with effective psychological interventions. This study aims to contribute to untangling and assessing the potential predictors of reoffender drivers. In this study, 296 drivers: 86 reoffenders (7 women and 79 men) and 206 non-reoffenders (105 women and 101 men) responded to a battery of assessment questionnaires in which they were asked for demographic data (i.e. gender and age), alcohol consumption habits, driving styles, general estimation of risk in everyday life, sensitivity to reward and punishment and anger while driving. The results provided a logistical regression model capable of predicting reoffending and explaining 34% of variability, successfully classifying 77.6% of participants. In this model, the best predictor of reoffending is higher consumption of alcohol (Alcohol Use Disorders, AUD), followed by incautious driving (since cautious driving style correlates negatively with reoffending) and to a lesser extent, infraestimation of recreational risk and a greater sensitivity to reward. Relying on results to predict recidivism could be important to plan better interventions to prevent it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2018.07.021DOI Listing
October 2018

Differential Item Functioning: Beyond validity evidence based on internal structure.

Psicothema 2018 Feb;30(1):104-109

Universidad de Barcelona.

Background: In the latest release of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, Differential Item Functioning (DIF) is considered as validity evidence based on internal structure. However, there are no indications of how to design a DIF study as a validation study. In this paper, we propose relating DIF to all sources of validity evidence, and provide a general conceptual framework for transforming “typical” DIF studies into validation studies.

Method: We perform a comprehensive review of the literature and make theoretical and practical proposals.

Results: The article provides arguments in favour of addressing DIF detection and interpretation as validation studies, and suggestions for conducting DIF validation studies.

Discussion: The combination of quantitative and qualitative data within a mixed methods research perspective, along with planning DIF studies as validation studies, can help improve the validity of test score interpretations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2017.183DOI Listing
February 2018

Beyond diagnosis: the Core Sets for persons with schizophrenia based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.

Disabil Rehabil 2018 11 30;40(23):2756-2766. Epub 2017 Jul 30.

j ICF Research Branch, a cooperation partner within the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for the Family of International Classifications in Germany (at DIMDI) , Nottwil , Switzerland.

Purpose: Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), this paper presents the results of the process to develop the Comprehensive and Brief Core Sets for schizophrenia that allow to comprehensively describe functioning in persons with schizophrenia.

Methods: Twenty health professionals from diverse backgrounds participated in a formal and iterative decision-making process during an international consensus conference to develop these Core Sets. The conference was carried out based on evidence gathered from four preparatory studies (systematic literature review, qualitative study, expert survey, and empirical study). The first step of this decision-making and consensus process comprised of discussions and voting in working groups and plenary sessions to develop the comprehensive version. The categories of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for schizophrenia served as the basis for the second step -a ranking and cutoff procedure to decide on the brief version.

Results: Of the 184 candidate categories identified in the preparatory studies, 97 categories were included in the Comprehensive Core Set for schizophrenia. A total of 25 categories were selected to constitute the Brief Core Set.

Conclusions: The formal decision-making and consensus process integrating evidence from four preparatory studies and expert opinion led to the first version of the Core Sets for schizophrenia. Comprehensive and Brief Core Sets for schizophrenia may provide a common language among different health professionals and researchers, and a basic international standard of what to measure, report, and assess the functioning of persons with schizophrenia. Implications for rehabilitation Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder that has a tremendous impact on functioning and daily life of persons living with the disorder. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) offers an internationally recognized standard for describing the functioning status of these individuals. The Core Sets for schizophrenia have potential use in supporting rehabilitation practice such as for planning mental health services and other interventions or defining rehabilitation goals, and documenting patient care. The Core Sets for schizophrenia may also be used to promote interdisciplinary coordination and facilitate communication between members of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation team. Rehabilitation research is another potential area of application of the Core Sets for schizophrenia. This is valuable, since rehabilitation research provides crucial evidence for optimizing rehabilitation practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2017.1356384DOI Listing
November 2018

Detecting differential item functioning in behavioral indicators across parallel forms.

Psicothema 2017 Feb;29(1):91-95

Universidad de Barcelona.

Background: Despite the crucial importance of the notion of parallel forms within Classical Test Theory, the degree of parallelism between two forms of a test cannot be directly verified due to the unobservable nature of true scores. We intend to overcome some of the limitations of traditional approaches to analyzing parallelism by using the Differential Item Functioning framework.

Method: We change the focus on comparison from total test scores to each of the items developed during test construction. We analyze the performance of a single group of individuals on parallel items designed to measure the same behavioral criterion by several DIF techniques. The proposed approach is illustrated with a dataset of 527 participants that responded to the two parallel forms of the Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Scale (Caterino, Gómez-Benito, Balluerka, Amador-Campos, & Stock, 2009).

Results: 12 of the 18 items (66.6%) show probability values associated with the Mantel χ 2 statistic of less than .01. The standardization procedure shows that half of DIF items favoured Form A and the other half Form B.

Conclusions: The “differential functioning of behavioral indicators” (DFBI) can provide unique information on parallelism between pairs of items to complement traditional analysis of equivalence between parallel test forms based on total scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2015.112DOI Listing
February 2017

Linking extreme response style to response processes: A cross-cultural mixed methods approach.

Int J Psychol 2016 Dec 30;51(6):464-473. Epub 2016 Aug 30.

University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of extreme response style in cross-cultural research by integrating quantitative and qualitative evidence in a mixed methods design. In the quantitative phase, indexes of extreme response style, derived from quality of life measures from different international studies, were compared between Spain and the Netherlands. Results indicated that extreme responding was more common among Spanish than among Dutch in endorsement of items, but that the opposite was found for frequency scales including never as a response anchor. In the qualitative phase, cognitive interviews were conducted with 25 participants in each country. The integration of quantitative results and qualitative findings suggests that country differences in extreme response style may stem from various sources, including the more independent evaluation of each item by Dutch, the stronger connotations of never for Spanish and stronger emotions triggered by specific topics such as work satisfaction that was more strongly associated with insecurity for Spanish. It is concluded that the integration of quantitative and qualitative evidence can help to understand cross-cultural similarities and differences in extreme response style.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12379DOI Listing
December 2016

Spanish Adaptation of the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ).

Span J Psychol 2015 Dec 23;18:e101. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Universidad de Granada (Spain).

The Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ) was developed by Johnson, Foley, Suengas, and Raye (1988) to assess the characteristics of memories of external and internal origin, postulated in the source monitoring model (Johnson, Hashtroudi, & Lindsay, 1993). The MCQ was translated into Spanish using a back-translation method. Psychometric properties of the translated MCQ were tested using responses collected from an experimental study simulating a forensic context. Ten police officers and 8 psychologists individually interviewed 240 university students who completed the MCQ after reporting what they had seen in a film. Half of the participants were asked to tell the truth, while the other half were asked to lie. The results have shown adequate psychometric properties of the Spanish MCQ items for the total sample and across experimental conditions. Cronbach's alpha value was .79 for the total sample, .78 for the honest condition, and .76 for the lie condition. Validity evidence of dimensionality supports that the factor structure of Spanish MCQ was equivalent to that proposed by the authors of the original version. Also, a two-factor ANOVA (video clip x condition) was performed to analyze experimental data. Neither interaction effects, F(236) = 1.189; p = .277, nor main effects were found to be significant between those asked to tell the truth and those asked to lie. These results demonstrate that the Spanish MCQ has adequate psychometric properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2015.91DOI Listing
December 2015

Integrating Scale Data and Patient Perspectives for Assessing Functionality in Schizophrenia.

Community Ment Health J 2016 11 15;52(8):914-920. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands.

There is a growing body of literature devoted to evaluating functionality when planning the psychosocial rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia. Until recently, psychological scales have been the predominant source of information, whereas patients' perceptions about the most disruptive limitations on their daily life were not considered. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how the integration of the perspectives of patients and patients' relatives improves the evaluation of functionality. A QUAN + QUAL design was implemented collecting quantitative data from Family APGAR and BELS scales, and qualitative information by conducting focus groups. The integration of results made it possible to understand the causes of problems reported by scales, as well as improving the information captured for helping to plan patient therapies. This mixed approach has provided a more comprehensive perspective of functionality, which will be helpful in improving quality of life of patients and their relatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10597-015-9959-0DOI Listing
November 2016

Spanish adaptation of the Green Paranoid Thought Scales.

Psicothema 2015 ;27(1):74-81

CIBERSAM, University of Granada.

Background: The aim of this study was to adapt and obtain validity evidence of the Spanish Green Paranoid Thought Scales (S-GPTS).

Method: 191 Spanish people responded to S-GPTS, Peters Delusions Inventory (PDI), and measures of psychopathology.

Results: Principal Component Analyses on the polychoric correlation matrix identified two factors accounting for 71.0% of the cumulative variance. Cronbach alphas for S-GPTS total and its subscales were above .90 in clinical and non-clinical group. The value of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was higher for the S-GPTS (.898), than for the PDI (.859). The best S-GPTS threshold to discriminate between cases and non-cases was 92 (sensitivity, 97.35%; specificity, 65%). S-GPTS scores positively correlated with PDI and measures of anxiety and depression.

Conclusion: The S-GPTS has adequate psychometric properties to provide valid measures of delusional ideation in a Spanish population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2014.103DOI Listing
December 2016

Validity evidence based on response processes.

Psicothema 2014 ;26(1):136-44

University of Granada.

Background: Validity evidence based on response processes was first introduced explicitly as a source of validity evidence in the latest edition of Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. In this paper, we present the theory, the relationship with other sources of validity evidence, and the methods available for validation studies aimed at obtaining validity evidence about response processes.

Method: A comprehensive review of the literature along with theoretical and practical proposals.

Results: The articles provides arguments for determining when validity evidence based on response processes is critical for supporting the use of the test for a particular purpose, and examples of how to perform a validation study to obtain such validity evidence.

Conclusions: There are methods for obtaining validity evidence based on response processes. Special attention should be paid to validation studies using the cognitive interview method given its features and possibilities. Future research problems pose how to combine data from different methods -qualitative and quantitative-, to develop complete validity arguments that support the use of the test for a particular purpose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2013.259DOI Listing
April 2015

Validating assessments: Introduction to the Special Section.

Psicothema 2014 ;26(1):97-9

University of Massachusetts Amherst (USA).

Background: Validation is the process of providing evidence that tests and questionnaires are adequately and appropriately fulfilling the purposes for which they are developed. In this special issue, experts from several countries describe specific approaches to test validation and provide examples of their approach. These approaches and examples illustrate the validation framework implied by the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing.

Method: We describe the Standards' approach for building a validity argument based on validity evidence based on test content, response processes, internal structure, relations to other variables, and testing consequences.

Results: The five articles provide comprehensive examples of gathering data regarding these five sources of evidence and how they contribute to the validation of the use of test scores for particular purposes.

Conclusions: These five articles provide concrete examples of how the five sources of validity evidence suggested by the Standards can be used to develop a sound validity argument to support the use of a test for its intended purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2013.255DOI Listing
April 2015

Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II.

Res Nurs Health 2012 Jun 20;35(3):301-13. Epub 2012 Mar 20.

Department of Methodology of Behavioral Sciences, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja, 18071 Granada, Spain.

The Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLPII) has been psychometrically validated across several linguistic and cultural groups; however the Spanish version has not been psychometrically tested for the Spanish population. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the reliability and factor structure of the Spanish version of the HPLPII for Spanish people. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that a six-component model for 44 items accounted for 40% of the variance, and the scale had an internal consistency of .87. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that a better fit of the six-component structure emerged from the PCA than from the model proposed in the original version of the HPLPII, suggesting that the health-promoting lifestyle might be sensitive to context and culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nur.21470DOI Listing
June 2012

Design and Analysis of Cognitive Interviews for Comparative Multinational Testing.

Field methods 2011 Nov 17;23(4):379-396. Epub 2011 Oct 17.

National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD, USA.

This article summarizes the work of the Comparative Cognitive Testing Workgroup, an international coalition of survey methodologists interested in developing an evidence-based methodology for examining the comparability of survey questions within cross-cultural or multinational contexts. To meet this objective, it was necessary to ensure that the cognitive interviewing (CI) method itself did not introduce method bias. Therefore, the workgroup first identified specific characteristics inherent in CI methodology that could undermine the comparability of CI evidence. The group then developed and implemented a protocol addressing those issues. In total, 135 cognitive interviews were conducted by participating countries. Through the process, the group identified various interpretive patterns resulting from sociocultural and language-related differences among countries as well as other patterns of error that would impede comparability of survey data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1525822X11414802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5646372PMC
November 2011

Analysis of quality of proxy questions in health surveys by behavior coding.

West J Nurs Res 2012 Nov 19;34(7):917-32. Epub 2010 Nov 19.

University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

The aim of this study is to show how to analyze the quality of questions for proxy informants by means of behavior coding. Proxy questions can undermine survey data quality because of the fact that proxies respond to questions on behalf of other people. Behavior coding can improve questions by analyzing interviewer-respondent interactions. Twenty-nine proxies participated in the pretesting of a disability questionnaire. The questionnaire includes 11 questions related to daily-life limitations as a result of health problems. Interviewer-proxy interactions were coded and analyzed by means of Sequence Viewer program. The percentages, from a methodological perspective, of ideal "question-and-answer" sequences varied from 28% to 76% throughout the 11 questions analyzed. The results obtained pointed out the necessity of reviewing some of the proxy questions analyzed. Behavior coding can improve the quality of proxy questions in health surveys when proxy informants are surveyed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193945910388049DOI Listing
November 2012

[Evaluation of consequences of test use in validity theory].

Psicothema 2006 May;18(2):307-12

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Granada, Spain.

There is little doubt about the importance of validity during the compilation and evaluation of tests. Nevertheless, intense debate has arisen with regard to incorporating the consequences of test use as a further source of evidence in the most recent edition of the AERA, APA, NCME Standards . After reviewing the historical antecedents of the issue and the main lines of approach of both defenders and critics, this paper sets out the arguments which may be used in answer to the question: 'At what point should the analysis of the consequences of test use become part of validation?' The response of the AERA, APA, NCME Standards has clear similarities with the perspective adopted towards the consideration of bias in tests as a problem of validity. Finally, the paper describes how consequence validation may be subject to tension arising from the evolution of notions of justice in test use.
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May 2006

[Validation scheme and procedures to analyze consequential validity].

Psicothema 2007 Feb;19(1):173-8

Universidad de Granada, Spain.

The argument-based validation scheme guides assessment of the consequences of testing. The distinction between semantic inference and political inference allows us to combine the validation of the consequences in a single validation scheme. The validation process should produce evidence about the assumptions that support both types of inference. After presenting the validation scheme, we provide examples of its use in the assessment of the testing of two applications: the use of high-stake tests in educational contexts and the validation of adjustments made in standardized tests for people with disabilities. Finally, we propose procedures for the validation of consequences and we discuss the suitability of the argument-based validation scheme for the validation of the consequences of testing in Spain.
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February 2007