Publications by authors named "Jose R Arribas"

121 Publications

Epigenetic age acceleration changes 2 years after antiretroviral therapy initiation in adults with HIV: a substudy of the NEAT001/ANRS143 randomised trial.

Lancet HIV 2021 04;8(4):e197-e205

HIV/AIDS and Infectious Diseases Research Group, Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain; Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: DNA methylation-based estimators of biological age are reliable biomarkers of the ageing process. We aimed to investigate a range of epigenetic ageing biomarkers in a substudy of the NEAT001/ANRS143 clinical trial, which compared ritonavir-boosted darunavir with either raltegravir or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive adults.

Methods: We analysed frozen whole blood samples from 168 ART-naive participants with HIV from the NEAT001/ANRS143 trial, before ART initiation and after 2 years of ART (84 participants on ritonavir-boosted darunavir with raltegravir and 84 participants on ritonavir-boosted darunavir with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine). We also included 44 participants without HIV with a similar age and sex distribution. We analysed DNA methylation. Epigenetic age estimators (Horvath's clock, Hannum's clock, GrimAge, and PhenoAge) and estimated leucocyte compositions were generated using Horvath's New Online Methylation Age Calculator and Houseman's method. We calculated epigenetic age acceleration measures for each estimator of epigenetic age. The NEAT001/ANRS143 trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01066962.

Findings: Compared with the HIV-uninfected group, ART-naive participants with HIV showed higher epigenetic age acceleration (EAA) according to all EAA estimators (mean 2·5 years, 95% CI 1·89-3·22 for Horvath-EAA; 1·4 years, 0·74-1·99 for Hannum-EAA; 2·8 years, 1·97-3·68 for GrimAge-EAA; and 7·3 years, 6·40-8·13 for PhenoAge-EAA), with all differences being statistically significant except for Hannum-EAA (Horvath-EAA p=0·0008; Hannum-EAA p=0·059; GrimAge-EAA p=0·0021; and PhenoAge-EAA p<0·0001). Epigenetic ageing was more pronounced in participants who had CD4 counts less than 200 cells per μL (significant for PhenoAge and Hannum's clock, p=0·0015 and p=0·034, respectively) or viral loads over 100 000 copies per mL at baseline (significant for PhenoAge, p=0·017). After 2 years of ART, epigenetic age acceleration was reduced, although PhenoAge and GrimAge remained significantly higher in participants with HIV compared with participants without HIV (mean difference 3·69 years, 95% CI 1·77-5·61; p=0·0002 and 2·2 years, 0·47-3·99; p=0·013, respectively). There were no significant differences in the ART effect on epigenetic ageing between treatment regimens. At baseline, participants with HIV showed dysregulation of DNA methylation-based estimated leucocyte subsets towards more differentiated T-cell phenotypes and proinflammatory leucocytes, which was also partly restored with ART.

Interpretation: ART initiation partly reversed epigenetic ageing associated with untreated HIV infection. Further studies are needed to understand the long-term dynamics and clinical relevance of epigenetic ageing biomarkers in people with HIV.

Funding: NEAT-ID Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(21)00006-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Critical Care Requirements Under Uncontrolled Transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

Am J Public Health 2021 05 18;111(5):923-926. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Gonzalo Martínez-Alés is with the Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY. Arce Domingo-Relloso is with the National Center of Epidemiology, Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid, Spain, and the Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. José R. Arribas and Manuel Quintana-Díaz are with the Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain. Manuel Quintana-Díaz is also with the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid School of Medicine, Madrid, Spain. Miguel A. Hernán is with the Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Boston, MA.

To estimate the critical care bed capacity that would be required to admit all critical COVID-19 cases in a setting of unchecked SARS-CoV-2 transmission, both with and without elderly-specific protection measures. Using electronic health records of all 2432 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a large hospital in Madrid, Spain, between February 28 and April 23, 2020, we estimated the number of critical care beds needed to admit all critical care patients. To mimic a hypothetical intervention that halves SARS-CoV-2 infections among the elderly, we randomly excluded 50% of patients aged 65 years and older. Critical care requirements peaked at 49 beds per 100 000 on April 1-2 weeks after the start of a national lockdown. After randomly excluding 50% of elderly patients, the estimated peak was 39 beds per 100 000. Under unchecked SARS-CoV-2 transmission, peak critical care requirements in Madrid were at least fivefold higher than prepandemic capacity. Under a hypothetical intervention that halves infections among the elderly, critical care peak requirements would have exceeded the prepandemic capacity of most high-income countries. Pandemic control strategies that rely exclusively on protecting the elderly are likely to overwhelm health care systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.306151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034012PMC
May 2021

Development and validation of a prediction model for 30-day mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19: the COVID-19 SEIMC score.

Thorax 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid, Spain.

Objective: To develop and validate a prediction model of mortality in patients with COVID-19 attending hospital emergency rooms.

Design: Multivariable prognostic prediction model.

Setting: 127 Spanish hospitals.

Participants: Derivation (DC) and external validation (VC) cohorts were obtained from multicentre and single-centre databases, including 4035 and 2126 patients with confirmed COVID-19, respectively.

Interventions: Prognostic variables were identified using multivariable logistic regression.

Main Outcome Measures: 30-day mortality.

Results: Patients' characteristics in the DC and VC were median age 70 and 61 years, male sex 61.0% and 47.9%, median time from onset of symptoms to admission 5 and 8 days, and 30-day mortality 26.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Age, low age-adjusted saturation of oxygen, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, estimated glomerular filtration rate by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation, dyspnoea and sex were the strongest predictors of mortality. Calibration and discrimination were satisfactory with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve with a 95% CI for prediction of 30-day mortality of 0.822 (0.806-0.837) in the DC and 0.845 (0.819-0.870) in the VC. A simplified score system ranging from 0 to 30 to predict 30-day mortality was also developed. The risk was considered to be low with 0-2 points (0%-2.1%), moderate with 3-5 (4.7%-6.3%), high with 6-8 (10.6%-19.5%) and very high with 9-30 (27.7%-100%).

Conclusions: A simple prediction score, based on readily available clinical and laboratory data, provides a useful tool to predict 30-day mortality probability with a high degree of accuracy among hospitalised patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2020-216001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7908055PMC
February 2021

Risks and benefits of reducing the number of drugs to treat HIV-1 infection.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2021 Apr 24;20(4):397-409. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Despacho 3.3. Hospital La Paz. IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain.

Despite the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral therapy, new treatment options are needed to address the concerns of patients and physicians regarding long-term toxicities, costs, and convenience of lifelong antiretroviral therapy. To achieve this goal, one strategy is to reduce the number of drugs in the antiretroviral regimen. We review the recent evidence on the efficacy and safety of reduced drug regimens and their potential risks and benefits. There is currently strong evidence showing that some two-drug regimens have a comparable efficacy and short-term safety compared to standard three-drug regimens. The fixed-dose combination of dolutegravir/lamivudine is already an alternative for many treatment-naïve and virologically suppressed HIV-1 infected adults supported by large randomized clinical trials. The co-formulation dolutegravir plus rilpivirine is also a switch strategy for maintenance therapy. Long-acting injectable cabotegravir plus rilpivirine has already regulatory approval, and islatravir plus doravirine is an expected option in the near future. Some two-drug regimens have not been as successful. Long-term safety issues of these two-drug regimens remain to be determined, but with the overwhelming evidence available in virological control and short-term safety, the potential benefits of some of these two-drug regimens appear to outweigh the risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14740338.2021.1887135DOI Listing
April 2021

A Cohort of Patients with COVID-19 in a Major Teaching Hospital in Europe.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 4;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Internal Medicine Department, La Paz University Hospital-IdiPAZ, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28046 Madrid, Spain.

Background: Since the confirmation of the first patient infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Spain in January 2020, the epidemic has grown rapidly, with the greatest impact on the region of Madrid. This article describes the first 2226 adult patients with COVID-19, consecutively admitted to La Paz University Hospital in Madrid.

Methods: Our cohort included all patients consecutively hospitalized who had a final outcome (death or discharge) in a 1286-bed hospital of Madrid (Spain) from 25 February (first case admitted) to 19 April 2020. The data were manually entered into an electronic case report form, which was monitored prior to the analysis.

Results: We consecutively included 2226 adult patients admitted to the hospital who either died (460) or were discharged (1766). The patients' median age was 61 years, and 51.8% were women. The most common comorbidity was arterial hypertension (41.3%), and the most common symptom on admission was fever (71.2%). The median time from disease onset to hospital admission was 6 days. The overall mortality was 20.7% and was higher in men (26.6% vs. 15.1%). Seventy-five patients with a final outcome were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) (3.4%). Most patients admitted to the ICU were men, and the median age was 64 years. Baseline laboratory values on admission were consistent with an impaired immune-inflammatory profile.

Conclusions: We provide a description of the first large cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Europe. Advanced age, male sex, the presence of comorbidities and abnormal laboratory values were more common among the patients with fatal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356883PMC
June 2020

Fixed-dose combination bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide versus dolutegravir-containing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: week 144 results from two randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase 3, non-inferiority trials.

Lancet HIV 2020 06;7(6):e389-e400

Department of HIV Clinical Research, Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA.

Background: In the primary week-48 analyses of two phase 3 studies, coformulated bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide was non-inferior to a dolutegravir-containing regimen in treatment-naive people with HIV. We report week-144 efficacy and safety results from these studies.

Methods: We did two double-blind, active-controlled studies (now in open-label extension phase). Study 1 randomly assigned (1:1) HLA-B*5701-negative adults without hepatitis B virus co-infection to receive coformulated bictegravir 50 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg, or coformulated dolutegravir 50 mg, abacavir 600 mg, and lamivudine 300 mg once daily. Study 2 randomly assigned (1:1) adults to bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide, or dolutegravir 50 mg given with coformulated emtricitabine 200 mg and tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg. We previously reported non-inferiority at the primary endpoint. Here, we report the week-144 secondary outcome of proportion of participants with plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL at week 144, by US Food and Drug Administration Snapshot algorithm, analysed in the same manner. These studies were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02607930 and NCT02607956.

Findings: 629 participants were randomly assigned and treated in study 1 (314 to bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide, and 315 to dolutegravir, abacavir, and lamivudine) and 645 in study 2 (327 to bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide, 325 to dolutegravir, emtricitabine, tenofovir alafenamide). At week 144, bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide was non-inferior to both dolutegravir-containing regimens for efficacy. In study 1, 256 (82%) of 314 participants had plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL in the bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group and 265 (84%) of 315 in the dolutegravir, abacavir, and lamivudine group (difference -2·6%, 95% CI -8·5 to 3·4). In study 2, 262 (82%) of 320 participants had plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL in the bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group and 273 (84%) of 325 in the dolutegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group (difference -1·9%, -7·8 to 3·9). In both studies, no participant had treatment-emergent resistance to study drugs up to week 144. All treatment regimens were well tolerated with additional exposure. Adverse events that led to study drug discontinuation were reported for no participants in the bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group versus five (2%) of 315 in the dolutegravir, abacavir, and lamivudine group (study 1), and six (2%) of 320 in the bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide versus six (2%) of 325 in the dolutegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group (study 2). In study 1, statistically significant differences were observed in median changes from baseline in fasting total cholesterol (14 mg/dL vs 10 mg/dL; p=0·034), direct LDL (21 mg/dL vs 14 mg/dL; p=0·004), and total cholesterol to HDL ratio (-0·1 vs -0·3; p=0·007) at week 144; no differences were observed between groups in study 2. Weight gain was seen across all treatment groups in both studies, with no differences in median changes from baseline in weight at week 144 for either study.

Interpretation: These long-term data support the use of bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide as a safe, well tolerated, and durable treatment for people with HIV, with no emergent resistance.

Funding: Gilead Sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(20)30099-0DOI Listing
June 2020

A randomized multicenter clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin in the prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in high-risk contacts (MeCOVID Trial): A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Jun 3;21(1):466. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Clinical Pharmacology Department, Clinical Trial Unit, La Paz University Hospital - IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana, 261, 28046, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: Primary objective: to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin as a prophylactic treatment on prevention of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Secondary objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of melatonin as a prophylactic treatment on prevention of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.To evaluate the efficacy of melatonin to prevent the development of severe COVID-19 in the participants enrolled in this study who develop SARS-CoV-2 infection along the trial.To evaluate the duration of COVID-19 symptoms in participants receiving melatonin before the infection.To evaluate seroconversion timing post-symptom onset. Exploratory objectives:To compare severity of COVID-19 between men and women.To evaluate the influence of sleep and diet on prevention from SARS-CoV-2 infection.To evaluate the effect of melatonin on the incidence and characteristics of lymphopenia and increase of inflammatory cytokines related to COVID-19.

Trial Design: This is a two-arm parallel randomised double-blind controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin versus placebo in the prophylaxis of coronavirus disease 2019 among healthcare workers.

Participants: Inclusion Criteria: Male or female participants ≥ 18 and ≤ 80 years of age.Healthcare workers from the public and private Spanish hospital network at risk of SARS-CoV 2 infection.Not having a previous COVID19 diagnosis.Understanding the purpose of the trial and not having taken any pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including HIV PrEP from March 1 2020 until study enrolment.Having a negative SARS-CoV 2 reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) result or a negative serologic rapid test (IgM/IgG) result before randomization.Premenopausal women must have a negative urinary pregnancy test in the 7 days before starting the trial treatment.Premenopausal women and males with premenopausal couples must commit to using a high efficiency anticonceptive method.

Exclusion Criteria: HIV infection.Active hepatitis B infection.Renal failure (CrCl < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) or need for hemodialysis.Osteoporosis.Myasthenia gravis.Pre-existent maculopathy.Retinitis pigmentosa.Bradycardia (less than 50 bpm).Weight less than 40 Kg.Participant with any immunosuppressive condition or hematological disease.Treatment with drugs that may prolong QT in the last month before randomization for more than 7 days including: azithromycin, chlorpromazine, cisapride, clarithromycin, domperidone, droperidol, erythromycin, halofantrine, haloperidol, lumefantrine, mefloquine, methadone, pentamidine, procainamide, quinidine, quinine, sotalol, sparfloxacin, thioridazine, amiodarone.Hereditary intolerance to galactose, Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose or galactose malabsorption.Treatment with fluvoxamine.Treatment with benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine analogues such as zolpidem, zopiclone or zaleplon.Pregnancy.Breastfeeding.History of potentially immune derived diseases such as: lupus, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, vasculitis or rheumatoid arthritis.Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.Known history of hypersensitivity to the study drug or any of its components.Patients that should not be included in the study at the judgment of the research team. Participants will be recruited from the following eight hospitals in Madrid, Spain: Hospital Universitario La Paz, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Hospital Infanta Sofía, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Hospital Central de la defensa Gómez Ulla,Hospital de La Princesa and Hospital Infanta Leonor.

Intervention And Comparator: Experimental: Melatonin (Circadin®, Exeltis Healthcare, Spain): 2 mg of melatonin orally before bedtime for 12 weeks. Comparator: Identical looking placebo (Laboratorios Liconsa, Spain) orally before bedtime for 12 weeks.

Main Outcomes: Number of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) symptomatic infections confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test or serologic test or according to each centre diagnosis protocol. Primary outcome will be measured until the end of treatment for each participant (until the date of the last dose taken by each patient).

Randomisation: Patients who meet all inclusion and no exclusion criteria will be randomised, stratified by centres, sex and age (<50 and ≥ 50 years old). The randomisation sequence was created using SAS version 9.4 statistical software (procedure 'PROC PLAN') with a 1:1 allocation. No randomisation seed was specified. The randomisation seed was generated taking the hour of the computer where the program was executed. Randomization will be done centrally through the electronic system RedCAP® in order to conceal the sequence until interventions are assigned BLINDING (MASKING): Participants, caregivers, and those assessing the outcomes are blinded to group assignment.

Numbers To Be Randomised (sample Size): A total of 450 participants are planned to be enrolled in this clinical trial, 225 in the experimental arm and 225 in the placebo arm.

Trial Status: Protocol version 3.0, 17th of April 2020. Recruitment ongoing. First participant was recruited on the 21st of April 2020. The final participant is anticipated to be recruited on the 31st of May 2020. As of May 18th, 2020, a total of 312 participants have been enrolled (154 at Hospital La Paz, 85 at Hospital Infanta Sofía and 73 at Hospital 12 de Octubre).

Trial Registration: EU Clinical Trials Register: 2020-001530-35; Date of trial registration: 13th of April 2020; https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001530-35/ES FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04436-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7267766PMC
June 2020

Durable Efficacy of Dolutegravir Plus Lamivudine in Antiretroviral Treatment-Naive Adults With HIV-1 Infection: 96-Week Results From the GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2 Randomized Clinical Trials.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2020 03;83(3):310-318

Research & Development and Global Medical, ViiV Healthcare, Research Triangle Park, NC; and.

Background: The 2-drug regimen dolutegravir + lamivudine was noninferior to dolutegravir + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine in achieving HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL in treatment-naive adults in the 48-week primary analysis of the GEMINI trials. We present results from the prespecified 96-week secondary analyses.

Setting: One hundred eighty-seven centers in 21 countries.

Methods: GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2 are identical, double-blind phase III studies. Participants with screening HIV-1 RNA ≤500,000 copies/mL were randomized 1:1 to once-daily dolutegravir + lamivudine or dolutegravir + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine.

Results: At week 96, dolutegravir + lamivudine (N = 716) was noninferior to dolutegravir + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (N = 717) in achieving HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL (Snapshot algorithm; -10% noninferiority margin) in the pooled analysis (proportion of responders, 86.0% vs 89.5%, respectively; adjusted treatment difference [95% CI], -3.4% [-6.7 to 0.0007]), GEMINI-1 (-4.9% [-9.8 to 0.03]), and GEMINI-2 (-1.8% [-6.4 to 2.7]). Proportions of participants in the HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/mL Snapshot category were largely unchanged from week 48 to 96. Eleven participants taking dolutegravir + lamivudine and 7 taking dolutegravir + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine met confirmed virologic withdrawal criteria through week 96; none had treatment-emergent resistance mutations. Dolutegravir + lamivudine had a lower rate of drug-related adverse events than dolutegravir + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (19.6% vs 25.0%; relative risk ratio, 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.95). Renal and bone biomarker changes favored dolutegravir + lamivudine.

Conclusions: Consistent with 48-week data, dolutegravir + lamivudine demonstrated long-term, noninferior efficacy vs dolutegravir + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine without increased risk of treatment-emergent resistance, supporting its use in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7043729PMC
March 2020

Characteristics of Zika virus infection among international travelers: A prospective study from a Spanish referral unit.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2020 Jan - Feb;33:101543. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Instituto de Investigación Hospital La Paz (IdiPaz), Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: From the first Zika virus (ZIKV) description, it has progressively widespread worldwide. We analyzed demographic, clinical, microbiologic and travel-related characteristic from returned patients from a ZIKV endemic country in a referral Tropical Medicine Unit.

Method: A prospective cohort study performed in a Spanish referral center with the aim of determining the significant factors associated with confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection.

Results: 817 patients, (56% women, median age 36 [IQR, Interquartile Range: 32-42]) were enrolled. Most had returned from Latin America (n = 486; 59.4%), travelled for tourism (n = 404; 49.4%) and stayed a median of 18 days (IQR: 10-30). 602 (73.6%) presented symptoms, but only 25 (4%) were finally diagnosed with confirmed ZIKV infection (including two pregnant women, without adverse fetal outcomes), 88% (n:22) presented with fever and 92% (n:23) with rash. 56% (n:14) arthralgia and/or myalgia and 28% (n:7) conjunctivitis. The presence of conjunctivitis, fever and rash were associated with an 8.9 (95% CI: 2.2-34.9), 6.4 (95% CI: 1.2-33.3) and 72.3 (95% CI: 9.2-563.5) times greater probability of confirmed ZIKV infection, respectively.

Conclusion: Travel characteristics and clinical presentation may help clinicians to optimize requests for microbiological testing. Diagnosis of arboviriasis in travellers arriving form endemic areas remains a challenge for clinicians, but must be detected for the possible transmission outside endemic areas, where the vector is present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2019.101543DOI Listing
December 2019

Dolutegravir-rilpivirine for virological suppression.

Lancet HIV 2019 09 12;6(9):e560-e561. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

La Paz Hospital, IdiPaz, Madrid, Spain; Autonoma University School of Medicine, Madrid, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(19)30188-2DOI Listing
September 2019

Co-formulated bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide versus dolutegravir with emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: week 96 results from a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase 3, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet HIV 2019 06 5;6(6):e364-e372. Epub 2019 May 5.

Department of HIV Clinical Research, Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, CA, USA.

Background: The single-tablet regimen consisting of bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide is recommended for treatment of HIV-1 infection on the basis of data from 48 weeks of treatment. Here, we examine the longer-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide compared with dolutegravir plus co-formulated emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide at week 96.

Methods: This ongoing, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, active-controlled, phase 3, non-inferiority trial was done at 126 outpatient centres in ten countries. We enrolled treatment-naive adults (aged ≥18 years) with HIV-1 infection who had an estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 30 mL/min and sensitivity to emtricitabine and tenofovir. People with chronic hepatitis B or C infection, or both, and those who had used antivirals previously for prophylaxis were allowed. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to receive treatment with either co-formulated bictegravir 50 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg (the bictegravir group) or dolutegravir 50 mg with co-formulated emtricitabine 200 mg and tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg (the dolutegravir group), each with matching placebo, once daily for 144 weeks. Treatment allocation was masked to all participants and investigators. All participants who received at least one dose of study drug were included in primary efficacy and safety analyses. We previously reported the primary endpoint. Here, we report the week 96 secondary outcome of proportion of participants with plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL at week 96 by US Food and Drug Administration snapshot algorithm, with a prespecified non-inferiority margin of -12%. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02607956.

Findings: Between Nov 13, 2015, and July 14, 2016, we screened 742 individuals, of whom 657 were enrolled. 327 participants were assigned to the bictegravir group and 330 to the dolutegravir group. Of these, 320 in the bictegravir group and 325 in the dolutegravir group received at least one dose of study drug. At week 96, HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL was achieved by 269 (84%) of 320 participants in the bictegravir group and 281 (86%) of 325 in the dolutegravir group (difference -2·3%, 95% CI -7·9 to 3·2), demonstrating non-inferiority of the bictegravir regimen compared with the dolutegravir regimen. Both treatments continued to be well tolerated through 96 weeks; 283 (88%) of 320 participants in the bictegravir group and 288 (89%) of 325 in the dolutegravir group had any adverse event and 55 (17%), and 33 (10%) had any serious adverse event. The most common adverse events were diarrhoea (57 [18%] of 320 in the bictegravir group vs 51 [16%] of 325 in the dolutegravir group) and headache (51 [16%] of 320 vs 48 [15%] of 325). Deaths were reported for three (1%) individuals in each group (one cardiac arrest, one gastric adenocarcinoma, and one hypertensive heart disease and congestive cardiac failure in the bictegravir group and one unknown causes, one pulmonary embolism, and one lymphoma in the dolutegravir group); none were considered to be treatment related. Adverse events led to discontinuation in six (2%) participants in the bictegravir group and five (2%) in the dolutegravir group; one of these events in the bictegravir group versus four in the dolutegravir group occurred between weeks 48 and 96. Study drug-related adverse events were reported for 64 (20%) participants in the bictegravir group and 92 (28%) in the dolutegravir group.

Interpretation: These week 96 data support bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide as a safe, well tolerated, and durable treatment for people living with chronic HIV.

Funding: Gilead Sciences, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(19)30080-3DOI Listing
June 2019

Renal safety of tenofovir alafenamide vs. tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: a pooled analysis of 26 clinical trials.

AIDS 2019 07;33(9):1455-1465

Departments of Biometrics and HIV & Emerging Viral Infections Clinical Research, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, California, USA.

Objective: Compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) has been associated with improvement in markers of renal dysfunction in individual randomized trials; however, the comparative incidence of clinically significant renal events remains unclear.

Design: We used a pooled data approach to increase the person-years of drug exposure analysed, maximizing our ability to detect differences in clinically significant outcomes.

Methods: We pooled clinical renal safety data across 26 treatment-naive and antiretroviral switch studies to compare the incidence of proximal renal tubulopathy and discontinuation due to renal adverse events between participants taking TAF-containing regimens vs. those taking TDF-containing regimens. We performed secondary analyses from seven large randomized studies (two treatment-naive and five switch studies) to compare incidence of renal adverse events, treatment-emergent proteinuria, changes in serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, and urinary biomarkers (albumin, beta-2-microglobulin, and retinol binding protein-to-creatinine ratios).

Results: Our integrated analysis included 9322 adults and children with HIV (n = 6360 TAF, n = 2962 TDF) with exposure of 12 519 person-years to TAF and 5947 to TDF. There were no cases of proximal renal tubulopathy in participants receiving TAF vs. 10 cases in those receiving TDF (P < 0.001), and fewer individuals on TAF (3/6360) vs. TDF (14/2962) (P < 0.001) discontinued due to a renal adverse event. Participants initiating TAF-based vs. TDF-based regimens had more favourable changes in renal biomarkers through 96 weeks of therapy.

Conclusion: These pooled data from 26 studies, with over 12 500 person-years of follow-up in children and adults, support the comparative renal safety of TAF over TDF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6635043PMC
July 2019

New filovirus disease classification and nomenclature.

Nat Rev Microbiol 2019 05;17(5):261-263

World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41579-019-0187-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6637750PMC
May 2019

Body composition and adipokines changes after initial treatment with darunavir-ritonavir plus either raltegravir or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine: A substudy of the NEAT001/ANRS143 randomised trial.

PLoS One 2019 28;14(1):e0209911. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario La Paz, IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Comparison of changes in body composition, adipokines and inflammatory markers after initial therapy with a nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (N(t)RTI)- sparing or containing regimen are scarce.

Design: Randomised Clinical Trial.

Methods: This is the body composition substudy of NEAT 001/ANRS 143, a randomised trial comparing darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) plus either raltegravir (RAL) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) in 805 ART naïve HIV-infected adults. The primary endpoint was percentage change in limb fat at week 96. Secondary endpoints were associations among these changes and metabolic markers (IL-6, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, FGF-23).

Results: 126 subjects (61 DRV/r + RAL and 65 DRV/r + TDF/FTC) were included. The rate of change in BMI between groups for RAL versus TDF/FTC at week 96 was 1.5% per 48-week period (p = 0.015). The rate of change in limb fat mass, trunk fat mass, total body fat and total lean mass was for RAL versus TDF/FTC at week 96 was 2.5% (p = 0.38), 7.3% ((p = 0.021), 4.9% (p = 0.061) and 1.3% (p = 0.12) respectively. Baseline insulin and leptin levels were correlated with baseline limb fat and trunk fat mass [r = 0.31 (p = 0.0043)/r = 0.28 (p = 0.0011) for limb fat, and r = 0.63 (p<0.0001)/r = 0.50(p<0.0001) for trunk fat]. After adjustment, a 10% faster increase in leptin between baseline and week 48 was associated with a more rapid increase in limb fat at week 48 (0.5% per 48 weeks, p<0.001), total body fat mass (0.6% per 48 weeks, p<0.001), and trunk fat mass (0.3% per 48 weeks, p = 0.0026).

Conclusions: After week 96 a N(t)RTI sparing regimen of DRV/r + RAL produced a numerically greater percentage increase in body composition variables with only change in trunk fat mass and BMI being significant.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209911PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349314PMC
September 2019

Blood Telomere Length Changes After Ritonavir-Boosted Darunavir Combined With Raltegravir or Tenofovir-Emtricitabine in Antiretroviral-Naive Adults Infected With HIV-1.

J Infect Dis 2018 10;218(10):1523-1530

Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Tenofovir is a potent inhibitor of human telomerase. The clinical relevance of this inhibition is unknown.

Methods: NEAT001/ANRS143 is a randomized trial that showed noninferiority over 96 weeks of ritonavir-boosted darunavir plus raltegravir versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine in 805 antiretroviral antiretrovrial-naive HIV-infected adults. We compared changes in whole-blood telomere length measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 201 randomly selected participants (104 raltegravir and 97 tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine). We performed multivariable estimative and predictive linear regression.

Results: At week 96, participants receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine had a statistically significant higher gain in telomere length than participants receiving raltegravir. Difference in mean telomere length change between groups (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine minus raltegravir) from baseline to week 96 adjusted by baseline telomere length was 0.031 (P = .009). This difference was not significantly confounded by age, gender, known duration of HIV infection, CD4 (baseline/nadir), CD8 cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, HIV viral load (baseline/week 96), tobacco and alcohol consumption, statins, or hepatitis C.

Conclusion: Antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected adults receiving ritonavir-boosted darunavir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine had a significant higher gain in blood telomere length than those receiving ritonavir-boosted darunavir and raltegravir, suggesting a better initial recovery from HIV-associated immunosenescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy399DOI Listing
October 2018

Broad Neutralizing Activity Against Ebolaviruses Lacking the Mucin-Like Domain in Convalescent Plasma Specimens From Patients With Ebola Virus Disease.

J Infect Dis 2018 11;218(suppl_5):S574-S581

Department of Microbiology, Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.

Background: In Ebola virus (EBOV) infection, the specific neutralizing activity of convalescent plasma against other members of the Ebolavirus genus has not been extensively analyzed.

Methods: We measured the neutralizing activity in plasma from 3 survivors of the recent outbreak due to the Makona variant of EBOV and tested its neutralizing potency against other variants of EBOV (ie, Mayinga and Kikwit) and against Sudan virus (SUDV), Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), and Reston virus (RESTV), using a glycoprotein (GP)-pseudotyped lentiviral system both with full-length GP and in vitro-cleaved GP (GPCL).

Results: Convalescent plasma specimens from survivors of EBOV infection showed low neutralizing activity against full-length GPs of SUDV, BDBV, RESTV, and EBOV variants Mayinga and Kikwit. However, broad and potent neutralizing activity was observed against the GPCL forms of SUDV, BDBV, and RESTV.

Discussion: Removal of the mucin-like domain and glycan cap from the GP of members of the Ebolavirus genus presumably exposes conserved epitopes in or in the vicinity of the receptor binding site and internal fusion loop that are readily amenable to neutralization. These types of broad neutralizing antibodies could be induced by using immunogens mimicking GPCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6249609PMC
November 2018

Impact of Nucleos(t)ide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors on Blood Telomere Length Changes in a Prospective Cohort of Aviremic HIV-Infected Adults.

J Infect Dis 2018 10;218(10):1531-1540

Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Tenofovir is a potent inhibitor of human telomerase. The clinical relevance of this inhibition is unknown.

Methods: A prospective cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected participants with suppressed virological replication was recruited to compare whole-blood telomere length (measured by quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis) in participants with current exposure to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to that in participants never exposed to TDF.

Results: A total of 172 participants were included: 67 were in the TDF group, and 105 were in the non-TDF group (75 were receiving 2 nucleosides [of whom 69 were receiving abacavir], 25 were receiving a nucleos[t]ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [N{t}RTI]-sparing regimen, and 5 were receiving lamivudine as the only nucleoside). After 2 years, the mean blood telomere length increased significantly in the whole cohort. The TDF group had significantly smaller gains in telomere length than the non-TDF group. In the analysis restricted to participants receiving N(t)RTIs, TDF exposure was not associated with an independent negative effect. In the non-TDF group, participants treated with 2 nucleosides also had significantly smaller gains in telomere length than those receiving N(t)RTI-sparing regimens or lamivudine as the only nucleoside.

Discussion: In HIV-infected adults with prolonged virological suppression, treatment with TDF or abacavir was associated with smaller gains in blood telomere length after 2 years of follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy364DOI Listing
October 2018

New Strategies of ARV: the Road to Simplification.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 02;15(1):11-19

HIV Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose Of Review: Simplification of antiretroviral therapy is a strategy aiming to reduce pill burden, drug interactions, and toxicity. This review focuses on the most recent and important studies evaluating a reduction on the number of drugs for HIV treatment, both in naive and virologically suppressed patients.

Recent Findings: Interesting studies have been performed in the past years testing dual therapy and monotherapy, with variable rates of virological control. Novel therapeutics like immunotherapy or long-acting antiretrovirals can also be considered for simplification. Reducing the number of drugs for HIV treatment can be an option for selected patients. Current available evidence favors dual therapy over monotherapy. Future research should seek to identify the best candidates for simplification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0371-6DOI Listing
February 2018

A safety evaluation of raltegravir for the treatment of HIV.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2018 Feb 5;17(2):217-223. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

a HIV Unit, Internal Medicine Service , Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ , Madrid , Spain.

Introduction: Raltegravir (RAL) was the first commercialized agent from a new drug class with an innovative target, the integrase. Since its introduction in clinical practice RAL has become widely used for the treatment of HIV-1 infected patients. A decade after its approval, this article reviews key evidence from RAL with a special interest on safety outcomes. Areas covered: Pharmacologic, safety and efficacy data of RAL from clinical trials and post-commercialization published reports are hereby summarized after a literature review including PubMed search, relating proceedings and abstracts from relevant international HIV conferences, assessment reports from European and United States regulatory agencies and treatment guidelines (World Health Organization, United States Department of Health and Human Services and European AIDS Clinical Society), up to October 2017. Most frequent search terms were 'raltegravir', 'safety', 'adverse events', 'efficacy' and 'integrase-inhibitors'. Expert opinion: Despite the arrival of new integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) with advantages in terms of dosing convenience (elvitegravir, ELV) and higher genetic barrier (dolutegravir, DTG), RAL has stood the test of time and its overall favourable safety profile, without significant appearance of unexpected adverse events, vouch for its relevance in the antiretroviral armamentarium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14740338.2018.1411903DOI Listing
February 2018

Persistence and infectivity of Zika virus in semen after returning from endemic areas: Report of 5 cases.

J Clin Virol 2017 11 13;96:110-115. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario La Paz-H, Carlos III, IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain.

Background: There are limited data about the persistence and infectivity of Zika virus in semen of symptomatic travelers returning from endemic areas and even less data in asymptomatic cases.

Objective: We investigated the persistence and infectivity of ZIKA virus in semen in five patients with Zika virus infection returning to Spain from endemic areas.

Study Design: We evaluated the epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristic of the five patients. In semen we detected ZIKA virus by PCR, partial sequencing and cell culture. We also performed phylogenetic analysis.

Results: We detected Zika virus RNA (Asian lineage) by PCR in semen samples from day 14th to day 96th since the day of illness onset. Semen viral culture was positive for Zika virus in two patients at days of illness 30 and 69 by virus propagation. Phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested male to female sexual transmission in a couple returning from Maldives.

Conclusion: This case series confirms that Zika virus RNA can be detected in semen up to three months after infection. Viral culture of semen samples shows prolonged infectivity that can lead to sexual transmission of Zika virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2017.10.006DOI Listing
November 2017

Dual Therapy With Darunavir and Ritonavir Plus Lamivudine vs Triple Therapy With Darunavir and Ritonavir Plus Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate and Emtricitabine or Abacavir and Lamivudine for Maintenance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Suppression: Randomized, Open-Label, Noninferiority DUAL-GESIDA 8014-RIS-EST45 Trial.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Nov;65(12):2112-2118

Hospital La Paz, IdiPAZ, Madrid.

Background: Our objective was to assess the therapeutic noninferiority of dual therapy with darunavir/ritonavir and lamivudine compared to triple therapy with darunavir/ritonavir plus 2 nucleos(t)ides for maintenance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) suppression.

Methods: This was a multicenter, open-label, noninferiority trial (margin 12%). Patients with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL for 6 months or longer on triple therapy with darunavir/ritonavir and 2 nucleos(t)ides (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine or abacavir and lamivudine) and with no resistance were randomized to continue therapy (n = 128) or switch to darunavir/ritonavir and lamivudine (n = 129). The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants with HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL after 48 weeks of follow-up according to the snapshot algorithm.

Results: A total of 249 participants received study drugs (intention-to-treat exposed). The proportion of participants with HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL in the dual- and triple-therapy arms was 88.9% (112/126) and 92.7% (114/123; difference, -3.8%; 95% confidence interval, -11.0 to 3.4), respectively. Four participants in the dual-therapy arm and 2 in the triple-therapy arm developed protocol-defined virological failure. Switching to dual therapy was associated with a significant increase in total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, but not in the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio. Serious adverse events and study drug discontinuations due to adverse events occurred in 4.8% vs 4.9%P = .97) and in 0.8% (1/126) vs 1.6% P = .55) in dual therapy vs triple therapy, respectively.

Conclusions: Dual therapy with darunavir/ritonavir and lamivudine demonstrated noninferior therapeutic efficacy and similar tolerability compared to triple therapy.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02159599.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix734DOI Listing
November 2017

Efficacy and safety of switching from boosted protease inhibitors plus emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate regimens to single-tablet darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide at 48 weeks in adults with virologically suppressed HIV-1 (EMERALD): a phase 3, randomised, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet HIV 2018 01 6;5(1):e23-e34. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Beerse, Belgium.

Background: Simplified regimens with reduced pill burden and fewer side-effects are desirable for people living with HIV. We investigated the efficacy and safety of switching to a single-tablet regimen of darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide versus continuing a regimen of boosted protease inhibitor, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.

Methods: EMERALD was a phase-3, randomised, active-controlled, open-label, international, multicentre trial, done at 106 sites across nine countries in North America and Europe. HIV-1-infected adults were eligible to participate if they were treatment-experienced and virologically suppressed (viral load <50 copies per mL for ≥2 months; one viral load of 50-200 copies per mL was allowed within 12 months before screening), and patients with a history of virological failure on non-darunavir regimens were allowed. Randomisation was by computer-generated interactive web-response system and stratified by boosted protease inhibitor use at baseline. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to switch to the open-label study regimen or continue the control regimen. The study regimen consisted of a fixed-dose tablet containing darunavir 800 mg, cobicistat 150 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and tenofovir alafenamide 10 mg, which was taken once per day for 48 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with virological rebound (confirmed viral load ≥50 copies per mL or premature discontinuations, with last viral load ≥50 copies per mL) cumulative through week 48; we tested non-inferiority (4% margin) of the study regimen versus the control regimen in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02269917.

Findings: The study began on April 1, 2015, and the cutoff date for the week 48 primary analysis was Feb 24, 2017. Of 1141 patients (763 in the study group and 378 in the control group), 664 (58%) had previously received five or more antiretrovirals, including screening antiretrovirals, and 169 (15%) had previous virological failure on a non-darunavir regimen. The study regimen was non-inferior to the control for virological rebound cumulative through week 48 (19 [2·5%] of 763 patients in the study group vs eight (2·1%) of 378 patients in the control group; difference 0·4%, 95% CI -1·5 to 2·2; p<0·0001). No resistance to any study drug was observed. Numbers of discontinuations related to adverse events (11 [1%] of 763 patients in the study group vs four [1%] of 378 patients in the control group) and grade 3-4 adverse events (52 [7%] patients vs 31 [8%] patients) were similar between the two groups. There was a small non-clinically relevant but statistically significant (0·2 [SD 1·1] vs 0·1 [1·1], p=0.010) difference between the two groups in change from baseline in total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio. Only one serious adverse event (pancreatitis in the study group) was deemed as possibly related to the study regimen.

Interpretation: Our findings show the safety and efficacy of single-tablet darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide as a potential switch option for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults with viral suppression.

Funding: Janssen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(17)30179-0DOI Listing
January 2018

Autochthonous Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Spain.

N Engl J Med 2017 07;377(2):154-161

From the Arbovirus and Imported Viral Diseases Unit, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (A.N., M.P.S.-S., E.R.A., F.L.), Red de Investigación Colaborativa en Enfermedades Tropicales (A.N., M.P.S.-S., E.R.A., F.L.), High Level Isolation Unit (F.C.-P., M.M.-R., A.M.-Q., E.T., J.C.F., J. Manzanares, O.R.-F., V.M.C., J.R.A.) and Departments of Preventive Medicine (N.G.-A.) and Occupational Health (M.V.F.-D.), La Paz University Hospital, Intensive Care Unit (E.P.-H., A.M.G., L.L.P., D.D.-D., M.A.L.-G.) and Departments of Internal Medicine (B.S.-A.), Emergency (J.L.F.), and Occupational Health (P.D.-J.), Infanta Leonor University Hospital, Epidemiology Area of the Autonomous Community of Madrid (J.A.-M., M.O.G., E.R.-B., L.G.-C.), Intensive Care Unit (E.B.L., E.K.-D.) and Departments of Pathology (J. Menárguez, J. Milla) and Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (A.F.-C.), Gregorio Marañón University General Hospital, and Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Complutense University (J. Menárguez, J. Milla, A.F.-C.) - all in Madrid; and the World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Arbovirus and Hemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany (P.E., J.S.-C.).

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widely distributed, viral, tickborne disease. In Europe, cases have been reported only in the southeastern part of the continent. We report two autochthonous cases in Spain. The index patient acquired the disease through a tick bite in the province of Ávila - 300 km away from the province of Cáceres, where viral RNA from ticks was amplified in 2010. The second patient was a nurse who became infected while caring for the index patient. Both were infected with the African 3 lineage of this virus. (Funded by Red de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Tropicales [RICET] and Efficient Response to Highly Dangerous and Emerging Pathogens at EU [European Union] Level [EMERGE].).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1615162DOI Listing
July 2017

Autochthonous Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Spain: So much to learn.

Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2018 03 24;36(3):202. Epub 2017 Jun 24.

Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Infectious Diseases Unit, Internal Medicine Department, Madrid, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eimc.2017.05.004DOI Listing
March 2018

Simplification to single-tablet regimen of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, tenofovir DF from multi-tablet ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor plus coformulated emtricitabine and tenofovir DF regimens: week 96 results of STRATEGY-PI.

HIV Clin Trials 2017 05 30;18(3):118-125. Epub 2017 May 30.

i Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City , CA , USA.

Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) simplification to a single-tablet regimen can benefit HIV-1-infected, virologically suppressed, individuals on ART composed of multiple pills.

Objective: We assessed long-term efficacy and safety of switching to co-formulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) from multi-tablet ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI + RTV) plus F/TDF (TVD) regimens.

Methods: STRATEGY-PI was a 96-week, phase 3b, randomized (2:1), open-label, non-inferiority study examining the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of switching to E/C/F/TDF from PI + RTV + TVD regimens in virologically suppressed individuals (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL). Participants were randomized to switch to E/C/F/TDF (switch group) or to continue their PI + RTV + TVD regimens (no-switch group). Eligibility criteria included no resistance to F/TDF or history of virologic failure, and estimated creatinine clearance ≥70 mL/min.

Results: At week 96, 87% (252/290) of switch and 70% (97/139) of no-switch participants maintained HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL (difference: 17%, 95% CI 8.7-26.0%, p < 0.001). Superiority of the switch to E/C/F/TDF vs. no-switch was due to a smaller proportion of both virologic failures (switch, 1% [3/290]; no-switch, 6% [8/139]) and discontinuations for non-virologic reasons (switch, 11% [31/290]; no-switch, 24% [33/139]). No treatment-emergent resistance was observed in switch subjects with virologic failure. Discontinuation rates from adverse events were 3% in both groups (9/293, switch; 4/140, no-switch). Switching from PI + RTV + TVD to E/C/F/TDF was associated with significant improvements in patient-reported outcomes related to gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea and bloating).

Conclusion: E/C/F/TDF is a safe, effective long-term alternative to multi-tablet PI + RTV + TVD-based regimens in virologically suppressed, HIV-1-infected adults, and improves patient-reported gastrointestinal symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15284336.2017.1330440DOI Listing
May 2017

Six-Month Safety Data of Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Zaire Ebola Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Vaccine in a Phase 3 Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study in Healthy Adults.

J Infect Dis 2017 06;215(12):1789-1798

Merck & Co, Inc, Kenilworth, New Jersey.

Background: This study (NCT02503202) evaluated the safety of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein vaccine (rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP).

Methods: Overall, 1197 subjects were randomized 2:2:2:2:1; 1194 were vaccinated with 1 dose of 1 of 3 lots of rVSVΔG- ZEBOV-GP (2 × 107 plaque-forming units [pfu], n = 797; combined-lots group), a single high-dose lot of rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP (1 × 108 pfu, n = 264; high-dose group), or placebo (n = 133). Daily temperatures and adverse events (AEs) were recorded days 1 to 42 postvaccination. Solicited AEs included injection-site AEs from days 1 to 5, and joint pain, joint swelling, vesicular lesions (blisters), and rashes from days 1 to 42. Serious AEs (SAEs) were recorded through 6 months postvaccination.

Results: Fever (≥38.0°C) was observed in 20.2% of combined lots (3.2% with ≥39.0°C), 32.2% of high-dose (4.3% with ≥39.0°C), and 0.8% of placebo (0.8% with ≥39.0°C). Incidences of AEs of interest (days 1-42) were arthralgia (17.1% combined lots, 20.4% high-dose, 3.0% placebo), arthritis (5.1% combined lots, 4.2% high-dose, 0.0% placebo), and rash (3.8% combined lots, 3.8% high-dose, 1.5% placebo). Twenty-one SAEs and 2 deaths were reported, all assessed by investigators as unrelated to vaccine.

Conclusions: rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP was generally well-tolerated, with increased rates of injection-site and systemic AEs compared to placebo, and no vaccine-related SAEs or deaths. These findings support the use of rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP vaccine in persons at risk for Ebola virus disease.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02503202.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5853326PMC
June 2017

Impact of Antiretroviral Treatment Containing Tenofovir Difumarate on the Telomere Length of Aviremic HIV-Infected Patients.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2017 09;76(1):102-109

*HIV Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain; †Microbiology Service, Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain; ‡Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; and §Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas CSIC/UAM, IdiPAZ, Biomarkers and New Therapies and CIBER de enfermedades raras (CIBERER), Madrid, Spain.

Objective: To evaluate the in vivo relevance of the inhibitory effect of tenofovir on telomerase activity observed in vitro.

Design: Cross-sectional study of HIV-infected patients with suppressed virological replication (HIV RNA <50 copies/mL for more than 1 year).

Methods: Telomere length in whole blood was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We performed a multivariate analysis to elucidate variables associated with telomere length and also evaluated the association between telomere length and use of tenofovir difumarate (TDF) adjusted by significant confounders.

Results: 200 patients included, 72% men, median age 49 (IQR 45-54.5), 103 with exposure to a TDF containing antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimen (69.9% for more than 5 years) and 97 never exposed to a TDF containing ART regimen. In the multivariate analysis, significant predictors of shorter telomere length were older age (P = 0.008), parental age at birth (P = 0.038), white race (P = 0.048), and longer time of known HIV infection (10-20 and ≥20 years compared with <10 years, P = 0.003 and P = 0.056, respectively). There was no association between TDF exposure and telomere length after adjusting for possible confounding factors (age, parental age at birth, race, and time of HIV infection). Total time receiving ART and duration of treatment with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were associated with shorter telomere length, but these associations were explained by time of known HIV infection.

Conclusions: Our data do not suggest that telomerase activity inhibition caused by TDF in vitro leads to telomere shortening in peripheral blood of HIV-infected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001391DOI Listing
September 2017

Brief Report: Randomized, Double-Blind Comparison of Tenofovir Alafenamide (TAF) vs Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF), Each Coformulated With Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, and Emtricitabine (E/C/F) for Initial HIV-1 Treatment: Week 144 Results.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2017 06;75(2):211-218

*Infectious Diseases Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, ES; †AIDS Research Consortium of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA; ‡Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; §Internal Medicine, General Hospital Graz-West, Graz, AT; ‖Tarrant County Infectious Disease Associates, Fort Worth, TX; ¶Division of Infectious Diseases, UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC; #Orlando Immunology Center, Orlando, FL; **Claude Nicol Centre, Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton & Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, United Kingdom; and ††Departments of Biometrics, Virology, Clinical Operations, and HIV Clinical Research, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA.

In 2 double-blind phase 3 trials, 1733 antiretroviral-naive adults were randomized to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), each coformulated with elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine (E/C/F). At 144 weeks, TAF was superior to TDF in virologic efficacy, with 84.2% vs 80.0% having HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL (difference 4.2%; 95% confidence interval: 0.6% to 7.8%). TAF had less impact than TDF on bone mineral density and renal biomarkers. No participants on TAF had renal-related discontinuations vs 12 on TDF (P < 0.001), with no cases of proximal tubulopathy for TAF vs 4 for TDF. There were greater increases in lipids with TAF vs TDF, with no difference in the total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein ratio. For initial HIV therapy, E/C/F/TAF is superior to E/C/F/TDF in efficacy and bone and renal safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001350DOI Listing
June 2017

Probable sexual transmission of Zika virus from a vasectomised man.

Lancet Infect Dis 2016 10 19;16(10):1107. Epub 2016 Sep 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Madrid 28046, Spain; Department of Infectious Diseases Unit, Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Madrid 28046, Spain. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30320-6DOI Listing
October 2016