Publications by authors named "Jose Manuel Ruiz-Giardin"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Co-infection of severe imported malaria and HIV in a hospital in the south of Madrid.

Med Clin (Barc) 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Fuenlabrada, Madrid, España.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2021.02.020DOI Listing
May 2021

Imported cysticercosis in Spain: A retrospective case series from the +REDIVI Collaborative Network.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2020 Sep - Oct;37:101683. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Network Biomedical Research on Tropical Diseases (RICET in Spanish), Madrid, Spain; National Referral Unit for Tropical Diseases, Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, IRICYS, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic neurological disease worldwide and a major cause of epilepsy. Spain is the country reporting the highest number of NCC imported cases in Europe.

Methodology: Retrospective case series of NCC patients registered in the +REDIVI Network from October 1, 2009 to July 2018. A specific questionnaire, including clinical and diagnostic characteristics, was created and sent to the collaborator centers.

Results: 46 cases were included in the analysis. 55% were male, mean age of 40 years. 95.6% were migrants. The median duration since migration from an endemic area was 10 years. Predominant nationalities were Ecuadorians (50%) and Bolivians (30.4%). Frequent locations were parenchymal (87%), subarachnoid (26.1%) and intraventricular cysts (10.9%). Serological analysis was performed in 91.3%, being 54.8% positive. Most prevalent clinical manifestations were persistent headache (60.9%), epilepsy (43.5%) and visual changes (13%). Patients were mainly treated with albendazole (76.1%), corticosteroids (67.4%), and anticonvulsionants (52.2%). 82.5% had a favorable clinical outcome.

Conclusions: Most NCC cases were long-standing migrants. Few clinical differences were observed depending on the cysticerci location. The treatment was often not according to current recommendations, and no uniform criteria were followed when it came to the therapeutic regimen. NCC case management in Spain (including clinician awareness and laboratory capacity improvements) needs to be strengthened.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101683DOI Listing
April 2020

Blood stream infections associated with central and peripheral venous catheters.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Oct 15;19(1):841. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Camino del Molino nº 2, 28942, Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The purposes of this study were to determine the incidence of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bacteraemias, the relationship between the suspected and final confirmed bacteraemia origins, and the differences in microbiological, epidemiological, clinical, and analytical characteristics between the groups, including evolution to death.

Methods: This was a 7-year descriptive retrospective populational study of all bloodstream infections, comparing central (CB) and peripheral (PB) venous catheter-related bacteraemias in patients older than 15 years.

Results: In all, 285 catheter-related bacteraemia patients, 220 with CBs (77.19%) and 65 with PBs (22.81%), were analysed among 1866 cases with bloodstream infections. The cumulative incidence per 1000 patients-day of hospital stay was 0.36 for CB and 0.106 for PB. In terms of the suspected origin, there was less accuracy in diagnosing catheter-related bloodstream infections (68. 2%) than those of other origins (78. 4%), p <  0.001. The accuracy was greater for PB (75%) than for CB (66. 2%), Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequent microorganisms in both groups but occurred 1.57 times more frequently in CB (64.1%/40.6%) (p = 0.004), while Staphylococcus aureus (23. 4%/9.5%) (p = 0.02) and Enterobacteriae species (15.6%/6. 3%) (p = 0.003) were 2.5 times more frequent in PB. The CB patients stayed at the hospital for an average of 7.44 days longer than did the PB patients; more CB patients had active neoplasia (70. 4%/32.8%), more had surgery in the previous week (29. 2%/8. 3%), and fewer received adequate empirical treatment (53.9%/ 62.5%). Catheter was not removed in 8. 2% of CB and 3.7% of PB. On the other hand, the CB and PB patients had similar Pitt scores at blood extraction (median 0.89 versus 0.84 points, respectively; p = 0.8) and similar survival rates at hospital discharge (91.1% versus 90. 2%; p = 0.81).

Conclusions: Central catheters were more frequent sources of bacteraemias than were peripheral catheters. There were important differences in the microbiological aetiology as well. PB patients received correct empirical antibiotic treatment more frequently and had a higher initial rate of correct determination of the suspected source of bacteraemia. Differences in the microbiological aetiology and empirical antibiotic treatment received, and probably catheter removal and time to catheter removal could explain why CB and PB patients had similar survival rates .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4505-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6794764PMC
October 2019

Diagnostic model of visceral leishmaniasis based on bone marrow findings. Study of patients with clinical suspicion in which the parasite is not observed.

Eur J Intern Med 2019 Nov 26;69:42-49. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious protozoal disease endemic in diverse areas, including the southern area of Madrid (Spain), where an outbreak was detected in 2009. The objective of this work is to analyze bone marrow alterations in VL patients and elaborate a diagnostic model with the aim to improve the early detection of this disease. The usual diagnostic methods, as the observation of the parasite on a bone marrow aspirate, have frequent false negatives, and the high sensitivity methods, as PCR and ELISA, are delayed or are not always available.

Methods: This observational study evaluated bone marrow parameters of adult patients with clinical suspicion of VL, in which a bone marrow aspiration was performed but Leishmania was not directly observed, during the period 2009-2014. The patients finally diagnosed of VL by other methods (VL group, n=41), and the patients in which the VL was not diagnosed (non-VL group, n=20) were compared. A multivariant model was elaborated and externally validated.

Results: The final multivariant model includes percentage of myeloid series, percentage of plasma cells and quantification of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.87 (0.78-0.96). The model performed well in the external validation.

Conclusion: In cases of VL suspicion and when the parasite is not observed in the bone marrow aspiration, the proposed model could be useful in discriminating between patients with and without VL, allowing to take a therapeutic decision while awaiting the definitive diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2019.08.015DOI Listing
November 2019

Latent and active tuberculosis infections in migrants and travellers: A retrospective analysis from the Spanish +REDIVI collaborative network.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2020 Jul - Aug;36:101460. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

National Referral Unit for Tropical Diseases, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramon y Cajal Hospital, IRYCIS, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of infectious disease mortality worldwide. We analysed active and latent TB infections (LTBI) from the Spanish Network for the Study of Imported Infectious Diseases by Travellers and Immigrants (+REDIVI).

Methods: Observational, retrospective, multicentre study of TB and LTBI registered in the +REDIVI network from October 2009 to December 2016.

Results: Of 1008 cases of LTBI, 884 (87.7%) were immigrants; 93 (4.5%), immigrants visiting friends and relatives (VFR); 2 (0.9%), VFR-travellers; and 29 (1.1%), travellers. Absolute (N = 157 vs. N = 75) and relative (12.5% vs. 5.9%) frequency decreased over the study period (p = 0.003). Median time to diagnosis was 24.6 months (females 50.3 vs males 11.9; p < 0.001). Of 448 TB cases, 405 (90.4%) were in immigrants; 30 (6.7%), VFR-immigrants; 6 (1.3%), VFR-travellers; and 7 (1.6%), travellers. Median time to diagnosis was 62.5 months (females 86.6 vs males 70.1; p = 0.0075). There were 8 multidrug resistant TB cases and 1 extensively drug resistant case of TB, all in immigrants.

Conclusion: TB was frequently diagnosed more than 5 years after arrival in Spain. Screening programmes for TB and LTBI in immigrants should be considered beyond this time point. Women showed a higher diagnostic delay for both latent and active TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2019.07.016DOI Listing
July 2019

Clinical aspects of visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. infantum in adults. Ten years of experience of the largest outbreak in Europe: what have we learned?

Parasit Vectors 2019 Jul 24;12(1):359. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Área de Infecciosas, Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Camino del Molino 2, 28942, Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain.

Background: An outbreak of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum was declared in the southwest of the Madrid region (Spain) in June 2009. This provided a unique opportunity to compare the management of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in immunocompetent adults (IC-VL), patients with HIV (HIV-VL) and patients receiving immunosuppressants (IS-VL).

Methods: A cohort of adults with VL, all admitted to the Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada between June 2009 and June 2018, were monitored in this observational study, recording their personal, epidemiological, analytical, diagnostic, treatment and outcome variables.

Results: The study population was made up of 111 patients with VL (10% HIV-VL, 14% IS-VL, 76% IC-VL). Seventy-one percent of the patients were male; the mean age was 45 years (55 years for the IS-VL patients, P = 0.017). Fifty-four percent of the IC-VL patients were of sub-Saharan origin (P = 0.001). Fever was experienced by 98% of the IC-VL patients vs 73% of the LV-HIV patients (P = 0.003). Plasma ferritin was > 1000 ng/ml in 77% of the IC-VL patients vs 17% of the LV-HIV patients (P = 0.007). Forty-two percent of patients fulfilled the criteria for haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. RDT (rK39-ICT) serological analysis returned sensitivity and specificity values of 45% and 99%, respectively, and ELISA/iIFAT returned 96% and 89%, respectively, with no differences in this respect between patient groups. Fourteen (13.0%) patients with VL experienced treatment failure, eight of whom were in the IC-VL group. Treatment with < 21 mg/kg (total) liposomal amphotericin B (LAB) was associated with treatment failure in the IC-VL patients [P = 0.002 (OR: 14.7; 95% CI: 2.6-83.3)].

Conclusions: IS-VL was more common than HIV-VL; the lack of experience in dealing with IS-VL is a challenge that needs to be met. The clinical features of the patients in all groups were similar, although the HIV-VL patients experienced less fever and had lower plasma ferritin concentrations. RDT (rK39-ICT) analysis returned a good specificity value but a much poorer sensitivity value than reported in other scenarios. The patients with HIV-VL, IS-VL and IC-VL returned similar serological results. Current guidelines for treatment seem appropriate, but the doses of LAB required to treat patients with HIV-VL and IS-VL are poorly defined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3628-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6657057PMC
July 2019

Prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infection in immigrants living in Spain.

Malar J 2019 Jul 17;18(1):242. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The importance of submicroscopic malaria infections in high-transmission areas could contribute to maintain the parasite cycle. Regarding non-endemic areas, its importance remains barely understood because parasitaemia in these afebrile patients is usually below the detection limits for microscopy, hence molecular techniques are often needed for its diagnosis. In addition to this, the lack of standardized protocols for the screening of submicroscopic malaria in immigrants from endemic areas may underestimate the infection with Plasmodium spp. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of submicroscopic malaria in afebrile immigrants living in a non-endemic area.

Methods: A prospective, observational, multicentre study was conducted. Afebrile immigrants were included, microscopic observation of Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood smears, and two different molecular techniques detecting Plasmodium spp. were performed. Patients with submicroscopic malaria were defined as patients with negative blood smears and detection of DNA of Plasmodium spp. with one or both molecular techniques. Demographic, clinical, analytical and microbiological features were recorded and univariate analysis by subgroups was carried out with STATA v15.

Results: A total of 244 afebrile immigrants were included in the study. Of them, 14 had a submicroscopic malaria infection, yielding a prevalence of 5.7% (95% confidence interval 3.45-9.40). In 71.4% of the positive PCR/negative microscopy cases, Plasmodium falciparum alone was the main detected species (10 out of the 14 patients) and in 4 cases (28.6%) Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale were detected. One patient had a mixed infection including three different species.

Conclusions: The prevalence of submicroscopic malaria in afebrile immigrants was similar to that previously described in Spain. Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale were detected in almost a third of the submicroscopic infections. Screening protocols for afebrile immigrants with molecular techniques could be useful for a proper management of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2870-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6637620PMC
July 2019

Asymptomatic immune responders to Leishmania among HIV positive patients.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 06 3;13(6):e0007461. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Leishmaniasis, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda (Madrid), Spain.

Concomitant infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the Leishmania parasite is a growing public health problem, the result of the former spreading to areas where the latter is endemic. Leishmania infection is usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals, but the proportion of HIV+ individuals in contact with the parasite who remain asymptomatic is not known. The aim of the present work was to examine the use of cytokine release assays in the detection of asymptomatic immune responders to Leishmania among HIV+ patients with no previous leishmaniasis or current symptomatology. Eighty two HIV+ patients (all from Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain, where a leishmaniasis outbreak occurred in 2009) were examined for Leishmania infantum infection using molecular and humoral response-based methods. None returned a positive molecular or serological result for the parasite. Thirteen subjects showed a positive lymphoproliferative response to soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA), although the mean CD4+ T lymphocyte counts of these patients was below the normal range. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or whole blood with SLA (the lymphoproliferative assay and whole blood assay respectively), led to the production of specific cytokines and chemokines. Thus, despite being immunocompromised, HIV+ patients can maintain a Th1-type cellular response to Leishmania. In addition, cytokine release assays would appear to be useful tools for detecting these individuals via the identification of IFN-γ in the supernatants of SLA-stimulated PBMC, and of IFN-γ, MIG and IL-2 in SLA-stimulated whole blood. These biomarkers appear to be 100% reliable for detecting asymptomatic immune responders to Leishmania among HIV+ patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6564048PMC
June 2019

Clinicoepidemiological characteristics of viral hepatitis in migrants and travellers of the +Redivi network.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2019 May - Jun;29:51-57. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

National Referral Unit for Tropical Diseases, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal University Hospital, IRYCIS, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9, 1, 28034, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Continuous growth of mobile populations has influenced the global epidemiology of infectious diseases, including chronic and acute viral hepatitis.

Method: A prospective observational multicentre study was performed in a Spanish network of imported infections. Viral hepatitis cases from January 2009 to September 2017 were included.

Results: Of 14,546 records, 723 (4.97%) had imported viral hepatitis, including 48 (6.64%) acute cases and 675 (93.36%) chronic cases. Of the 48 acute cases, 31 were travellers and immigrants returning from visiting friends or relatives (VFR), while 19 (61%) were acute Hepatitis A or Hepatitis B. Only 18.2% of VFR immigrants and 35% of travellers received pre-travel advice. Acute hepatitis was more frequent in VFR immigrants (AOR 2.59, CI95% 1.20-5.60) and travellers (AOR 2.83, CI95% 1.46-5.50) than immigrants. Of the 675 Chronic cases, 570 were immigrants, and 439 (77%) had chronic Hepatitis B. Chronic hepatitis was more frequent in immigrants (AOR 20.22, CI95% 11.64-35.13) and VFR immigrants (AOR 11.12, CI95% 6.20-19.94) than travellers.

Conclusions: Chronic viral hepatitis was typical of immigrants, acute viral hepatitis was common among travellers, and VFR immigrants had mixed risk. Improving pre-travel consultation and screening of immigrants may contribute to preventing new cases of viral hepatitis and avoiding community transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2019.02.001DOI Listing
July 2019

Cellular Markers of Active Disease and Cure in Different Forms of -Induced Disease.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 13;8:381. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Leishmaniasis, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Increased numbers of peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMC) and increased IFN-γ secretion following challenge of blood samples with soluble antigen (SLA), have been proposed as biomarkers of specific cell-mediated immunity, indicating that treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been successful. However, infection may manifest as cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), and less commonly as localized leishmanial lymphadenopathy (LLL) or mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). The present work examines the value of these biomarkers as indicators of cured leishmaniasis presenting in these different forms. Blood samples were collected before and after treatment from patients living in Fuenlabrada (Madrid, Spain), an endemic area recently the center of a leishmaniasis outbreak. All samples were subjected to -specific PCR, serological tests (IFAT and rK39-ICT), and the SLA-cell proliferation assay (SLA-CPA), recording PBMC proliferation and the associated changes in IFN-γ production. Differences in the results recorded for the active and cured conditions were only significant for VL. PCR returned positive results in 67% of patients with active VL and in 3% of those with cured leishmaniasis. Similarly, rK39-ICT returned a positive result in 77% of active VL samples . 52% in cured VL samples, and IFAT in 90% . 56%; in the SLA-CPA, PBMC proliferation was seen in 16% . 90%, and an associated increase in IFN-γ production of 14 and 84%, respectively. The present findings reinforce the idea that PBMC proliferation and increased IFN-γ production in SLA-stimulated PBMC provide biomarkers of clinical cure in VL. Other tests are urgently needed to distinguish between the cured and active forms of the other types of clinical leishmaniasis caused by .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2018.00381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6243388PMC
September 2019

Prospective comparative multi-centre study on imported Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi infections.

Malar J 2018 Oct 30;17(1):399. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, Spain.

Background: Few previous retrospective studies suggest that Plasmodium ovale wallikeri seems to have a longer latency period and produces deeper thrombocytopaenia than Plasmodium ovale curtisi. Prospective studies were warranted to better assess interspecies differences.

Methods: Patients with imported P. ovale spp. infection diagnosed by thick or thin film, rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were recruited between March 2014 and May 2017. All were confirmed by DNA isolation and classified as P. o. curtisi or P. o. wallikeri using partial sequencing of the ssrRNA gene. Epidemiological, analytical and clinical differences were analysed by statistical methods.

Results: A total of 79 samples (35 P. o. curtisi and 44 P. o. wallikeri) were correctly genotyped. Males predominate in wallikeri group (72.7%), whereas were 48.6% in curtisi group. Conversely, 74.3% of curtisi group were from patients of African ethnicity, whilst 52.3% of Caucasians were infected by P. o. wallikeri. After performing a multivariate analysis, more thrombocytopaenic patients (p = 0.022), a lower number of platelets (p = 0.015), a higher INR value (p = 0.041), and shorter latency in Caucasians (p = 0.034) were significantly seen in P. o. wallikeri. RDT sensitivity was 26.1% in P. o. curtisi and 42.4% in P. o. wallikeri. Nearly 20% of both species were diagnosed only by PCR. Total bilirubin over 3 mg/dL was found in three wallikeri cases. Two patients with curtisi infection had haemoglobin under 7 g/dL, one of them also with icterus. A wallikeri patient suffered from haemophagocytosis. Chemoprophylaxis failed in 14.8% and 35% of curtisi and wallikeri patients, respectively. All treated patients with various anti-malarials which included artesunate recovered. Diabetes mellitus was described in 5 patients (6.32%), 4 patients of wallikeri group and 1 curtisi.

Conclusions: Imported P. o. wallikeri infection may be more frequent in males and Caucasians. Malaria caused by P. o. wallikeri produces more thrombocytopaenia, a higher INR and shorter latency in Caucasians and suggests a more pathogenic species. Severe cases can be seen in both species. Chemoprophylaxis seems less effective in P. ovale spp. infection than in P. falciparum, but any anti-malarial drug is effective as initial treatment. Diabetes mellitus could be a risk factor for P. ovale spp. infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2544-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6208040PMC
October 2018

Study of the diagnostic accuracy of microbiological techniques in the diagnosis of malaria in the immigrant population in Madrid.

Malar J 2018 Aug 29;17(1):314. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Avenida de Córdoba, s/n, 28041, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Malaria is currently the most important human parasitic disease in the world responsible for high morbidity and mortality. Appropriate diagnostic methods are essential for early detection. Microscopy examination remains the gold standard, although molecular techniques have higher sensitivity and are very useful in cases of low parasitaemia and mixed infections. The objective of this study was to evaluate a new commercial molecular diagnostic technique.

Methods: A prospective, observational, multicentre study was performed between January 2015 and April 2017. All participants were immigrants from malaria-endemic areas, who were divided into two groups: asymptomatic group and symptomatic. Samples from both groups were evaluated by a rapid diagnostic test (ImmunoQuick Malaria + 4 RDT), microscopy examination, and two commercial molecular malaria tests (FTD Malaria and FTD Malaria Differentiation), then compared against an in-house reference PCR technique.

Results: In all, 250 patients were included: 164 (65.6%) in the asymptomatic group, and 86 (34.4%) in the symptomatic group. There were seven cases of asymptomatic parasitaemia (prevalence = 2.8%) that were detected only by molecular methods. In the symptomatic group, there were seven cases of submicroscopic malaria. The main species detected was Plasmodium falciparum (96.6%). The commercial molecular technique had higher sensitivity than the other methods (S = 96%) and a high rate of concordance with the in-house reference PCR technique (Kappa score = 0.93).

Conclusions: The molecular techniques, although slower than microscopy, have adequate diagnostic accuracy and are very useful for the detection of P. falciparum in cases with low parasitaemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2459-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6116490PMC
August 2018

Imported malaria in Spain (2009-2016): results from the +REDIVI Collaborative Network.

Malar J 2017 10 10;16(1):407. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

National Referral Unit for Tropical Diseases, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal University Hospital, IRYCIS, Ctra Colmenar, Km 9,100, 28034, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Imported malaria is a frequent diagnosis in travellers and migrants. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with imported malaria within a Spanish collaborative network registering imported diseases (+REDIVI). In addition, the possible association between malaria and type of case, gender, age or area of exposure was explored.

Methods: Cases of imported malaria were identified among all cases registered in the +REDIVI database during the period October 2009-October 2016. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics were analysed.

Results: In total, 11,816 cases of imported infectious diseases were registered in +REDIVI's database between October 2009 and October 2016. Immigrants seen for the first time after migration accounted for 60.2% of cases, 21.0% of patients were travellers, and 18.8% were travellers/immigrants visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). There were 850 cases of malaria (850/11,816, 7.2%). Malaria was significantly more frequent in men than in women (56.8% vs 43.2%) and in VFR-immigrants (52.6%) as compared to travellers (21.3%), immigrants (20.7%) and VFR-travellers (5.4%) (p < 0.001). Although this data was not available for most patients with malaria, only a minority (29/217, 13.4%) mentioned correct anti-malarial prophylaxis. Sub-Saharan Africa was found to be the most common region of acquisition of malaria. Most common reason for consultation after travel was a febrile syndrome although an important proportion of immigrants were asymptomatic and presented only for health screening (27.3%). Around 5% of travellers presented with severe malaria. The most prevalent species of Plasmodium diagnosed was Plasmodium falciparum (81.5%). Malaria due to Plasmodium ovale/Plasmodium vivax was frequent among travellers (17%) and nearly 5% of all malaria cases in immigrants were caused by Plasmodium malariae.

Conclusions: Malaria was among the five most frequent diagnoses registered in +REDIVI's database. Some significant differences were found in the distribution of malaria according to gender, type of case, species. Among all malaria cases, the most frequent diagnosis was P. falciparum infection in VFR-immigrant men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-017-2057-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5635489PMC
October 2017

Travelers' Diarrhea in Children at Risk: An Observational Study From a Spanish Database.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2016 Apr;35(4):392-5

From the*Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, PROSICS Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; †Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, IRYCIS, Madrid, Spain; ‡Hospital de Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain; §Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, Spain; ¶Hospital Universitario Príncipe de Asturias, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; and ‖Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Spain.

Background: Gastrointestinal symptoms are a common cause of consultation about children traveling to or coming from developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with gastrointestinal syndrome in children who travel.

Methods: A prospective observational analytical and multicenter study was performed within +Redivi, a Spanish Tropical Medicine network on imported infections, from January 2009 to December 2013. All participants aged 16 years and younger were included in the analysis. Ethical approval was obtained from all the participating centers.

Results: A total of 606 children ≤16 years of age were registered in the +Redivi database during the study period. Median age was 8.7 years (interquartile range, 4.4-12.4 years), 65.8% (399/606) were immigrants, 90% were >2 years old and 54% were male. Median travel duration, excluding immigrants, was 50 days (interquartile range, 30-150 days). Children with gastrointestinal symptoms represented 13.5% (82/606) of total consultations. A significant association was found in bivariate analysis between gastrointestinal disorder and age <2 years (P < 0.01) and travel duration (P = 0.046). Immigrants had less gastrointestinal disorders than tourists (P < 0.05). The most prevalent infection was protozoan in 23.4% (142/606), and Giardia intestinalis was the most common pathogen in 10.1% (61/606) of total children. Independent risk factors for gastrointestinal symptoms were tourist and traveler child visiting friends and relatives (P = 0.03), travel duration <90 days (P = 0.008) and bacterial cause (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Traveling children who developed a gastrointestinal syndrome represented 13.5% of the total pediatric consultations in +Redivi. Independent risk factors were tourist or traveler visiting friends and relatives, travel duration <90 days and bacterial infection. G. intestinalis was the most common infectious agent causing a gastrointestinal disorder in the traveler children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000001049DOI Listing
April 2016

Diagnosis of bacteraemia and growth times.

Int J Infect Dis 2015 Dec 23;41:6-10. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

12 de Octubre University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Objective: The objective of this study was to predict the diagnosis of bacteraemia as a function of the time at which the automated BacT/Alert system continuously detects microorganism growth.

Methods: A retrospective study of a database of 1334 patients with a positive blood culture between January 2011 and June 2013 was conducted. Together with the final blood culture results and the patient's history, growth was then analysed to assess whether it represented true bacteraemia or bacterial contamination. The earliest detection times of bacterial growth in each batch of blood cultures were analysed in a blinded fashion after classification.

Results: In total, 590 batches of blood cultures corresponded to true bacteraemia and 744 to bacterial contamination. In the bacteraemia group, the median growth time was 12.72 h (interquartile range (IQR) 10.08-17.58 h). In the contaminated blood culture group, the median growth time was 20.6h (IQR 17.04-32.16 h) (p<0.001). Analysis of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (area under the curve 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.771-0.826) showed that 90% of the contaminants grew after 14.7h (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 63.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) 65.9%, negative predictive value (NPV) 90.7%). Forty-five percent of the bacteraemia organisms grew in under 12h (sensitivity 45.3%, specificity 95%, PPV 87.8%, NPV 68.7%). Microorganisms such as Candida sp and Bacteroides sp presented median growth times significantly longer than those of the other microorganisms. The administration of antibiotics in the week prior to bacteraemia was found to delay the growth time of microorganisms (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Knowing the time to detection of microorganism growth can help to distinguish between true bacteraemia and bacterial contamination, thus allowing more timely clinical decisions to be made, before definitive microorganism identification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2015.10.008DOI Listing
December 2015

Imported malaria including HIV and pregnant woman risk groups: overview of the case of a Spanish city 2004-2014.

Malar J 2015 Sep 17;14:356. Epub 2015 Sep 17.

San Carlos Clinical Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Arrival of inmigrants from malaria endemic areas has led to a emergence of cases of this parasitic disease in Spain. The objective of this study was to analyse the high incidence rate of imported malaria in Fuenlabrada, a city in the south of Madrid, together with the frequent the lack of chemoprophylaxis, for the period between 2004 and 2014. Both pregnant women and HIV risk groups have been considered.

Methods: Retrospective descriptive study of laboratory-confirmed malaria at the Fuenlabrada University Hospital, in Madrid, during a 10-year period (2004-2014). These data were obtained reviewing medical histories of the cases. Relevant epidemiological, clinical and laboratory results were analysed, with focus on the following risk groups: pregnant women and individuals with HIV.

Results: A total of 185 cases were diagnosed (90.3 % Plasmodium falciparum). The annual incidence rate was 11.9/100,000 inhabitants/year. The average age was 30.8 years (SD: 14.3). Infections originating in sub-Saharan Africa comprised the 97.6 % of the cases. A total of 85.9 % were Visiting Friends and Relatives. Only a 4.3 % completed adequate prophylaxis. A total of 14.28 % of the fertile women were pregnant, and 8 cases (4.3 %) had HIV. None of them in these special groups completed prophylaxis.

Conclusions: The incidence rate in Fuenlabrada is higher than in the rest of Spain, due to the large number of immigrants from endemic areas living in the municipality. However, the results are not representative of all the country. It seems to be reasonable to implement prevention and pre-travel assessment programs to increase chemoprophylaxis. Pregnancy tests and HIV serology should be completed for all patients to improve prophylactic methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-015-0891-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4574548PMC
September 2015

Characteristics of HIV infected individuals traveling abroad. Results from the +REDIVI Collaborative Network.

Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2016 Feb 26;34(2):108-13. Epub 2015 May 26.

Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, IRYCIS, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: The improvement in the prognosis of HIV infection, coupled with the increase in international travel and migration, has led to a rising number of HIV infected travelers. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of returning travelers, according to their HIV status.

Methods: An observational prospective study was conducted including travelers and immigrants who traveled to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) registered in the +REDIVI collaborative network (January-2009; October-2014). +REDIVI is a national network that registers information regarding infections imported by travelers and immigrants at 21 different centers using a standardized protocol.

Results: A total of 3464 travellers were identified: 72 were HIV+ (2.1%) and 3.392 HIV- (98%). HIV+ vs. HIV- travelers were often older (40.5y vs. 34.2y P=.001), VFRs (79.1% vs. 44.4%; P<.001), and consulted less for pre-travel advice (27% vs. 37%; P=.078). The main destinations for both groups were sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. The most frequent reasons for consultation after travel were fever, request for a health examination, gastrointestinal complaints, and abnormal laboratory tests (mainly eosinophilia and anemia), which differed between groups. The most frequent diagnoses in HIV+ travelers were malaria (38.8%), newly diagnosed HIV infection (25%), and intestinal parasites (19.4%), while for HIV- travelers the main diagnoses were "healthy" (17.9%), malaria (14%), and intestinal parasites (17.3%).

Conclusions: The typical profile of an HIV+ traveler in +REDIVI was that of a VFR traveler who did not seek pre-travel advice and made high-risk trips. This may increase the chance of acquiring travel-related infections which may pose a special risk for HIV-infected travelers. The post-travel visit was a good opportunity for HIV infection screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eimc.2015.03.023DOI Listing
February 2016

Comparison of imported Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri infections among patients in Spain, 2005-2011.

Emerg Infect Dis 2014 Mar;20(3):409-16

Sequencing data from Plasmodium ovale genotypes co-circulating in multiple countries support the hypothesis that P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are 2 separate species. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, comparative study in Spain of 21 patients who had imported P. ovale curtisi infections and 14 who had imported P. ovale wallikeri infections confirmed by PCR and gene sequencing during June 2005-December 2011. The only significant finding was more severe thrombocytopenia among patients with P. ovale wallikeri infection than among those with P. ovale curtisi infection (p = 0.031). However, we also found nonsignificant trends showing that patients with P. ovale wallikeri infection had shorter time from arrival in Spain to onset of symptoms, lower level of albumin, higher median maximum core temperature, and more markers of hemolysis than did those with P. ovale curtisi infection. Larger, prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3944870PMC
March 2014

[Anaerobic bacteraemias and treatment].

Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2011 Jun-Jul;29(6):477. Epub 2010 Sep 16.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eimc.2010.05.004DOI Listing
November 2011

[Clinic predictive model and validation of anaerobic bacteremias (including polymicrobial bacteremias)].

Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2010 Aug-Sep;28(7):421-9. Epub 2010 Mar 23.

Medicina Interna-Infecciosas, Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Madrid, España.

Introduction: Anaerobic bacteremias are uncommon. There is no agreement on their clinical predictability and the usefulness of anaerobic blood cultures. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for the prediction of anaerobic bacteremias.

Method: The developing model was created with 984 bacteremias (45 anaerobic bacteremias) during 1985-1986 and 1996-1997. The validation model was made with 320 bacteremias during 2005-2006.

Results: Independent multivariate predictors of true anaerobic bacteremia were used to develop a model stratifying patients with scores of 0 to 13 points(p), which were: unknown focus OR 3.46 (CI: 1.13-10.54) 3 p; abdominal and skin focus OR 14.85 (CI: 6.37-34.62) 6p; hypotension OR 1.99 (CI: 0.98-4.04) 2p; absence of vascular manipulations OR 2.62 (CI: 1.04-6.60) 2p and age over 60 years OR 3.21 (CI: 1.19-8.67) 3p. In the derivation sets group with more than 7p the model had Sensitivity: 77.8%, Specificity: 78.3%, PPV:14.7%, and a NPV of 98.6%. The area under curve was ROC=0.84 (SE=0.011), 95% CI: 0.82-0.86 with an anaerobic bacteremia prevalence of 4.6%. The validation set was studied analysing 320 bacteremias. Of these, 83.6% (95% CI: 71.19%-92.23%) of anaerobic bacteremias had more than 7 points, and 72.7% had more than 9 points. There was 26.4% (95% CI: 21.2%-32.15%) aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteremias with more than 7 points, and only the 11.7% with 9 or more points. The area under the curve was, ROC=0.82 (SE=0.02), 95% CI:0.78-0.86, and estimated prevalence, 2%.

Conclusions: Abdominal and skin focus OR 14,85; unknown focus OR 3,46; hypotension OR 1,99; absence of vascular manipulations OR 2,62 and age over 60 years enable us to make a predictive clinical model of probability of anaerobic bacteremia with a high sensitivity and specificity. The model particularly has a significant predictive negative value due to the low prevalence of anaerobic bacteremia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eimc.2009.09.011DOI Listing
February 2011

[Diagnostic reliability of anaerobic blood cultures in bacteremias from a critical care unit].

Med Clin (Barc) 2009 May 14;132(19):729-34. Epub 2009 Apr 14.

Medicina Interna-Infecciosas, Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Madrid, España.

Background And Objective: This is a descriptive study of bacteraemias diagnosed in ICU with an analysis of the diagnostic reliability of anaerobic blood cultures.

Patients And Method: Analysis of all positive blood cultures in an Intensive Care Unit from May 2005 to October 2007.

Results: The overall incidence of true bacteraemia was 6,1% of admissions. Out of 100 patients, there were 73 bacteraemias and 52 contaminated cultures. Samples with contaminated cultures were drawn 6,27 days earlier (CI 95% 0,61-11,94 Sig:0,03) than true bacteraemia. Most frequent micro organisms were cocci gram positive: 43 cases (58,9%) (coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent: 30 or 41% of all bacteraemia)) Sig=0,001 in relation with gram negatives. Anaerobic micro organisms were not detected. Candidemias were found in 10 cases (13,7%). The most frequent causes of bacteraemia in this study were catheter-related infections with 36 cases (49,3% Sig<0,005), followed by digestive origin infections in 14 (19,2%). Of all bacteremic episodes (73 bacteraemia), 66 (90,4%) were isolated in aerobic blood cultures, and 58 (79,5%) were in anaerobic ones, with a difference of 10,9% Sig:0,06. When only intrahospitalary bacteraemias were analyzed, there was a difference of 13,56% of more yields in aerobic blood cultures; Sig:0,04 (IC 95% 0,8%-26%)). Candidemias were isolated only in aerobic blood cultures; Sig:0,001. When analyzing coagulase negative staphylococci, there were 30 bacteraemias and 41 contaminated samples. 62 (87,3%) were isolated in aerobic blood cultures and 50 (70,4%) in anaerobic ones, with a difference of 16,9% Sig=0,01,CI 95%(3%-30%).

Conclusions: In the Critical Care Unit, it would be possible to change the anaerobic blood cultures by aerobic ones to diagnose bacteraemias of intrahospitalary acquisition. This fact should be analyzed with others studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2008.10.061DOI Listing
May 2009

[Comparative study of prognostic and risk factors for mortality in polymicrobial bacteremia-fungemia in a university hospital: development over 10 years].

Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2002 Nov;20(9):435-42

Servicio de Medicina Interna-Infecciosas. Hospital Universitario de La Princesa. Madrid. España.

Objective: Eighty-two episodes of polymicrobial bacteremia in two time periods, 1986-87 and 1996-97, were compared to assess differences in risk factors and outcome to mortality.

Methods: A prospective, concurrent, anterograde study with univariate analysis of all episodes of polymicrobial bacteremia was performed in Hospital de la Princesa. Logistic regression analysis was applied to all significant variables (p < 0.05) in the univariate analysis in either of the two time periods.

Results: Variables showing statistically significant differences in incidence between the two time periods included the following: hospital acquired bacteremia; previous use of antibiotics; genitourinary, respiratory and cardiovascular manipulations; septic metastases; and absence of leukocytosis. These factors were more frequently present during 1986-87 than during 1996-97. The overall RR of outcome to mortality was five-fold greater during the first period than the second: RR 5.6 (CI 1.76-17.56) p < 0.001. The clinical characteristics at the onset of bacteremia associated with mortality in the first period were: underlying disease - < RR 2.20 (CI 1.18-4.08), steroid treatment - < RR 4.24 (CI 0.68-26.59), hypotension - < RR 2.05 (CI 1.0-4.17), and disseminated intravascular coagulation - < RR 2.31 (CI 1.69-3.35). Clinical characteristics at the onset of bacteremia associated with mortality in the second period were: hypotension - < RR 1.44 (CI 1.01-2.08), underlying disease - < RR 1.16 (CI 1.02-1.34), and disseminated intravascular coagulation - < RR 6.40 (CI 1.15-35.69). The variables independently associated with mortality in polymicrobial bacteremia were: period - < RR 2.05 (CI 1.50-2.10), underlying disease - < RR 7.05 (CI 2.68-7.50), hypotension - < RR 7.06 (CI 3.80-7.29), and (probably) vascular manipulations - < RR 3.41 (CI 0.85-4.53).

Conclusion: Polymicrobial bacteremia-associated mortality was five-fold greater in 1986-87 than in 1996-97. The variables independently associated with mortality risk were underlying disease, hypotension, the period studied (which would include a number of variables not analyzed in this work) and, probably, vascular manipulations.
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November 2002
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