Publications by authors named "Jose R Quirós"

55 Publications

Replacement of Red and Processed Meat With Other Food Sources of Protein and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in European Populations: The EPIC-InterAct Study.

Diabetes Care 2020 11 31;43(11):2660-2667. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Objective: There is sparse evidence for the association of suitable food substitutions for red and processed meat on the risk of type 2 diabetes. We modeled the association between replacing red and processed meat with other protein sources and the risk of type 2 diabetes and estimated its population impact.

Research Design And Methods: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct case cohort included 11,741 individuals with type 2 diabetes and a subcohort of 15,450 participants in eight countries. We modeled the replacement of self-reported red and processed meat with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, cheese, cereals, yogurt, milk, and nuts. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for incident type 2 diabetes were estimated by Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.

Results: There was a lower hazard for type 2 diabetes for the modeled replacement of red and processed meat (50 g/day) with cheese (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97) (30 g/day), yogurt (0.90, 0.86-0.95) (70 g/day), nuts (0.90, 0.84-0.96) (10 g/day), or cereals (0.92, 0.88-0.96) (30 g/day) but not for replacements with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, or milk. If a causal association is assumed, replacing red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, or nuts could prevent 8.8%, 8.3%, or 7.5%, respectively, of new cases of type 2 diabetes.

Conclusions: Replacement of red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, nuts, or cereals was associated with a lower rate of type 2 diabetes. Substituting red and processed meat by other protein sources may contribute to the prevention of incident type 2 diabetes in European populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576430PMC
November 2020

Dietary and Circulating Fatty Acids and Ovarian Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 Sep 2;29(9):1739-1749. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology - ICO, Group of Research on Nutrition and Cancer, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute - IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet of Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Fatty acids impact obesity, estrogens, and inflammation, which are risk factors for ovarian cancer. Few epidemiologic studies have investigated the association of fatty acids with ovarian cancer.

Methods: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 1,486 incident ovarian cancer cases were identified. Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for ovarian cancer risk factors were used to estimate HRs of ovarian cancer across quintiles of intake of fatty acids. False discovery rate was computed to control for multiple testing. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs of ovarian cancer across tertiles of plasma fatty acids among 633 cases and two matched controls in a nested case-control analysis.

Results: A positive association was found between ovarian cancer and intake of industrial elaidic acid [HR comparing fifth with first quintile = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.62; = 0.02, q-value = 0.06]. Dietary intakes of -6 linoleic acid (HR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.01-1.21; = 0.03) and -3 α-linolenic acid (HR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.05-1.34; = 0.007) from deep-frying fats were also positively associated with ovarian cancer. Suggestive associations were reported for circulating elaidic (OR comparing third with first tertile = 1.39; 95% CI = 0.99-1.94; = 0.06) and α-linolenic acids (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 0.98-1.72; = 0.06).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher intakes and circulating levels of industrial elaidic acid, and higher intakes of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid from deep-frying fat, may be associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer.

Impact: If causal, eliminating industrial -fatty acids could offer a straightforward public health action for reducing ovarian cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-1477DOI Listing
September 2020

Serologic markers of Chlamydia trachomatis and other sexually transmitted infections and subsequent ovarian cancer risk: Results from the EPIC cohort.

Int J Cancer 2020 10 24;147(8):2042-2052. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Clinical Microbiology, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

A substantial proportion of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) arises in the fallopian tube and other epithelia of the upper genital tract; these epithelia may incur damage and neoplastic transformation after sexually transmitted infections (STI) and pelvic inflammatory disease. We investigated the hypothesis that past STI infection, particularly Chlamydia trachomatis, is associated with higher EOC risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort including 791 cases and 1669 matched controls. Serum antibodies against C. trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) 16, 18 and 45 were assessed using multiplex fluorescent bead-based serology. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing women with positive vs. negative serology. A total of 40% of the study population was seropositive to at least one STI. Positive serology to C. trachomatis Pgp3 antibodies was not associated with EOC risk overall, but with higher risk of the mucinous histotype (RR = 2.30 [95% CI = 1.22-4.32]). Positive serology for chlamydia heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60-1) was associated with higher risk of EOC overall (1.36 [1.13-1.64]) and with the serous subtype (1.44 [1.12-1.85]). None of the other evaluated STIs were associated with EOC risk overall; however, HSV-2 was associated with higher risk of endometrioid EOC (2.35 [1.24-4.43]). The findings of our study suggest a potential role of C. trachomatis in the carcinogenesis of serous and mucinous EOC, while HSV-2 might promote the development of endometrioid disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32999DOI Listing
October 2020

Predicted basal metabolic rate and cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Int J Cancer 2020 08 23;147(3):648-661. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, København, Denmark.

Emerging evidence suggests that a metabolic profile associated with obesity may be a more relevant risk factor for some cancers than adiposity per se. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an indicator of overall body metabolism and may be a proxy for the impact of a specific metabolic profile on cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of predicted BMR with incidence of 13 obesity-related cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). BMR at baseline was calculated using the WHO/FAO/UNU equations and the relationships between BMR and cancer risk were investigated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. A total of 141,295 men and 317,613 women, with a mean follow-up of 14 years were included in the analysis. Overall, higher BMR was associated with a greater risk for most cancers that have been linked with obesity. However, among normal weight participants, higher BMR was associated with elevated risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio per 1-standard deviation change in BMR [HR ]: 2.46; 95% CI 1.20; 5.03) and distal colon cancer (HR : 1.33; 95% CI 1.001; 1.77) among men and with proximal colon (HR : 1.16; 95% CI 1.01; 1.35), pancreatic (HR : 1.37; 95% CI 1.13; 1.66), thyroid (HR : 1.65; 95% CI 1.33; 2.05), postmenopausal breast (HR : 1.17; 95% CI 1.11; 1.22) and endometrial (HR : 1.20; 95% CI 1.03; 1.40) cancers in women. These results indicate that higher BMR may be an indicator of a metabolic phenotype associated with risk of certain cancer types, and may be a useful predictor of cancer risk independent of body fatness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32753DOI Listing
August 2020

Estimated Substitution of Tea or Coffee for Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Was Associated with Lower Type 2 Diabetes Incidence in Case-Cohort Analysis across 8 European Countries in the EPIC-InterAct Study.

J Nutr 2019 11;149(11):1985-1993

CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Beverage consumption is a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is insufficient evidence to inform the suitability of substituting 1 type of beverage for another.

Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of T2D when consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was replaced with consumption of fruit juice, milk, coffee, or tea.

Methods: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study of 8 European countries (n = 27,662, with 12,333 cases of incident T2D, 1992-2007), beverage consumption was estimated at baseline by dietary questionnaires. Using Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusting for other beverages and potential confounders, we estimated associations of substituting 1 type of beverage for another on incident T2D.

Results: Mean ± SD of estimated consumption of SSB was 55 ± 105 g/d. Means ± SDs for the other beverages were as follows: fruit juice, 59 ± 101 g/d; milk, 209 ± 203 g/d; coffee, 381 ± 372 g/d; and tea, 152 ± 282 g/d. Substituting coffee for SSBs by 250 g/d was associated with a 21% lower incidence of T2D (95% CI: 12%, 29%). The rate difference was -12.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -5.0) per 10,000 person-years among adults consuming SSBs ≥250 g/d (absolute rate = 48.3/10,000). Substituting tea for SSBs was estimated to lower T2D incidence by 22% (95% CI: 15%, 28%) or -11.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -2.6) per 10,000 person-years, whereas substituting fruit juice or milk was estimated not to alter T2D risk significantly.

Conclusions: These findings indicate a potential benefit of substituting coffee or tea for SSBs for the primary prevention of T2D and may help formulate public health recommendations on beverage consumption in different populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6825826PMC
November 2019

Main nutrient patterns and colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

Br J Cancer 2016 Nov 20;115(11):1430-1440. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø N-9037, Norway.

Background: Much of the current literature on diet-colorectal cancer (CRC) associations focused on studies of single foods/nutrients, whereas less is known about nutrient patterns. We investigated the association between major nutrient patterns and CRC risk in participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Methods: Among 477 312 participants, intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from validated dietary questionnaires. Using results from a previous principal component (PC) analysis, four major nutrient patterns were identified. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed for the association of each of the four patterns and CRC incidence using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for established CRC risk factors.

Results: During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 4517 incident cases of CRC were documented. A nutrient pattern characterised by high intakes of vitamins and minerals was inversely associated with CRC (HR per 1 s.d.=0.94, 95% CI: 0.92-0.98) as was a pattern characterised by total protein, riboflavin, phosphorus and calcium (HR (1 s.d.)=0.96, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The remaining two patterns were not significantly associated with CRC risk.

Conclusions: Analysing nutrient patterns may improve our understanding of how groups of nutrients relate to CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2016.334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5129834PMC
November 2016

Work, household, and leisure-time physical activity and risk of mortality in the EPIC-Spain cohort.

Prev Med 2016 Apr 6;85:106-112. Epub 2016 Feb 6.

Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health Council, IMIB-Arrixaca, Ronda de Levante, 11, 30008, Murcia, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Melchor Fernández Almagro, 3-5, 28029, Madrid, Spain; Department of Health and Social Sciences, University of Murcia, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, 30100, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Objective: Large-scale longitudinal data on the association of domain-specific physical activity (PA) and mortality is limited. Our objective was to evaluate the association of work, household (HPA), and leisure time PA (LTPA) with overall and cause-specific mortality in the EPIC-Spain study.

Methods: 38,379 participants (62.4% women), 30-65years old, and free of chronic disease at baseline were followed-up from recruitment (1992 - 1996) to December 31st, 2008 to ascertain vital status and cause of death. PA was evaluated at baseline and at a 3-year follow-up with a validated questionnaire (EPIC-PAQ) and combined variables were used to classify the participants by sub-domains of PA. Associations with overall, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality risks were assessed using competing risk Cox regression models adjusted by potential confounders.

Results: After 13.6years of mean follow-up, 1371 deaths were available for analyses. HPA was strongly associated to reduced overall (hazard ratio (HR) for Q4 vs. Q1=0.47 (0.34, 0.64)) and cause-specific mortalities in women and to lower cancer mortality in men (P for trend=0.004), irrespective of age, education, and lifestyle and morbidity variables. LTPA was associated with lower mortality in women (HR for Q4 vs. Q1=0.71 (0.52, 0.98)), but not men. No relationships were found between sedentariness at work and overall mortality.

Conclusions: HPA was associated to lower mortality risk in men and women from the EPIC-Spain cohort, whereas LTPA also contributed to reduce risk of death in women. Considering the large proportion of total daily PA that HPA represents in some population groups, these results are of public health importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.02.009DOI Listing
April 2016

Life-course social position, obesity and diabetes risk in the EPIC-Spain Cohort.

Eur J Public Health 2016 06 3;26(3):439-45. Epub 2015 Dec 3.

Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health Council, IMIB - Arrixaca, Murcia, Spain CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain Department of Health and Social Sciences, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

Background: The literature has consistently shown that extreme social-economic groups predicted type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), rather than summarising the social gradient throughout all society stratification. Body mass index (BMI) was established as the principal mediator, with little support for other anthropometries. Our aim was to investigate an individual life-course social position (LiSoP) gradient and its mediators with T2D risk in the EPIC-Spain cohort.

Methods: 36 296 participants (62% women), mostly aged 30-65 years, and free of T2D at baseline (1992-1996) were followed up for a mean of 12.1 years. A combined score of paternal occupation in childhood and own adult education assessed individual life-course social risk accumulation. Hazard ratios of T2D were estimated using Cox regression, stratifying by centre and age, and adjusting for different explanatory models, including anthropometric indices; dietary history; smoking and physical activity lifestyles; and clinical information.

Results: Final models evidenced significant risks in excess of 63% for middle and 90% for lower classes of LiSoP in men; and of 104 and 126%, respectively, in women. Concurrently, LiSoP presented significant social gradients for T2D risk (P < 0.01) in both sexes. Waist circumference (WC) accounted for most of the risk excess in women, and BMI and WC in men.

Conclusions: LiSoP gradient was related to T2D risk in Spanish men and women. WC mostly explained the relationship in both genders, together with BMI in men, yet LiSoP retained an independent effect in final models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckv218DOI Listing
June 2016

Pre-diagnostic concordance with the WCRF/AICR guidelines and survival in European colorectal cancer patients: a cohort study.

BMC Med 2015 May 7;13:107. Epub 2015 May 7.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 85500, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Cancer survivors are advised to follow lifestyle recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body fatness proposed by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) for cancer prevention. Previous studies have demonstrated that higher concordance with these recommendations measured using an index score (the WCRF/AICR score) was associated with lower cancer incidence and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between pre-diagnostic concordance with WCRF/AICR recommendations and mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.

Methods: The association between the WCRF/AICR score (score range 0-6 in men and 0-7 in women; higher scores indicate greater concordance) assessed on average 6.4 years before diagnosis and CRC-specific (n = 872) and overall mortality (n = 1,113) was prospectively examined among 3,292 participants diagnosed with CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (mean follow-up time after diagnosis 4.2 years). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality.

Results: The HRs (95% CIs) for CRC-specific mortality among participants in the second (score range in men/women: 2.25-2.75/3.25-3.75), third (3-3.75/4-4.75), and fourth (4-6/5-7) categories of the score were 0.87 (0.72-1.06), 0.74 (0.61-0.90), and 0.70 (0.56-0.89), respectively (P for trend <0.0001), compared to participants with the lowest concordance with the recommendations (category 1 of the score: 0-2/0-3). Similar HRs for overall mortality were observed (P for trend 0.004). Meeting the recommendations on body fatness and plant food consumption were associated with improved survival among CRC cases in mutually adjusted models.

Conclusions: Greater concordance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body fatness prior to CRC diagnosis is associated with improved survival among CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0332-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4423114PMC
May 2015

Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

PLoS One 2014 5;9(6):e98647. Epub 2014 Jun 5.

WHO Collaborating Center for Food and Nutrition Policies, Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece; Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece.

Background: Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses.

Methodology/principal Findings: We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores.

Conclusion/significance: The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research opportunities and perspectives of using nutrient patterns in future studies particularly at international level.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0098647PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4047062PMC
August 2015

t(14;18) Translocation: A predictive blood biomarker for follicular lymphoma.

J Clin Oncol 2014 May 31;32(13):1347-55. Epub 2014 Mar 31.

Sandrine Roulland, Ester Morgado, Stéphanie Sungalee, Nathalie Jouve, and Bertrand Nadel, Aix-Marseille Université, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1104, and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Unités Mixtes de Recherche (UMR) 7280, Marseille; Philippe Solal-Celigny, Jean Bernard Center, Le Mans; Philippe Colombat, Bretonneau University Hospital, Tours; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, INSERM U1018 Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Santé des Populations, Villejuif; Pietro Ferrari and Isabelle Romieu, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon; Gilles Salles, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Université de Lyon, UMR CNRS 5239, Pierre Bénite, France; Rachel S. Kelly, Petra H.M. Peeters, Roel Vermeulen, Elio Riboli, and Paolo Vineis, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London; Kay-Tee Khaw, University of Cambridge; Nick Wareham, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge; Timothy J. Key and Ruth C. Travis, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Domenico Palli, Istituto per lo Studio e la Prevenzione Oncologica, Florence; Valeria Pala, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan; Rosario Tumino, "Civile-M.P. Arezzo" Hospital, Ragusa; Salvatore Panico, Federico II University, Naples; Carlotta Sacerdote, Centro di Riferimento per l'Epidemiologia e la Prevenzione Oncologica-Piemonte, Torino, Italy; José R. Quirós, Public Health and Health Planning Directorate, Asturias; Carlos A. Gonzáles, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona; Maria-José Sánchez, Andalusian School of Public Health and Biomedical Research Centre Network for Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Granada; Miren Dorronsoro, Basque Regional Health Department and CIBERESP Biodonostia, San Sebastian; Carmen Navarro, Murcia Regional Health Council, Universidad de Murcia, and CIBERESP, Murcia; Aurelio Barricarte, Navarre Public Health Institute and CIBERESP, Pamplona, Sp

Purpose: The (14;18) translocation constitutes both a genetic hallmark and critical early event in the natural history of follicular lymphoma (FL). However, t(14;18) is also detectable in the blood of otherwise healthy persons, and its relationship with progression to disease remains unclear. Here we sought to determine whether t(14;18)-positive cells in healthy individuals represent tumor precursors and whether their detection could be used as an early predictor for FL.

Participants And Methods: Among 520,000 healthy participants enrolled onto the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort, we identified 100 who developed FL 2 to 161 months after enrollment. Prediagnostic blood from these and 218 controls were screened for t(14;18) using sensitive polymerase chain reaction-based assays. Results were subsequently validated in an independent cohort (65 case participants; 128 controls). Clonal relationships between t(14;18) cells and FL were also assessed by molecular backtracking of paired prediagnostic blood and tumor samples.

Results: Clonal analysis of t(14;18) junctions in paired prediagnostic blood versus tumor samples demonstrated that progression to FL occurred from t(14;18)-positive committed precursors. Furthermore, healthy participants at enrollment who developed FL up to 15 years later showed a markedly higher t(14;18) prevalence and frequency than controls (P < .001). Altogether, we estimated a 23-fold higher risk of subsequent FL in blood samples associated with a frequency > 10(-4) (odds ratio, 23.17; 95% CI, 9.98 to 67.31; P < .001). Remarkably, risk estimates remained high and significant up to 15 years before diagnosis.

Conclusion: High t(14;18) frequency in blood from healthy individuals defines the first predictive biomarker for FL, effective years before diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2013.52.8190DOI Listing
May 2014

Consumption of predefined 'Nordic' dietary items in ten European countries - an investigation in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

Public Health Nutr 2014 Dec 3;17(12):2650-9. Epub 2014 Mar 3.

23CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP),Spain.

Objective: Health-beneficial effects of adhering to a healthy Nordic diet index have been suggested. However, it has not been examined to what extent the included dietary components are exclusively related to the Nordic countries or if they are part of other European diets as well, suggesting a broader preventive potential. The present study describes the intake of seven a priori defined healthy food items (apples/pears, berries, cabbages, dark bread, shellfish, fish and root vegetables) across ten countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and examines their consumption across Europe.

Design: Cross-sectional study. A 24 h dietary recall was administered through a software program containing country-specific recipes. Sex-specific mean food intake was calculated for each centre/country, as well as percentage of overall food groups consumed as healthy Nordic food items. All analyses were weighted by day and season of data collection.

Setting: Multi-centre, European study.

Subjects: Persons (n 36 970) aged 35-74 years, constituting a random sample of 519 978 EPIC participants.

Results: The highest intakes of the included diet components were: cabbages and berries in Central Europe; apples/pears in Southern Europe; dark bread in Norway, Denmark and Greece; fish in Southern and Northern countries; shellfish in Spain; and root vegetables in Northern and Central Europe. Large inter-centre variation, however, existed in some countries.

Conclusions: Dark bread, root vegetables and fish are strongly related to a Nordic dietary tradition. Apples/pears, berries, cabbages, fish, shellfish and root vegetables are broadly consumed in Europe, and may thus be included in regional public health campaigns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980014000159DOI Listing
December 2014

Fatty acid patterns and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Am J Clin Nutr 2012 Dec 7;96(6):1354-61. Epub 2012 Nov 7.

Department of Cardiology, Center for Cardiovascular Research, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.

Background: Fatty acids in blood may be related to the risk of prostate cancer, but epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent. Blood fatty acids are correlated through shared food sources and common endogenous desaturation and elongation pathways. Studies of individual fatty acids cannot take this into account, but pattern analysis can. Treelet transform (TT) is a novel method that uses data correlation structures to derive sparse factors that explain variation.

Objective: The objective was to gain further insight in the association between plasma fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer by applying TT to take data correlations into account.

Design: We reanalyzed previously published data from a case-control study of prostate cancer nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. TT was used to derive factors explaining the variation in 26 plasma phospholipid fatty acids of 962 incident prostate cancer cases matched to 1061 controls. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing data in covariates. ORs of prostate cancer according to factor scores were determined by using multivariable conditional logistic regression.

Results: Four simple factors explained 38% of the variation in plasma fatty acids. A high score on a factor reflecting a long-chain n-3 PUFA pattern was associated with greater risk of prostate cancer (OR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.86; P-trend = 0.041).

Conclusion: Pattern analyses using TT groupings of correlated fatty acids indicate that intake or metabolism of long-chain n-3 PUFAs may be relevant to prostate cancer etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.034157DOI Listing
December 2012

Dietary fibre intake and risks of cancers of the colon and rectum in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

PLoS One 2012 22;7(6):e39361. Epub 2012 Jun 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Earlier analyses within the EPIC study showed that dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, but results from some large cohort studies do not support this finding. We explored whether the association remained after longer follow-up with a near threefold increase in colorectal cancer cases, and if the association varied by gender and tumour location.

Methodology/principal Findings: After a mean follow-up of 11.0 years, 4,517 incident cases of colorectal cancer were documented. Total, cereal, fruit, and vegetable fibre intakes were estimated from dietary questionnaires at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and centre, and adjusted for total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, education, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptive use, and intakes of alcohol, folate, red and processed meats, and calcium. After multivariable adjustments, total dietary fibre was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (HR per 10 g/day increase in fibre 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79-0.96). Similar linear associations were observed for colon and rectal cancers. The association between total dietary fibre and risk of colorectal cancer risk did not differ by age, sex, or anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary variables. Fibre from cereals and fibre from fruit and vegetables were similarly associated with colon cancer; but for rectal cancer, the inverse association was only evident for fibre from cereals.

Conclusions/significance: Our results strengthen the evidence for the role of high dietary fibre intake in colorectal cancer prevention.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0039361PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3382210PMC
March 2013

The amount and type of dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: results from the EPIC-InterAct Study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2012 Aug 3;96(2):382-90. Epub 2012 Jul 3.

University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands.

Background: Dairy product intake may be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is inconclusive for total dairy products and sparse for types of dairy products.

Objective: The objective was to investigate the prospective association of total dairy products and different dairy subtypes with incidence of diabetes in populations with marked variation of intake of these food groups.

Design: A nested case-cohort within 8 European countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (n = 340,234; 3.99 million person-years of follow-up) included a random subcohort (n = 16,835) and incident diabetes cases (n = 12,403). Baseline dairy product intake was assessed by using dietary questionnaires. Country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression HRs were calculated and pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis.

Results: Intake of total dairy products was not associated with diabetes (HR for the comparison of the highest with the lowest quintile of total dairy products: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.34; P-trend = 0.92) in an analysis adjusted for age, sex, BMI, diabetes risk factors, education, and dietary factors. Of the dairy subtypes, cheese intake tended to have an inverse association with diabetes (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.02; P-trend = 0.01), and a higher combined intake of fermented dairy products (cheese, yogurt, and thick fermented milk) was inversely associated with diabetes (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.99; P-trend = 0.02) in adjusted analyses that compared extreme quintiles.

Conclusions: This large prospective study found no association between total dairy product intake and diabetes risk. An inverse association of cheese intake and combined fermented dairy product intake with diabetes is suggested, which merits further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.111.021907DOI Listing
August 2012

Multiple miscarriages are associated with the risk of ovarian cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

PLoS One 2012 18;7(5):e37141. Epub 2012 May 18.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

While the risk of ovarian cancer clearly reduces with each full-term pregnancy, the effect of incomplete pregnancies is unclear. We investigated whether incomplete pregnancies (miscarriages and induced abortions) are associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. This observational study was carried out in female participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 274,442 women were followed from 1992 until 2010. The baseline questionnaire elicited information on miscarriages and induced abortions, reproductive history, and lifestyle-related factors. During a median follow-up of 11.5 years, 1,035 women were diagnosed with incident epithelial ovarian cancer. Despite the lack of an overall association (ever vs. never), risk of ovarian cancer was higher among women with multiple incomplete pregnancies (HR(≥4vs.0): 1.74, 95% CI: 1.20-2.70; number of cases in this category: n = 23). This association was particularly evident for multiple miscarriages (HR(≥4vs.0): 1.99, 95% CI: 1.06-3.73; number of cases in this category: n = 10), with no significant association for multiple induced abortions (HR(≥4vs.0): 1.46, 95% CI: 0.68-3.14; number of cases in this category: n = 7). Our findings suggest that multiple miscarriages are associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, possibly through a shared cluster of etiological factors or a common underlying pathology. These findings should be interpreted with caution as this is the first study to show this association and given the small number of cases in the highest exposure categories.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0037141PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3356371PMC
September 2012

Alternative methods of accounting for underreporting and overreporting when measuring dietary intake-obesity relations.

Am J Epidemiol 2011 Feb 17;173(4):448-58. Epub 2011 Jan 17.

Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology/Municipal Institute for Medical Research-Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain.

Misreporting characterized by the reporting of implausible energy intakes may undermine the valid estimation of diet-disease relations, but the methods to best identify and account for misreporting are unknown. The present study compared how alternate approaches affected associations between selected dietary factors and body mass index (BMI) by using data from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition-Spain. A total of 24,332 women and 15,061 men 29-65 years of age recruited from 1992 to 1996 for whom measured height and weight and validated diet history data were available were included. Misreporters were identified on the basis of disparities between reported energy intakes and estimated requirements calculated using the original Goldberg method and 2 alternatives: one that substituted basal metabolic rate equations that are more valid at higher BMIs and another that used doubly labeled water-predicted total energy expenditure equations. Compared with results obtained using the original method, underreporting was considerably lower and overreporting higher with alternative methods, which were highly concordant. Accounting for misreporters with all methods yielded diet-BMI relations that were more consistent with expectations; alternative methods often strengthened associations. For example, among women, multivariable-adjusted differences in BMI for the highest versus lowest vegetable intake tertile (β = 0.37 (standard error, 0.07)) were neutral after adjusting with the original method (β = 0.01 (standard error, 07)) and negative using the predicted total energy expenditure method with stringent cutoffs (β = -0.15 (standard error, 0.07)). Alternative methods may yield more valid associations between diet and obesity-related outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwq380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3139974PMC
February 2011

Saturated fat intake and alcohol consumption modulate the association between the APOE polymorphism and risk of future coronary heart disease: a nested case-control study in the Spanish EPIC cohort.

J Nutr Biochem 2011 May 5;22(5):487-94. Epub 2010 Aug 5.

Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia and CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, ISCIII, Spain.

The association is still not clear between the common APOE polymorphism and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, nor its modulation by diet. Thus, our aim was to study the association between the APOE genotypes and incident CHD and how dietary fat and alcohol consumption modify these effects. We performed a nested case-control study in the Spanish European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Healthy men and women (41,440, 30-69 years) were followed up over a 10-year period, with the incident CHD cases being identified. We analyzed 534 incident CHD cases and 1123 controls. APOE, dietary intake and plasma lipids were determined at baseline. The APOE polymorphism was significantly associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and gene-alcohol interactions in determining LDL-C were detected. In the whole population, the E2 allele was significantly associated with a lower CHD risk than E3/E3 subjects [odds ratio (OR), 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38-0.89]. The E4 allele did not reach statistical significance vs. E3/E3 (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.88-1.58). However, saturated fat intake modified the effect of the APOE polymorphism in determining CHD risk. When saturated fat intake was low (<10% of energy), no statistically significant association between the APOE polymorphism and CHD risk was observed (P=.682). However, with higher intake (≥10%), the polymorphism was significant (P=.005), and the differences between E2 and E4 carriers were magnified (OR for E4 vs. E2, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.61-6.90). Alcohol consumption also modified the effect of the APOE on CHD risk. In conclusion, in this Mediterranean population, the E2 allele is associated with lower CHD risk, and this association is modulated by saturated fat and alcohol consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2010.04.003DOI Listing
May 2011

Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3).

BMC Cancer 2009 Jul 29;9:257. Epub 2009 Jul 29.

German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1) triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR) in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3).

Methods: We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS) in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II), European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), Multiethnic Cohort (MEC), Nurses' Health Study (NHS), and Women's Health Study (WHS). Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone) were also measured in 4713 study subjects.

Results: Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels.

Conclusion: Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-9-257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2729775PMC
July 2009

Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control analysis nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Am J Clin Nutr 2008 Nov;88(5):1353-63

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Plausible biological mechanisms underlie possible associations between fatty acids in blood and risk of prostate cancer; epidemiologic evidence for an association, however, is inconsistent.

Objective: The objectives were to assess the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and risk of total prostate cancer by stage and grade.

Design: This was a nested case-control analysis of 962 men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer after a median follow-up time of 4.2 y and 1061 matched controls who were taking part in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. The fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids was measured by gas chromatography, and the risk of prostate cancer was estimated by using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for lifestyle variables.

Results: We found a positive association between palmitic acid and risk of total, localized, and low-grade prostate cancer. The risk of prostate cancer for men in the highest quintile compared with the lowest quintile of palmitic acid was 1.47 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.23; P for trend = 0.032). We found an inverse association between stearic acid and the risk of total, localized, and low-grade prostate cancer; men in the highest quintile of stearic acid had a relative risk of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.06; P for trend = 0.03). There were significant positive associations between myristic, alpha-linolenic, and eicosapentaenoic acids and risk of high-grade prostate cancer.

Conclusion: The associations between palmitic, stearic, myristic, alpha-linolenic, and eicosapentaenoic acids and prostate cancer risk may reflect differences in intake or metabolism of these fatty acids between the precancer cases and controls and should be explored further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.26369DOI Listing
November 2008

Dietary fat and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Am J Clin Nutr 2008 Nov;88(5):1304-12

Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Background: Epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results with respect to an association of dietary fat with breast cancer.

Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between fat consumption and breast cancer.

Design: We prospectively investigated fat consumption in a large (n = 319,826), geographically and culturally heterogeneous cohort of European women enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition who completed a dietary questionnaire. After a mean of 8.8 y of follow-up, 7119 women developed breast cancer. Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by age and center and adjusted for energy intake and confounders, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for breast cancer.

Results: An association between high saturated fat intake and greater breast cancer risk was found [HR = 1.13 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.27; P for trend = 0.038) for the highest quintile of saturated fat intake compared with the lowest quintile: 1.02 (1.00, 1.04) for a 20% increase in saturated fat consumption (continuous variable)]. No significant association of breast cancer with total, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fat was found, although trends were for a direct association of risk with monounsaturated fat and an inverse association with polyunsaturated fat. In menopausal women, the positive association with saturated fat was confined to nonusers of hormone therapy at baseline [1.21 (0.99, 1.48) for the highest quintile compared with the lowest quintile; P for trend = 0.044; and 1.03 (1.00, 1.07) for a 20% increase in saturated fat as a continuous variable].

Conclusions: Evidence indicates a weak positive association between saturated fat intake and breast cancer risk. This association was more pronounced for postmenopausal women who never used hormone therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.26090DOI Listing
November 2008

Double-strand break DNA repair genotype predictive of later mortality and cancer incidence in a cohort of non-smokers.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2009 Jan 28;8(1):60-71. Epub 2008 Oct 28.

Division of Epidemiology, Public Health & Primary Care, Imperial College, UK.

We followed-up for mortality and cancer incidence 1088 healthy non-smokers from a population-based study, who were characterized for 22 variants in 16 genes involved in DNA repair pathways. Follow-up was 100% complete. The association between polymorphism and mortality or cancer incidence was analyzed using Cox Proportional Hazard regression models. Ninety-five subjects had died in a median follow-up time of 78 months (inter-quartile range 59-93 months). None of the genotypes was clearly associated with total mortality, except variants for two Double-Strand Break DNA repair genes, XRCC3 18067 C>T (rs#861539) and XRCC2 31479 G>A (rs#3218536). Adjusted hazard ratios were 2.25 (1.32-3.83) for the XRCC3 C/T genotype and 2.04 (1.00-4.13) for the T/T genotype (reference C/C), and 2.12 (1.14-3.97) for the XRCC2 G/A genotype (reference G/G). For total cancer mortality, the adjusted hazard ratios were 3.29 (1.23-7.82) for XRCC3 C/T, 2.84 (0.81-9.90) for XRCC3 T/T and 3.17 (1.21-8.30) for XRCC2 G/A. With combinations of three or more adverse alleles, the adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality was 17.29 (95% C.I. 8.13-36.74), and for all incident cancers the HR was 5.28 (95% C.I. 2.17-12.85). Observations from this prospective study suggest that polymorphisms of genes involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks significantly influence the risk of cancer and non-cancer disease, and can influence mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2008.08.012DOI Listing
January 2009

DNA repair polymorphisms and the risk of stomach adenocarcinoma and severe chronic gastritis in the EPIC-EURGAST study.

Int J Epidemiol 2008 Dec 19;37(6):1316-25. Epub 2008 Jul 19.

Translational Research Laboratory, IDIBELL-Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The contribution of genetic variation in DNA repair genes to gastric cancer (GC) risk remains essentially unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the relative contribution of DNA repair gene polymorphisms to GC risk and severe chronic atrophic gastritis (SCAG). Method A nested case control study within the EPIC cohort was performed including 246 gastric adenocarcinomas and 1175 matched controls. Controls with SCAG (n = 91), as defined by low pepsinogen A (PGA) levels, and controls with no SCAG (n = 1061) were also compared. Twelve polymorphisms at DNA repair genes (MSH2, MLH1, XRCC1, OGG1 and ERCC2) and TP53 gene were analysed. Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori were measured.

Results: No association was observed for any of these polymorphisms with stomach cancer risk. However, ERCC2 K751Q polymorphism was associated with an increased risk for non-cardial neoplasm [odds ratio (OR) = 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-3.12], being ERCC2 K751Q and D312N polymorphisms associated with the diffuse type. ERCC2 D312N (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.09-3.65) and K751Q alleles (OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.01-3.30) and XRCC1 R399Q (OR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.02-2.79) allele were associated with an increased risk for SCAG.

Conclusion: Our study supports a role of ERCC2 in non-cardial GC but not in cardial cancer. A concordant result was observed for subjects with low PGA levels. XRCC1 allele was associated also with SCAG. This is the first prospective study suggesting that individual variation in DNA repair may be relevant for gastric carcinogenesis, a finding that will require further confirmation validation in larger independent studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyn145DOI Listing
December 2008

Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Am J Clin Nutr 2008 May;87(5):1405-13

Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Findings from early observational studies have suggested that the intake of dietary fat might be a contributing factor in the etiology of prostate cancer. However, the results from more recent prospective studies do not support this hypothesis, and the possible association between different food sources of fat and prostate cancer risk also remains unclear.

Objective: The objectives were to assess whether intakes of dietary fat, subtypes of fat, and fat from animal products were associated with prostate cancer risk.

Design: This was a multicenter prospective study of 142,520 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary fat intake was estimated with the use of country-specific validated food questionnaires. The association between dietary fat and risk of prostate cancer was assessed by using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment center and adjusted for height, weight, smoking, education, marital status, and energy intake.

Results: After a median follow-up time of 8.7 y, prostate cancer was diagnosed in 2727 men. There was no significant association between dietary fat (total, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat and the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat) and risk of prostate cancer. The hazard ratio for prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest quintile of total fat intake was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.09; P for trend = 0.155). There were no significant associations between prostate cancer risk and fat from red meat, dairy products, and fish.

Conclusion: The results from this large multicenter study suggest that there is no association between dietary fat and prostate cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/87.5.1405DOI Listing
May 2008

Concentrations of resveratrol and derivatives in foods and estimation of dietary intake in a Spanish population: European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain cohort.

Br J Nutr 2008 Jul 21;100(1):188-96. Epub 2007 Dec 21.

Nutrition and Food Science Department, XaRTA, INSA, Pharmacy School, University of Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, s/n. 08028, Barcelona, Spain.

Resveratrol has been shown to have beneficial effects on diseases related to oxidant and/or inflammatory processes and extends the lifespan of simple organisms including rodents. The objective of the present study was to estimate the dietary intake of resveratrol and piceid (R&P) present in foods, and to identify the principal dietary sources of these compounds in the Spanish adult population. For this purpose, a food composition database (FCDB) of R&P in Spanish foods was compiled. The study included 40,685 subjects aged 35-64 years from northern and southern regions of Spain who were included in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain cohort. Usual food intake was assessed by personal interviews using a computerised version of a validated diet history method. An FCDB with 160 items was compiled. The estimated median and mean of R&P intake were 100 and 933 microg/d respectively. Approximately, 32% of the population did not consume R&P. The most abundant of the four stilbenes studied was trans-piceid (53.6%), followed by trans-resveratrol (20.9%), cis-piceid (19.3%) and cis-resveratrol (6.2%). The most important source of R&P was wines (98.4%) and grape and grape juices (1.6%), whereas peanuts, pistachios and berries contributed to less than 0.01%. For this reason the pattern of intake of R&P was similar to the wine pattern. This is the first time that R&P intake has been estimated in a Mediterranean country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507882997DOI Listing
July 2008

The association of gastric cancer risk with plasma folate, cobalamin, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007 Nov;16(11):2416-24

LOCUS for Homocysteine and Related Vitamins, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations of folate intake and polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with gastric cancer risk. Our nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort is the first prospective study of blood folate levels and gastric cancer. Gastric cancer cases (n=247) and controls (n=631) were matched for study center, age, sex, and time of blood donation. Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene were determined, as were plasma concentrations of folate, cobalamin (vitamin B12), total homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid (cobalamin deficiency marker) in prediagnostic plasma. Risk measures were calculated with conditional logistic regression. Although no relations were observed between plasma folate or total homocysteine concentrations and gastric cancer, we observed a trend toward lower risk of gastric cancer with increasing cobalamin concentrations (odds ratio, 0.79 per SD increase in cobalamin; P=0.01). Further analyses showed that the inverse association between cobalamin and gastric cancer was confined to cancer cases with low pepsinogen A levels (marker of severe chronic atrophic gastritis) at the time of blood sampling. The 677 C-->T MTHFR polymorphism was not associated with gastric cancer, but we observed an increased risk with the variant genotype of the 1298 A-->C polymorphism (odds ratio, 1.47 for CC versus AA; P=0.04). In conclusion, we found no evidence of a role of folate in gastric cancer etiology. However, we observed increased gastric cancer risk at low cobalamin levels that was most likely due to compromised cobalamin status in atrophic gastritis preceding gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0256DOI Listing
November 2007

Lifetime and baseline alcohol intake and risk of colon and rectal cancers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

Int J Cancer 2007 Nov;121(9):2065-72

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), Lyon, France.

Alcohol consumption may be associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the epidemiological evidence for an association with specific anatomical subsites, types of alcoholic beverages and current vs. lifetime alcohol intake is inconsistent. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 478,732 study subjects free of cancer at enrolment between 1992 and 2000 were followed up for an average of 6.2 years, during which 1,833 CRC cases were observed. Detailed information on consumption of alcoholic beverages at baseline (all cases) and during lifetime (1,447 CRC cases, 69% of the cohort) was collected from questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the alcohol-CRC association. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, lifetime alcohol intake was significantly positively associated to CRC risk (hazard ratio, HR=1.08, 95%CI=1.04-1.12 for 15 g/day increase), with higher cancer risks observed in the rectum (HR=1.12, 95%CI=1.06-1.18) than distal colon (HR=1.08, 95%CI=1.01-1.16), and proximal colon (HR=1.02, 95%CI=0.92-1.12). Similar results were observed for baseline alcohol intake. When assessed by alcoholic beverages at baseline, the CRC risk for beer (HR=1.38, 95%CI=1.08-1.77 for 20-39.9 vs. 0.1-2.9 g/day) was higher than wine (HR=1.21, 95%CI=1.02-1.44), although the two risk estimates were not significantly different from each other. Higher HRs for baseline alcohol were observed for low levels of folate intake (1.13, 95%CI=1.06-1.20 for 15 g/day increase) compared to high folate intake (1.03, 95%CI=0.98-1.09). In this large European cohort, both lifetime and baseline alcohol consumption increase colon and rectum cancer risk, with more apparent risk increases for alcohol intakes greater than 30 g/day.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.22966DOI Listing
November 2007

Intake of fried foods is associated with obesity in the cohort of Spanish adults from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Am J Clin Nutr 2007 Jul;86(1):198-205

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Consumption of fried food has been suggested to promote obesity, but this association has seldom been studied.

Objective: We aimed to assess the association of energy intake from fried food with general and central obesity in Spain, a Mediterranean country where frying with oil is a traditional cooking procedure.

Design: This was a cross-sectional study of 33 542 Spanish persons aged 29-69 y who were participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition between 1992 and 1996. Dietary intake was assessed by a diet history questionnaire. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured by trained interviewers. Analyses were performed with logistic regression and were adjusted for total energy intake and other confounders.

Results: The prevalence of general obesity [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) >or= 30] was 27.6% in men and 27.7% in women. Respective figures for central obesity (waist circumference >or= 102 cm in men and >or= 88 cm in women) were 34.5% and 42.6%. The average proportion of energy intake from fried food was 15.6% in men and 12.6% in women. The adjusted odds ratios for general obesity in the highest versus the lowest quintile of fried food intake were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.45; P for trend < 0.001) in men and 1.25 (1.11, 1.41; P for trend < 0.001) in women. The corresponding values for central obesity were 1.17 (1.02, 1.34; P for trend < 0.003) in men and 1.27 (1.13, 1.42; P for trend < 0.001) in women.

Conclusion: Fried food was positively associated with general and central obesity only among subjects in the highest quintile of energy intake from fried food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/86.1.198DOI Listing
July 2007

Cereal fiber intake may reduce risk of gastric adenocarcinomas: the EPIC-EURGAST study.

Int J Cancer 2007 Oct;121(7):1618-23

Department of Epidemiology, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona (ICO-IDIBELL), Spain.

Numerous case-control studies suggest dietary fiber may reduce risk of gastric cancer, but this has not been confirmed prospectively. A previous case-control study reported reduced risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinomas associated with cereal fiber, but not with fruit or vegetable fiber. To date, different food sources of fiber have not been examined with respect to noncardia tumors or diverse histologic sub-types. This study prospectively examines associations between fiber from different food sources and incident gastric adenocarcinomas (GC) among more than 435,000 subjects from 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Subjects aged 25-70 years completed dietary questionnaires in 1992-98, and were followed up for a median of 6.7 years. About 312 incident GCs were observed. The relative risk of GC was estimated based on cohort-wide sex-specific fiber intake quartiles using proportional hazards models to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Intakes of cereal fiber, but not total, fruit or vegetable fiber, were associated with reduced GC risk [adjusted HR for the highest vs. lowest quartile of cereal fiber 0.69, 0.48-0.99]. There was a strong inverse association for diffuse [HR 0.43, 0.22-0.86], but not intestinal type [HR 0.98, 0.54-1.80] tumors. Associations for cardia vs. noncardia tumors were similar to those for overall GC, although cardia associations did not reach significance. Cereal fiber consumption may help to reduce risk of GC, particularly diffuse type tumors. Further study on different food sources of fiber in relation to GC risk is warranted to confirm these relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.22896DOI Listing
October 2007

Fruit and vegetable intakes, dietary antioxidant nutrients, and total mortality in Spanish adults: findings from the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain).

Am J Clin Nutr 2007 Jun;85(6):1634-42

Unit of Epidemiology, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Institute of Biomedical Research of Bellvitge, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain.

Background: Epidemiologic data suggest that persons with diets rich in fruit and vegetables are at a lower risk of several chronic diseases and mortality than are persons with diets poor in fruit and vegetables. Often, this effect is attributed to antioxidant micronutrients found in plant foods.

Objective: We aimed to assess the relation of mortality to the consumption of fruit, vegetables, and other plant foods and to the dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids.

Design: The study was a prospective study in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During 6.5 y of follow-up, 562 deaths occurred in 41 358 subjects aged 30-69 y. Proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the relation between dietary factors and total mortality.

Results: After adjustment for age, sex, and several potential confounders, the hazard ratio for the highest versus the lowest quartile of consumption was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.00; P for trend = 0.029) for fresh fruit, 0.72 (0.56, 0.91; P for trend = 0.006) for root vegetables, and 0.77 (0.60, 0.98; P for trend = 0.015) for fruiting vegetables (ie, vegetables that contain the "fruit" part of the plant, the seeds). The corresponding figures for antioxidant nutrients were 0.74 (0.58, 0.94; P for trend = 0.009) for vitamin C, 0.68 (0.53, 0.87; P for trend = 0.006) for provitamin A carotenoids, and 0.65 (0.51, 0.84; P for trend 0.001) for lycopene. The effect of vitamin C and provitamin A disappeared after adjustment for total antioxidant capacity in plant foods.

Conclusions: A high intake of fresh fruit, root vegetables, and fruiting vegetables is associated with reduced mortality, probably as a result of their high content of vitamin C, provitamin A carotenoids, and lycopene. Antioxidant capacity could partly explain the effect of ascorbic acid and provitamin A but not the association with lycopene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/85.6.1634DOI Listing
June 2007