Publications by authors named "Jose M Valderas"

128 Publications

Patient experiences with general practitioners: psychometric performance of the generic PEQ-GP instrument among patients with chronic conditions.

Fam Pract 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Health Services and Policy Research Group, Exeter Collaboration for Academic Primary Care, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, United Kingdom.

Background: Most generic patient experience instruments have not been validated specifically for persons with chronic health problems, even though they are the dominant user of GPs/family physicians.

Objectives: To assess the psychometric properties of the generic Patient Experiences with GP Questionnaire (PEQ-GP) instrument (five scales: assessment of GP, coordination, patient enablement, accessibility, and practice) in persons with chronic conditions, and to develop a short version to maximize response rates and minimize respondent fatigue in future applications.

Methods: Secondary analysis of data from a national survey of patient experiences with general practitioners in 2018-2019 (response rate: 42.6%). The psychometric properties of PEQ-GP were assessed with exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha, supplemented with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and item response theory (IRT). A short version was constructed and evaluated based on item performance.

Results: Nine hundred and seventy persons reported a chronic condition(s), the most frequent being "musculoskeletal, arthritis, other back and joints" (n = 473, 48.8%). Factor analysis identified three scales with adequate psychometric results: GP (15 items; Cronbach's alpha: 0.96), practice (3 items; Cronbach's alpha: 0.87), and accessibility (2 items; Cronbach's alpha: 0.77). Evaluation of item performance identified a 7-item short version, including a 5-item GP scale with scores with strong concordance with the 15-item scale (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient: 0.97, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The generic PEQ-GP exhibits adequate psychometric performance for persons with chronic conditions. Three empirically derived PEQ-GP scales cover evaluation of the GP, accessibility, and practice. The 7-item short form minimize respondent burden, but further validation work is warranted before large-scale use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmab133DOI Listing
October 2021

Routine provision of feedback from patient-reported outcome measurements to healthcare providers and patients in clinical practice.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Oct 12;10:CD011589. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Health Services & Policy Research, Exeter Collaboration for Academic Primary Care (APEx), NIHR School for Primary Care Research, NIHR ARC South West Peninsula (PenARC), University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Background: Patient-reported outcomes measures (PROMs) assess a patient's subjective appraisal of health outcomes from their own perspective. Despite hypothesised benefits that feedback  on PROMs can support decision-making in clinical practice and improve outcomes, there is uncertainty surrounding the effectiveness of PROMs feedback.

Objectives: To assess the effects of PROMs feedback to patients, or healthcare workers, or both on patient-reported health outcomes and processes of care.

Search Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, two other databases and two clinical trial registries on 5 October 2020. We searched grey literature and consulted experts in the field.

Selection Criteria: Two review authors independently screened and selected studies for inclusion. We included randomised trials directly comparing the effects on outcomes and processes of care of PROMs feedback to healthcare professionals and patients, or both with the impact of not providing such information.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two groups of two authors independently extracted data from the included studies and evaluated study quality. We followed standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and EPOC. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. We conducted meta-analyses of the results where possible.

Main Results: We identified 116 randomised trials which assessed the effectiveness of PROMs feedback in improving processes or outcomes of care, or both in a broad range of disciplines including psychiatry, primary care, and oncology. Studies were conducted across diverse ambulatory primary and secondary care settings in North America, Europe and Australasia. A total of 49,785 patients were included across all the studies. The certainty of the evidence varied between very low and moderate. Many of the studies included in the review were at risk of performance and detection bias. The evidence suggests moderate certainty that PROMs feedback probably improves quality of life (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.26; 11 studies; 2687 participants), and leads to an increase in patient-physician communication (SMD 0.36, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.52; 5 studies; 658 participants), diagnosis and notation (risk ratio (RR) 1.73, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.08; 21 studies; 7223 participants), and disease control (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.41; 14 studies; 2806 participants). The intervention probably makes little or no difference for general health perceptions (SMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.24; 2 studies, 552 participants; low-certainty evidence), social functioning (SMD 0.02, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.09; 15 studies; 2632 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and pain (SMD 0.00, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.08; 9 studies; 2386 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of PROMs feedback on physical functioning (14 studies; 2788 participants) and mental functioning (34 studies; 7782 participants), as well as fatigue (4 studies; 741 participants), as the certainty of the evidence was very low. We did not find studies reporting on adverse effects defined as distress following or related to PROM completion.

Authors' Conclusions: PROM feedback probably produces moderate improvements in communication between healthcare professionals and patients as well as in diagnosis and notation, and disease control, and small improvements to quality of life. Our confidence in the effects is limited by the risk of bias, heterogeneity and small number of trials conducted to assess outcomes of interest. It is unclear whether   many of these improvements are clinically meaningful or sustainable in the long term. There is a need for more high-quality studies in this area, particularly studies which employ cluster designs and utilise techniques to maintain allocation concealment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011589.pub2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8509115PMC
October 2021

The Norwegian PROMIS-29: psychometric validation in the general population for Norway.

J Patient Rep Outcomes 2021 Sep 9;5(1):86. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Health Services and Policy Research Group (HSPRG), Exeter Collaboration for Academic Primary Care (APEx), and NIHR ARC South West Peninsula (PenARC), University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Background: The Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System profile instruments include "high information" items drawn from large item banks following the application of modern psychometric criteria. The shortest adult profile, PROMIS-29, looks set to replace existing short-form instruments in research and clinical practice. The objective of this study was to undertake the first psychometric evaluation of the Norwegian PROMIS-29, following a postal survey of a random sample of 12,790 Norwegians identified through the National Registry of the Norwegian Tax Administration. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess structural validity. Fit to the Rasch partial credit model and differential item functioning (DIF) were assessed in relation to age, gender, and education. PROMIS-29 scores were compared to those for the EQ-5D-5L and the Self-assessed Comorbidity Questionnaire (SCQ), for purposes of assessing validity based on a priori hypotheses.

Results: There were 3200 (25.9%) respondents with a mean age (SD) of 51 (20.7, range 18 to 97 years) and 55% were female. The PROMIS-29 showed satisfactory structural validity and acceptable fit to Rasch model including unidimensionality, and measurement invariance across age and education levels. One pain interference item had uniform DIF for gender but splitting gave satisfactory fit. Domain reliability estimates ranged from 0.85 to 0.95. Correlations between PROMIS-29 domain, SCQ and EQ-5D scores were largely as expected, the largest being for scores assessing very similar aspects of health.

Conclusions: The Norwegian version of the PROMIS-29 is a reliable and valid generic self-reported measure of health in the Norwegian general population. The instrument is recommended for further application, but the analysis should be replicated and responsiveness to change assessed in future studies before it can be recommended for clinical and health services evaluation in Norway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41687-021-00357-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427163PMC
September 2021

The Norwegian PROMIS-29: psychometric validation in the general population for Norway.

J Patient Rep Outcomes 2021 Sep 9;5(1):86. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Health Services and Policy Research Group (HSPRG), Exeter Collaboration for Academic Primary Care (APEx), and NIHR ARC South West Peninsula (PenARC), University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Background: The Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System profile instruments include "high information" items drawn from large item banks following the application of modern psychometric criteria. The shortest adult profile, PROMIS-29, looks set to replace existing short-form instruments in research and clinical practice. The objective of this study was to undertake the first psychometric evaluation of the Norwegian PROMIS-29, following a postal survey of a random sample of 12,790 Norwegians identified through the National Registry of the Norwegian Tax Administration. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess structural validity. Fit to the Rasch partial credit model and differential item functioning (DIF) were assessed in relation to age, gender, and education. PROMIS-29 scores were compared to those for the EQ-5D-5L and the Self-assessed Comorbidity Questionnaire (SCQ), for purposes of assessing validity based on a priori hypotheses.

Results: There were 3200 (25.9%) respondents with a mean age (SD) of 51 (20.7, range 18 to 97 years) and 55% were female. The PROMIS-29 showed satisfactory structural validity and acceptable fit to Rasch model including unidimensionality, and measurement invariance across age and education levels. One pain interference item had uniform DIF for gender but splitting gave satisfactory fit. Domain reliability estimates ranged from 0.85 to 0.95. Correlations between PROMIS-29 domain, SCQ and EQ-5D scores were largely as expected, the largest being for scores assessing very similar aspects of health.

Conclusions: The Norwegian version of the PROMIS-29 is a reliable and valid generic self-reported measure of health in the Norwegian general population. The instrument is recommended for further application, but the analysis should be replicated and responsiveness to change assessed in future studies before it can be recommended for clinical and health services evaluation in Norway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41687-021-00357-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427163PMC
September 2021

Prevalence and variability of current depressive disorder in 27 European countries: a population-based study.

Lancet Public Health 2021 Oct 4;6(10):e729-e738. Epub 2021 May 4.

CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health, Madrid, Spain; Health Services Research Group, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of current depressive disorder in 27 European countries, and to explore differences in prevalence between European countries and by gender.

Methods: In this population-based study, we analysed data from respondents living in 27 European countries who were included in the second wave of the European Health Interview Survey, collected between 2013 and 2015. We assessed the prevalence of current depressive disorder using the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8), with depressive disorder defined as a PHQ-8 score of 10 or higher. Prevalence estimates and 95% CIs were calculated for all 27 countries overall and for each country individually. We assessed variation in prevalence (country vs the rest of Europe) using crude and adjusted prevalence ratios obtained from negative binomial regression models. We did all analyses for the total sample and stratified by gender.

Findings: Our analysis sample comprised 258 888 individuals, of whom 117 310 (weighted proportion 47·8%) were men and 141 578 (52·2%) were women. The overall prevalence of current depressive disorder was 6·38% (95% CI 6·24-6·52) with important variation across countries, ranging from 2·58% (2·14-3·02) in the Czech Republic to 10·33% (9·33-11·32) in Iceland. Prevalence was higher in women (7·74% [7·53-7·95]) than in men (4·89% [4·71-5·08]), with clear gender differences for all countries except Finland and Croatia. Compared with the other European countries in our sample, those with the highest adjusted prevalence ratios were Germany (1·80 [1·71-1·89]) and Luxembourg (1·50 [1·35-1·66]), and those with the lowest adjusted prevalence ratios were Slovakia (0·28 [0·24-0·33]) and the Czech Republic (0·32 [0·27-0·38]).

Interpretation: Depressive disorders, although common across Europe, vary substantially in prevalence between countries. These results could be a baseline for monitoring the prevalence of current depressive disorder both at a country level in Europe and for planning health-care resources and services.

Funding: UK Medical Research Council and CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(21)00047-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8460452PMC
October 2021

Assessing the Impact of Multi-Morbidity and Related Constructs on Patient Reported Safety in Primary Care: Generalized Structural Equation Modelling of Observational Data.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 20;10(8). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Health Services & Policy Research Group, Exeter Collaboration for Academic Primary Care, NIHR School for Primary Care Research, University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2HZ, UK.

We aimed to examine the complex relationships between patient safety processes and outcomes and multimorbidity using a comprehensive set of constructs: multimorbidity, polypharmacy, discordant comorbidity (diseases not sharing either pathogenesis nor management), morbidity burden and patient complexity. We used cross-sectional data from 4782 patients in 69 primary care centres in Spain. We constructed generalized structural equation models to examine the associations between multimorbidity constructs and patient-reported patient safety (PREOS-PC questionnaire). These associations were modelled through direct and indirect (mediated by increased interactions with healthcare) pathways. For women, a consistent association between higher levels of the multimorbidity constructs and lower levels of patient safety was observed via either pathway. The findings for men replicated these observations for polypharmacy, morbidity burden and patient complexity via indirect pathways. However, direct pathways showed unexpected associations between higher levels of multimorbidity and better safety. The consistent association between multimorbidity constructs and worse patient safety among women makes it advisable to target this group for the development of interventions, with particular attention to the role of comorbidity discordance. Further research, particularly qualitative research, is needed for clarifying the complex associations among men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073542PMC
April 2021

Integrating Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) into routine nurse-led primary care for patients with multimorbidity: a feasibility and acceptability study.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2021 Apr 26;19(1):133. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Health Services and Policy Research, Exeter Collaboration for Academic Primary Care (APEx), University of Exeter, Magdalen Campus, Smeall Building, Room JS02, Exeter, EX1 2LU, UK.

Background: The use of Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMS) in clinical practice has the potential to promote patient-centred care and improve patients' quality of life. Individualized PROMs may be particularly helpful in identifying, prioritizing and monitoring health problems of patients with multimorbidity. We aimed to develop an intervention centred around PROMs feedback as part of Primary Care annual reviews for patients with multimorbidity and evaluate its feasibility and acceptability.

Methods: We developed a nurse-oriented intervention including (a) training of nurses on PROMs; (b) administration to patients with multimorbidity of individualized and standardized PROMS; and (c) feedback to both patients and nurses of PROMs scores and interpretation guidance. We then tailored the intervention to patients with two or more highly prevalent conditions (asthma, COPD, diabetes, heart failure, depression, and hip/knee osteoarthritis) and designed a non-controlled feasibility and acceptability evaluation in a convenience sample of primary care practices (5). PROMs were administered and scores fed back immediately ahead of scheduled annual reviews with nurses. Patients and nurses rated the acceptability of the intervention using with a brief survey including optional free comments. Thematic analysis of qualitative interviews with a sample of participating patients (10) and nurses (4) and of survey free comments was conducted for further in-depth evaluation of acceptability. Feasibility was estimated based on rates of participation and completion.

Results: Out of 68 recruited patients (mean age 70; 47% female), 68 completed the PROMs (100%), received feedback (100%) and confirmed nurse awareness of their scores (100%). Most patients (83%) "agreed"/"strongly agreed" that the PROMs feedback had been useful, a view supported by nurses in 89% of reviews. Thematic analysis of rich qualitative data on PROMS administration, feedback and role in annual reviews indicated that both patients and nurses perceived the intervention as acceptable and promising, emphasizing its comprehensiveness and patient-centredness.

Conclusions: We have developed and tested an intervention focusing on routine PROM assessment of patients with multimorbidity in Primary Care. Preliminary findings support its feasibility and a high degree of acceptability from both patients and nurses. The next step is to conduct a full-scale trial for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-021-01748-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074460PMC
April 2021

Estimating and characterizing the burden of multimorbidity in the community: A comprehensive multistep analysis of two large nationwide representative surveys in France.

PLoS Med 2021 04 26;18(4):e1003584. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Public Health France, Saint-Maurice, France.

Background: Given the increasing burden of chronic conditions, multimorbidity is now a priority for healthcare and public health systems worldwide. Appropriate methodological approaches for assessing the phenomenon have not yet been established, resulting in inconsistent and incomplete descriptions. We aimed to estimate and characterize the burden of multimorbidity in the adult population in France in terms of number and type of conditions, type of underlying mechanisms, and analysis of the joint effects for identifying combinations with the most deleterious interaction effects on health status.

Methods And Findings: We used a multistep approach to analyze cross-sectional and longitudinal data from 2 large nationwide representative surveys: 2010/2014 waves of the Health, Health Care, and Insurance Survey (ESPS 2010-2014) and Disability Healthcare Household Survey 2008 (HSM 2008), that collected similar data on 61 chronic or recurrent conditions. Adults aged ≥25 years in either ESPS 2010 (14,875) or HSM 2008 (23,348) were considered (participation rates were 65% and 62%, respectively). Longitudinal analyses included 7,438 participants of ESPS 2010 with follow-up for mortality (97%) of whom 3,798 were reinterviewed in 2014 (52%). Mortality, activity limitation, self-reported health, difficulties in activities/instrumental activities of daily living, and Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 12-Item Health Survey were the health status measures. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the impact of chronic or recurrent conditions and multimorbid associations (dyads, triads, and tetrads) on health status. Etiological pathways explaining associations were investigated, and joint effects and interactions between conditions on health status measures were evaluated using both additive and multiplicative scales. Forty-eight chronic or recurrent conditions had an independent impact on mortality, activity limitations, or perceived heath. Multimorbidity prevalence varied between 30% (1-year time frame) and 39% (lifetime frame), and more markedly according to sex (higher in women), age (with greatest increases in middle-aged), and socioeconomic status (higher in less educated and low-income individuals and manual workers). We identified various multimorbid combinations, mostly involving vasculometabolic and musculoskeletal conditions and mental disorders, which could be explained by direct causation, shared or associated risk factors, or less frequently, confounding or chance. Combinations with the highest health impacts included diseases with complications but also associations of conditions affecting systems involved in locomotion and sensorial functions (impact on activity limitations), and associations including mental disorders (impact on perceived health). The interaction effects of the associated conditions varied on a continuum from subadditive and additive (associations involving cardiometabolic conditions, low back pain, osteoporosis, injury sequelae, depression, and anxiety) to multiplicative and supermultiplicative (associations involving obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, migraine, and certain osteoarticular pathologies). Study limitations included self-reported information on chronic conditions and the insufficient power of some analyses.

Conclusions: Multimorbidity assessments should move beyond simply counting conditions and take into account the variable impacts on health status, etiological pathways, and joint effects of associated conditions. In particular, the multimorbid combinations with substantial health impacts or shared risk factors deserve closer attention. Our findings also suggest that multimorbidity assessment and management may be beneficial already in midlife and probably earlier in disadvantaged groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8109815PMC
April 2021

Diagnostic promiscuity: the use of real-world data to study multimorbidity in mental health.

Br J Psychiatry 2021 Jan 13:1-3. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neurosciences, King's College London, UK.

Mental health-related multimorbidity can be considered as multimorbidity in the presence of a mental disorder. Some knowledge gaps on the study of mental health-related multimorbidity were identified. These knowledge gaps could be potentially addressed with real-world data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2020.257DOI Listing
January 2021

Accuracy of Self-Reported Items for the Screening of Depression in the General Population.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 10 29;17(21). Epub 2020 Oct 29.

CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Though self-reported items (SRD, self-reported depression) are commonly used in health surveys and cohort studies, their metric properties as a depression indicator remain unclear. The aims were to evaluate the measurement properties of SRD using the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8) as reference and to identify factors related to the agreement between both indicators.

Methods: Data from the European Health Interview Survey in Spain in 2014/2015 (n = 22,065) were analyzed. Two indicators of depression were considered: SRD based on two items yes/no (positive: both yes), and the PHQ-8 (positive ≥ 10). Socioeconomic factors and use of health services were considered as independent variables. The prevalence of depression, sensitivity, specificity, global agreement, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of SRDs were evaluated using the PHQ-8 as a reference. Logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with the agreement between indicators.

Results: The prevalence of depression was lower when assessed with PHQ-8 (5.9%) than with SRD (7.7%). SRD sensitivity and PPV were moderate-low (52.9% and 40.4%, respectively) whereas global agreement, specificity, and NPV were high (92.7%, 95.1%, and 97.0%, respectively). Positive agreement was associated with marital status, country of birth, employment status, and social class. Negative agreement was related to all independent variables except country of birth.

Conclusions: SRD items tend to overestimate the current prevalence of depression. While its use in health surveys and cohorts may be appropriate as a quick assessment of possible depression, due to their low sensitivity, its use in clinical contexts is questionable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662518PMC
October 2020

Prevalence and age patterns of depression in the United Kingdom. A population-based study.

J Affect Disord 2021 01 7;279:164-172. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Health Services Research Group, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain; Dept. of Experimental and Health Sciences, Pompeu Fabra University (UPF), Barcelona, Spain.

Methods: A representative sample of the UK population (n=17,152) from the European Health Interview Survey of 2014 was included in the analyses. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) was used to assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms and of probable depressive disorder. Prevalence estimates (95%CI) were calculated. The association between prevalence and age was assessed using multivariable multinomial logistic and logistic regression models. All analyses were carried out for the total sample and stratified by sex.

Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms ranged from 11.3% (10.6-11.9) for mild, to 3.3% (3.0-3.7) for severe symptoms. The prevalence of probable depressive disorder was 7.5% (95%CI: 7.0-8.0). A significantly higher prevalence of probable depressive disorder was found in those aged 45 to 59 years old compared with those aged 16 to 29. For the prevalence of severe depressive symptoms those age differences were even higher: 2.55 times higher (5.38 for men and 1.75 for women).

Limitations: The cross-sectional design precludes stablishing the direction of the relationship between age and the prevalence.

Conclusions: The prevalence and age patterns of depression in the UK were described. A peak in the prevalence was identified during middle adulthood. These results could serve as a reference for the monitoring of depression in the UK and the development of preventive strategies, particularly in the high-risk population groups identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.09.129DOI Listing
January 2021

Five-year trajectories of multimorbidity patterns in an elderly Mediterranean population using Hidden Markov Models.

Sci Rep 2020 10 9;10(1):16879. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Signal Theory and Communications Department, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona Tech., Campus Nord, UPC D5, Jordi Girona 1-2, 08034, Barcelona, Spain.

This study aimed to analyse the trajectories and mortality of multimorbidity patterns in patients aged 65 to 99 years in Catalonia (Spain). Five year (2012-2016) data of 916,619 participants from a primary care, population-based electronic health record database (Information System for Research in Primary Care, SIDIAP) were included in this retrospective cohort study. Individual longitudinal trajectories were modelled with a Hidden Markov Model across multimorbidity patterns. We computed the mortality hazard using Cox regression models to estimate survival in multimorbidity patterns. Ten multimorbidity patterns were originally identified and two more states (death and drop-outs) were subsequently added. At baseline, the most frequent cluster was the Non-Specific Pattern (42%), and the least frequent the Multisystem Pattern (1.6%). Most participants stayed in the same cluster over the 5 year follow-up period, from 92.1% in the Nervous, Musculoskeletal pattern to 59.2% in the Cardio-Circulatory and Renal pattern. The highest mortality rates were observed for patterns that included cardio-circulatory diseases: Cardio-Circulatory and Renal (37.1%); Nervous, Digestive and Circulatory (31.8%); and Cardio-Circulatory, Mental, Respiratory and Genitourinary (28.8%). This study demonstrates the feasibility of characterizing multimorbidity patterns along time. Multimorbidity trajectories were generally stable, although changes in specific multimorbidity patterns were observed. The Hidden Markov Model is useful for modelling transitions across multimorbidity patterns and mortality risk. Our findings suggest that health interventions targeting specific multimorbidity patterns may reduce mortality in patients with multimorbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73231-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7547668PMC
October 2020

Is COVID-19 a turning point for the health workforce?

Rev Panam Salud Publica 2020 16;44:e102. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

University of Exeter Exeter England University of Exeter, Exeter, England.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2020.102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7491858PMC
September 2020

Patient-reported outcome and experience measures in geriatric emergency medicine.

Z Gerontol Geriatr 2021 Mar 16;54(2):122-124. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, LE1 7RH, Leicester, UK.

Older people with frailty and health crises have complex physical and social needs. Modern emergency care systems are fast-flowing, using protocols optimised for single-problem presentations. Systems must incorporate individualised care to best serve people with multiple problems. Healthcare quality is typically appraised with service metrics, such as department length of stay and mortality. Worldwide, patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) and patient-reported experience measures (PREM) are increasingly used in research, service development and performance evaluation, paving the ground for their use to support individual clinical decision-making. The PROMs and PREMs are person-centred metrics, which inform healthcare decisions at the individual level and which at the strategic level drive improvement through comparison of interprovider effectiveness. To date, there is no PROM or PREM specifically developed for older people with frailty and emergency care needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00391-020-01777-4DOI Listing
March 2021

The Characteristics of Patients With Possible Transient Ischemic Attack and Minor Stroke in the Hunter and Manning Valley Regions, Australia (the INSIST Study).

Front Neurol 2020 15;11:383. Epub 2020 May 15.

Priority Research Centre for Stroke, University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke (TIAMS) are risk factors for stroke recurrence. Some TIAMS may be preventable by appropriate primary prevention. We aimed to recruit "possible-TIAMS" patients in the INternational comparison of Systems of care and patient outcomes In minor Stroke and TIA (INSIST) study. A prospective inception cohort study performed across 16 Hunter-Manning region, Australia, general practices in the catchment of one secondary-care acute neurovascular clinic. Possible-TIAMS patients were recruited from August 2012 to August 2016. We describe the baseline demographics, risk factors and pre-event medications of participating patients. There were 613 participants (mean age; 69 ± 12 years, 335 women), and 604 (99%) were Caucasian. Hypertension was the most common risk factor (69%) followed by hyperlipidemia (52%), diabetes mellitus (17%), atrial fibrillation (AF) (17%), prior TIA (13%) or stroke (10%). Eighty-nine (36%) of the 249 participants taking antiplatelet therapy had no known history of cardiovascular morbidity. Of 102 participants with known AF, 91 (89%) had a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥ 2 but only 47 (46%) were taking anticoagulation therapy. Among 304 participants taking an antiplatelet or anticoagulant agent, 30 (10%) had stopped taking these in the month prior to the index event. This study provides the first contemporary data on TIAMS or TIAMS-mimics in Australia. Community and health provider education is required to address the under-use of anticoagulation therapy in patients with known AF, possibly inappropriate use of antiplatelet therapy and possibly inappropriate discontinuation of antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326044PMC
May 2020

Relationship Between Depression and the Use of Mobile Technologies and Social Media Among Adolescents: Umbrella Review.

J Med Internet Res 2020 08 26;22(8):e16388. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Agency for Health Quality and Assessment of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Despite the relevance of mobile technologies and social media (MTSM) for adolescents, their association with depressive disorders in this population remains unclear. While there are previous reviews that have identified the use of MTSM as a risk factor for developing depression, other reviews have indicated their possible preventive effect.

Objective: The aim of this review was to synthesize the current evidence on the association between MTSM use and the development or prevention of depressive disorders in adolescents.

Methods: An umbrella review was conducted using information published up to June 2019 from PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library. Systematic reviews focusing on the adolescent population (up to 20 years old) and depression and its potential relationship with MTSM use were included. Screening of titles, abstracts, and full texts was performed. After selecting the reviews and given the heterogeneity of the outcome variables and exposures, a narrative synthesis of the results was carried out.

Results: The search retrieved 338 documents, from which 7 systematic reviews (3 meta-analyses) were selected for data extraction. There were 11-70 studies and 5582-46,015 participants included in the 7 reviews. All reviews included quantitative research, and 2 reviews also included qualitative studies. A statistically significant association between social media and developing depressive symptoms was reported in 2 reviews, while 5 reviews reported mixed results.

Conclusions: Excessive social comparison and personal involvement when using MTSM could be associated with the development of depressive symptomatology. Nevertheless, MTSM might promote social support and even become a point of assistance for people with depression. Due to the mixed results, prospective research could be valuable for providing stronger evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/16388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7481866PMC
August 2020

Impact of comorbidity on the short- and medium-term risk of revision in total hip and knee arthroplasty.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020 Jul 9;21(1):447. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Agency for Heath Quality and Assessment of Catalonia (AQuAS), Carrer de Roc Boronat, 81, 08005, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The impact of comorbidity on the risk of revision in patients undergoing Total Knee arthroplasty (TKA) and Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) is not currently well known. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of comorbidity on the risk of revision in TKA and THA.

Methods: Patients recorded in the Catalan Arthroplasty Register (RACat) between 01/01/2005 and 31/12/2016 undergoing TKA (n = 49,701) and THA (n = 17,923) caused by osteoarthritis were included. As main explanatory factors, comorbidity burden was assessed by the Elixhauser index, categorized, and specific comorbidities from the index were taken into account. Descriptive analyses for comorbidity burden and specific conditions were done. Additionally, incidence at 1 and 5 years' follow-up was calculated, and adjusted Competing Risks models were fitted.

Results: A higher incidence of revision was observed when the number of comorbidities was high, both at 1 and 5 years for THA, but only at 1 year for TKA. Of the specific conditions, only obesity was related to the incidence of revision at 1 year in both joints, and at 5 years in TKA. The risk of revision was related to deficiency anemia and liver diseases in TKA, while in THA, it was related to peripheral vascular disorders, metastatic cancer and psychoses.

Conclusions: Different conditions, depending on the joint, might be related to higher revision rates. This information could be relevant for clinical decision-making, patient-specific information and improving the results of both TKA and THA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-020-03455-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7346613PMC
July 2020

Patient-Reported Morbidity Instruments: A Systematic Review.

Value Health 2020 06 27;23(6):791-811. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Center for Surgery and Public Health, Patient Reported Outcomes, Value and Experience Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Objectives: Although comorbidities play an essential role in risk adjustment and outcomes measurement, there is little consensus regarding the best source of this data. The aim of this study was to identify general patient-reported morbidity instruments and their measurement properties.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted using multiple electronic databases (Embase, Medline, Cochrane Central, and Web of Science) from inception to March 2018. Articles focusing primarily on the development or subsequent validation of a patient-reported morbidity instrument were included. After including relevant articles, the measurement properties of each morbidity instrument were extracted by 2 investigators for narrative synthesis.

Results: A total of 1005 articles were screened, of which 34 eligible articles were ultimately included. The most widely assessed instruments were the Self-Reported Charlson Comorbidity Index (n = 7), the Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire (n = 3), and the Disease Burden Morbidity Assessment (n = 3). The most commonly included conditions were diabetes, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Studies demonstrated substantial variability in item-level reliability versus the gold standard medical record review (κ range 0.66-0.86), meaning that the accuracy of the self-reported comorbidity data is dependent on the selected morbidity.

Conclusions: The Self-Reported Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire were the most frequently cited instruments. Significant variability was observed in reliability per comorbid condition of patient-reported morbidity questionnaires. Further research is needed to determine whether patient-reported morbidity data should be used to bolster medical records data or serve as a stand-alone entity when risk adjusting observational outcomes data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2020.02.006DOI Listing
June 2020

Differences in Results and Related Factors Between Hospital-at-Home Modalities in Catalonia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Clin Med 2020 May 13;9(5). Epub 2020 May 13.

Agència de Qualitat i Avaluació Sanitàries de Catalunya (AQuAS), 08005 Barcelona, Spain.

Hospital-at-home (HaH) is a healthcare modality that provides active treatment by healthcare staff in the patient's home for a condition that would otherwise require hospitalization. The aims were to describe the characteristics of different types of hospital-at-home (HaH), assess their results, and examine which factors could be related to these results. A cross-sectional study based on data from all 2014 HaH contacts from Catalonia was designed. The following HaH modalities were considered-admission avoidance ( = 7,214; 75.1%) and early assisted discharge ( = 2,387; 24.9%). The main outcome indicators were readmission, mortality, and length of stay (days). Multivariable models were fitted to assess the association between explanatory factors and outcomes. Hospital admission avoidance is a scheme in which, instead of being admitted to acute care hospitals, patients are directly treated in their own homes. Early assisted discharge is a scheme in which hospital in-care patients continue their treatment at home. In the hospital avoidance modality, there were 8.3% readmissions, 0.9% mortality, and a mean length of stay (SD) of 9.6 (10.6) days. In the early assisted discharge modality, these figures were 7.9%, 0.5%, and 9.8 (11.1), respectively. In both modalities, readmission and mean length of stay were related to comorbidity and type of hospital, and mortality with age. The results of HaH in Catalonia are similar to those observed in other contexts. The factors related to these results identified might help to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the different HaH modalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7361969PMC
May 2020

Predicting incident delirium diagnoses using data from primary-care electronic health records.

Age Ageing 2020 04;49(3):374-381

Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter EX2 5DW, UK.

Importance: risk factors for delirium in hospital inpatients are well established, but less is known about whether delirium occurring in the community or during an emergency admission to hospital care might be predicted from routine primary-care records.

Objectives: identify risk factors in primary-care electronic health records (PC-EHR) predictive of delirium occurring in the community or recorded in the initial episode in emergency hospitalisation. Test predictive performance against the cumulative frailty index.

Design: Stage 1: case-control; Stages 2 and 3: retrospective cohort.

Setting: clinical practice research datalink: PC-EHR linked to hospital discharge data from England.

Subjects: Stage 1: 17,286 patients with delirium aged ≥60 years plus 85,607 controls. Stages 2 and 3: patients ≥ 60 years (n = 429,548 in 2015), split into calibration and validation groups.

Methods: Stage 1: logistic regression to identify associations of 110 candidate risk measures with delirium. Stage 2: calibrating risk factor weights. Stage 3: validation in independent sample using area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristic.

Results: fifty-five risk factors were predictive, in domains including: cognitive impairment or mental illness, psychoactive drugs, frailty, infection, hyponatraemia and anticholinergic drugs. The derived model predicted 1-year incident delirium (AUC = 0.867, 0.852:0.881) and mortality (AUC = 0.846, 0.842:0.853), outperforming the frailty index (AUC = 0.761, 0.740:0.782). Individuals with the highest 10% of predicted delirium risk accounted for 55% of incident delirium over 1 year.

Conclusions: a risk factor model for delirium using data in PC-EHR performed well, identifying individuals at risk of new onsets of delirium. This model has potential for supporting preventive interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afaa006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297278PMC
April 2020

Social Prescribing Programmes to Prevent or Delay Frailty in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2019 Nov 27;4(4). Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK.

The increasing incidence of frailty is a health and social care challenge. Social prescription is advocated as an important approach to allow health professionals to link patients with sources of support in the community. This study aimed to determine the current evidence on the effectiveness of social prescribing programmes, to delay or reduce frailty in frail older adults living in the community. A systematic literature review of published (DARE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, NICE and SCIE, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database) and unpublished databases (OpenGrey; WHO Clinical Trial Registry; ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched to July 2019. Studies were eligible if they reported health, social or economic outcomes on social prescribing, community referral, referral schemes, wellbeing programmes or interventions when a non-health link worker was the intervention provider, to people who are frail living in the community. We screened 1079 unique studies for eligibility. No papers were eligible. There is therefore a paucity of evidence reporting the effectiveness of social prescribing programmes for frail older adults living in the community. Given that frailty is a clinical priority and social prescribing is considered a key future direction in the provision of community care, this is a major limitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics4040065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960851PMC
November 2019

Implementing the renewed vision for Primary Health Care in the Declaration of Astana: the time is now.

Prim Health Care Res Dev 2019 10 21;20:e137. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Professor of Health Services & Policy Research Group, Exeter Collaboration for Academic Primary Care (APEx) and NIHR PenCLAHRC, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1463423619000719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060811PMC
October 2019

Association of Anorexia Nervosa With Risk of Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 06 5;2(6):e195313. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Medicine, University of Valencia, INCLIVA Health Research Institute, Centro de Investigación en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Valencia, Spain.

Importance: Anorexia nervosa is recognized as an important cause of morbidity in young people. However, the risk of cancer in people with anorexia nervosa remains uncertain.

Objective: To evaluate the association of anorexia nervosa with the risk of developing or dying of cancer.

Data Sources: MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science from database inception to January 9, 2019.

Study Selection: Published observational studies in humans examining the risk of cancer in people with anorexia nervosa compared with the general population or those without anorexia nervosa. Studies needed to report incidence or mortality rate ratios (RRs).

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Screening, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment were performed by at least 2 researchers independently. A random-effects model was used to synthesize individual studies. Heterogeneity (I2) was assessed and 95% prediction intervals (PIs) were calculated.

Main Outcomes And Measures: All cancer incidence and cancer mortality associated with anorexia nervosa. Secondary outcomes were site-specific cancer incidence and mortality.

Results: Seven cohort studies published in 10 articles (42 602 participants with anorexia nervosa) were included. Anorexia nervosa was not associated with risk of developing any cancer (4 studies in women; RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89-1.06; P = .53; I2, 0%; 95% PI, 0.80-1.18; moderate confidence). Anorexia nervosa was associated with decreased breast cancer incidence (5 studies in women; RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.50-0.80; P < .001; I2, 0%; 95% PI, 0.44-0.83; high confidence). Conversely, anorexia nervosa was associated with increased risk of developing lung cancer (3 studies in women; RR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.06-2.12; P = .001; I2, 0%; 95% PI, 0.19-16.46; low confidence) and esophageal cancer (2 studies in women; RR, 6.10; 95% CI, 2.30-16.18; P < .001; I2, 0%; low confidence).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among people with anorexia nervosa, risk of developing cancer did not differ compared with the general population, but a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer was observed. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.5313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6563572PMC
June 2019

Influence of Hospital Volume of Procedures by Year on the Risk of Revision of Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasties: A Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study.

J Clin Med 2019 May 13;8(5). Epub 2019 May 13.

Agency for Heath Quality and Assessment of Catalonia (AQuAS), 08005 Barcelona, Spain.

The volume of total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasties (TKA) performed in a hospital per year could be an influential factor on the revision of these procedures. The aims of this study were: To obtain comparable cohorts in higher- and lower-volume hospitals; and to assess the association between the hospital volume and the incidence of revision. Data from patients undergoing THA and TKA caused by osteoarthritis and recorded in the Catalan Arthroplasty Register (RACat) between January 2005 and December 2016 were used. The main explanatory variable was hospital volume by year (higher/lower). The cut-off point was fixed, based on previous research, at 50 THA and 125 TKA procedures/year. To obtain comparable populations, a propensity-score matching method (1:1) was used. Patient characteristics prior to and after matching were compared. To assess differences by volume, subhazard ratios (SHRs) from competing risks models were obtained. After matching, 13,772 THA and 36,316 TKA patients remained in the study. Prior to matching, in both joints, significant differences in all confounders were observed between volume groups. After matching, none of them remained significant. Both in THA and TKA, a higher risk of revision in higher-volume hospitals was observed (THA SHR: 1.25, 95%CI: 1.02-1.53; and TKA SHR: 1.29, 95%CI: 1.16-1.44). Unlike other contexts, currently in Catalonia, higher-volume hospitals have a greater risk of revision than lower-volume hospitals. Further research could be valuable to define context-dependent measures to reduce the incidence of revision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572453PMC
May 2019

Availability of specific tools to assess patient reported outcomes in hip arthroplasty in Spain. Identifying the best candidates to incorporate in an arthroplasty register. A systematic review and standardized assessment.

PLoS One 2019 1;14(4):e0214746. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Agency for Heath Quality and Assessment of Catalonia (AQuAS), Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: 1) To systematically review the available scientific literature regarding specific instruments developed and/or tested in a Spanish population, to assess these PROMs in hip arthroplasty; 2) to carry out a standardized assessment of their measurement properties; and 3) to identify the best tools for use in Spain in an arthroplasty registry context.

Methods: A systematic review of PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE and CINHAL was done. Furthermore, a standardized assessment of the questionnaires identified using the Evaluating the Measurement of Patient-Reported Outcomes (EMPRO) tool was performed. All developments, validation and studies aiming to assess the measurement properties of PROMs in hip arthroplasty in the Spanish population were included. Data from the questionnaires on metric properties was taken into account to identify the best candidates for inclusion in a register.

Results: A total of 853 documents were found. After screening title and abstract, 13 full text documents were reviewed and 8 questionnaires adapted and validated to assess some of the aspects of hip arthroplasty in the Spanish population were identified. After the EMPRO assessment, 4 questionnaires showed suitable properties (WOMAC, OAKHQOL, mini-OAKHQOL and PFH).

Conclusions: In Spain, there are a few suitable hip-specific questionnaires currently available to assess PROMs in hip arthroplasty surgery. Some of the more widely used questionnaires, like the OHS and HOOS, have not been validated in the Spanish population until now. Identified tools are suitable for use in a clinical context, however their use in an arthroplasty register is more questionable due to the lack of validation studies of the widely used tools in other registers.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214746PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443164PMC
January 2020

Assessing Patient-Centred Outcomes in Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review and Standardised Comparison of English Language Clinical Rating Systems.

Sports Med Open 2019 Mar 20;5(1):10. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Health Services and Policy Research Group, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK.

Background: Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is a common condition affecting adults. Although a lack of treatment consensus continues to prompt numerous effectiveness studies, there is a paucity of clear guidance on the choice of outcome measure. Our aim was to undertake a standardised evaluation of the available clinical rating systems that report patient-centred outcomes in LET.

Methods: A systematic review of studies reporting the development, assessment of metric properties and/or use of instruments aiming to quantify LET-specific patient-centred outcome measures was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL (inception-2017) adhering to PRISMA guidance. The evidence for each instrument was independently assessed by two reviewers using the standardised evaluating measures of patient-reported outcomes (EMPRO) method evaluating overall and attribute-specific instrument performance (metric properties and usability). EMPRO scores > 50/100 were considered indicative of high performance.

Results: Out of 7261 references, we identified 105 articles reporting on 15 instruments for EMPRO analysis. Median performance score was 41.6 (range 21.6-72.5), with four instruments meeting high-performance criteria: quick Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand score (qDASH) (72.5), DASH (66.9), Oxford Elbow Score (OES) (66.6) and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) (57.0). One hundred seventy-nine articles reported instrument use internationally with DASH as the most frequent (29.7% articles) followed by PRTEE (25.6%), MEPS (15.1%) and qDASH (8.1%). The correlation between frequency of use and performance was r = 0.35 (95%CI - 0.11; 0.83).

Conclusions: This is the first study to provide standardised guidance on the choice of measures for LET. A large number of clinical rating systems are both available and being used for patients with LETs. Robust evidence is available for four measures, the DASH, QDASH, PRTEE and OES. The use of instruments in the literature is only in part explained by instrument performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40798-019-0183-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6426924PMC
March 2019

Differences in Risk of Revision and Mortality Between Total and Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty. The Influence of Hospital Volume.

J Arthroplasty 2019 05 29;34(5):865-871. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Agency for Heath Quality and Assessment of Catalonia (AQuAS), Barcelona, Spain; Health Services Research on Chronic Patients Network (REDISSEC), Madrid, Spain.

Background: The volume of arthroplasties performed in a hospital by year has an influence on the outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). The aims of this study are (1) to evaluate and compare the risk of revision and mortality of TKA and UKA and (2) to assess whether hospital volume is related to differences in revision risk and mortality.

Methods: All individuals recorded in the Catalan Arthroplasty Register between 1/1/2005 and 31/12/2016, diagnosed with osteoarthritis, undergoing cemented TKA and UKA were included. A propensity score matching method was used to obtain comparable cohorts, including 2374 matched prostheses overall. Hospital volume was considered as a dichotomous variable (lower/higher). Descriptive analyses were done before and after matching. Risks of revision and mortality at 30 days, 90 days, 1, 3, and 5 years were calculated and competing risks models and Cox models were fitted.

Results: For the population as a whole, higher risk of revision (sub-hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-3.17) was found in UKA than in TKA but higher mortality was not. Considering the volume groups, significantly higher risk of revision in UKA than TKA was found in the lower-volume group only (sub-hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-3.44). No differences in mortality between TKA and UKA were found in either group.

Conclusion: Mortality and revision rates after TKA and UKA at higher-volume hospitals are similar. UKAs performed at lower-volume hospitals have higher revision rates. Volume-dependent specialization thus might help to reduce revision and mortality after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.01.046DOI Listing
May 2019
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