Publications by authors named "Jose G Lazo"

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Mechanisms and management of drug-induced hyperkalemia in kidney transplant patients.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Kidney Transplantation, School of Medicine, University of California, CA, Irvine, Orange, USA.

Hyperkalemia is a common and potentially life-threatening complication following kidney transplantation that can be caused by a composite of factors such as medications, delayed graft function, and possibly potassium intake. Managing hyperkalemia after kidney transplantation is associated with increased morbidity and healthcare costs, and can be a cause of multiple hospital admissions and barriers to patient discharge. Medications used routinely after kidney transplantation are considered the most frequent culprit for post-transplant hyperkalemia in recipients with a well-functioning graft. These include calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) prophylactic agents, and antihypertensives (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers). CNIs can cause hyperkalemic renal tubular acidosis. When hyperkalemia develops following transplantation, the potential offending medication may be discontinued, switched to another agent, or dose-reduced. Belatacept and mTOR inhibitors offer an alternative to calcineurin inhibitors in the event of hyperkalemia, however should be prescribed in the appropriate patient. While trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) remains the gold standard for prevention of PCP, alternative agents (e.g. dapsone, atovaquone) have been studied and can be recommend in place of TMP/SMX. Antihypertensives that act on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System are generally avoided early after transplant but may be indicated later in the transplant course for patients with comorbidities. In cases of mild to moderate hyperkalemia, medical management can be used to normalize serum potassium levels and allow the transplant team additional time to evaluate the function of the graft. In the immediate post-operative setting following kidney transplantation, a rapidly rising potassium refractory to medical therapy can be an indication for dialysis. Patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9) may play an important role in the management of chronic hyperkalemia in kidney transplant patients, although additional long-term studies are necessary to confirm these effects.
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July 2021