Publications by authors named "José Santos"

1,054 Publications

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Mobility and environmental monitoring of pesticides in the atmosphere - a review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.

Knowledge of the partition mechanisms in the agrochemical environment is fundamental for understanding their behavior within an ecosystem and mitigating possible adverse effects of these products. In this review, the objective was to present the main transport mechanisms, physical-chemical properties, and atmospheric monitoring methodologies of the most diverse types of agrochemicals used in agriculture that can reach the atmosphere and affect different compartments. It has been verified that volatilization is one of more considerable significance of the various forms of transport since a significant part of the applied pesticides can volatilize in a few days. As for monitoring these compounds in the atmosphere, both passive and active sampling have their advantages and disadvantages. Passive samplers allow sampling in large quantities and at remote locations, in addition to making continuous measurements, while active samplers have the advantage of being able to detect low concentrations and continuously. Since a significant portion of the applied pesticides is directed to the atmosphere, monitoring makes it possible to understand some properties of the pesticides present in the air. This monitoring can be done from different existing methodologies based on adopted criteria and existing technical standards. Graphical representation of mobility and environmental monitoring of atmospheric pollutants from pesticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14258-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Statins Prescriptions and Lipid Levels in a Tertiary Public Hospital.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2021 Apr;116(4):736-741

Universidade de São Paulo Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (HCFMRP-USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP - Brasil.

Background: The development of a new class of medications that are highly capable of reducing LDL-cholesterol renewed the interest in the characterization of familial hypercholesterolemia patients. Nevertheless, little is known about the lipid profile of patients in tertiary healthcare centers in Brazil in order to better estimate the real occurrence of familial hypercholesterolemia, with initial suspect of LDL-cholesterol levels above 190 mg/d/L.

Objectives: This study evaluated the lipid profile (total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol) in ambulatory patients from a general tertiary public hospital.

Methods: Retrospective study comparing prescriptions of statins and lipid profile results. The significance level was established in 5%.

Results: In one year, 9,594 individuals received statin prescriptions, of whom 51.5% were females and the mean age was 63.7±12.9 years-old (18 to 100 years-old). Thirty-two medical specialties prescribed statins. Cardiology was responsible for 43% of the total. Nearly 15% of those patients with a prescription did not have a recent total cholesterol result and 1,746 (18%) did not have a recent LDL-cholesterol measurement. The occurrence of the latter between 130 and 190 mg/dL was present in 1,643 (17.1%) individuals, and 228 (2.4%) patients had an LDL-cholesterol ≥190mg/dL among those using statins at distinct doses. Only two statins were used: simvastatin and atorvastatin. The first was prescribed in 77.6% of the prescriptions.

Conclusion: In this cross-sectional cohort at a tertiary general hospital, statins have been widely prescribed but with little success in achieving recognized levels of control. There is probably a significant number of FH individuals in this cohort that need to be properly diagnosed in order to receive adequate treatment due to its prognostic implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.36660/abc.20190513DOI Listing
April 2021

Extreme blood lactate rising after very short efforts in top-level track and field male sprinters.

Res Sports Med 2021 Apr 20:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport (CIFI2D) and Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Two top-level (10"04 and 10"13 in 100-m dash) and 2 sub-elite (10"97 and 11"44 in 100-m dash) male sprinters completed, after a standardised warm-up, various jump, sprint and weightlifting exercises in two consecutive days at the start of pre-season. Before and 30 s after the tests, the [La] were measured with a portable lactate analyser. The top-level sprinters exhibited much larger [La] than the sub-elite sprinters (< 5 mmol·L) after all the exercise tests. The maximum values recorded were 20.4 mmol·L after the 20-m sprint tests for Athlete 1, and 22.4 mmol·L after CMJ testing for Athlete 2. The greater Δ% were recorded after CMJ testing for Athlete 1 (from 1.9 to 13.6 mmol·L), and after the power clean test for Athlete 2 (from 1.4 to 17.6 mmol·L). These results suggest a different metabolic response to very short efforts (≤3 s) in top-level track and field sprinters. These findings reinforce the need to include lactate assessments, during training and evaluation sessions, to better understand the acute and chronic adaptations to training of sprinters of different levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2021.1917406DOI Listing
April 2021

Chemical and physical Chitosan modification for designing enzymatic industrial biocatalysts: How to choose the best strategy?

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 14;181:1124-1170. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Instituto de Engenharias e Desenvolvimento Sustentável, Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira, Campus das Auroras, Redenção CEP 62790970, CE, Brazil; Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus do Pici, Bloco 709, Fortaleza CEP 60455760, CE, Brazil. Electronic address:

Chitosan is one of the most abundant natural polymer worldwide, and due to its inherent characteristics, its use in industrial processes has been extensively explored. Because it is biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic, hydrophilic, cheap, and has good physical-chemical stability, it is seen as an excellent alternative for the replacement of synthetic materials in the search for more sustainable production methodologies. Thus being, a possible biotechnological application of Chitosan is as a direct support for enzyme immobilization. However, its applicability is quite specific, and to overcome this issue, alternative pretreatments are required, such as chemical and physical modifications to its structure, enabling its use in a wider array of applications. This review aims to present the topic in detail, by exploring and discussing methods of employment of Chitosan in enzymatic immobilization processes with various enzymes, presenting its advantages and disadvantages, as well as listing possible chemical modifications and combinations with other compounds for formulating an ideal support for this purpose. First, we will present Chitosan emphasizing its characteristics that allow its use as enzyme support. Furthermore, we will discuss possible physicochemical modifications that can be made to Chitosan, mentioning the improvements obtained in each process. These discussions will enable a comprehensive comparison between, and an informed choice of, the best technologies concerning enzyme immobilization and the application conditions of the biocatalyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.04.004DOI Listing
April 2021

Chemical and physical Chitosan modification for designing enzymatic industrial biocatalysts: How to choose the best strategy?

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 14;181:1124-1170. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Instituto de Engenharias e Desenvolvimento Sustentável, Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira, Campus das Auroras, Redenção CEP 62790970, CE, Brazil; Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus do Pici, Bloco 709, Fortaleza CEP 60455760, CE, Brazil. Electronic address:

Chitosan is one of the most abundant natural polymer worldwide, and due to its inherent characteristics, its use in industrial processes has been extensively explored. Because it is biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic, hydrophilic, cheap, and has good physical-chemical stability, it is seen as an excellent alternative for the replacement of synthetic materials in the search for more sustainable production methodologies. Thus being, a possible biotechnological application of Chitosan is as a direct support for enzyme immobilization. However, its applicability is quite specific, and to overcome this issue, alternative pretreatments are required, such as chemical and physical modifications to its structure, enabling its use in a wider array of applications. This review aims to present the topic in detail, by exploring and discussing methods of employment of Chitosan in enzymatic immobilization processes with various enzymes, presenting its advantages and disadvantages, as well as listing possible chemical modifications and combinations with other compounds for formulating an ideal support for this purpose. First, we will present Chitosan emphasizing its characteristics that allow its use as enzyme support. Furthermore, we will discuss possible physicochemical modifications that can be made to Chitosan, mentioning the improvements obtained in each process. These discussions will enable a comprehensive comparison between, and an informed choice of, the best technologies concerning enzyme immobilization and the application conditions of the biocatalyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.04.004DOI Listing
April 2021

Minimally invasive supratentorial neurosurgical approaches guided by Smartphone app and compass.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 24;11(1):6778. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Health Sciences Graduate Program, Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, SE, Brazil.

The precise location in the scalp of specifically planned points can help to achieve less invasive approaches. This study aims to develop a smartphone app, evaluate the precision and accuracy of the developed tool, and describe a series of cases using the referred technique. The application was developed with the React Native framework for Android and iOS. A phantom was printed based on the patient's CT scan, which was used for the calculation of accuracy and precision of the method. The points of interest were marked with an "x" on the patient's head, with the aid of the app and a compass attached to a skin marker pen. Then, two experienced neurosurgeons checked the plausibility of the demarcations based on the anatomical references. Both evaluators marked the frontal, temporal and parietal targets with a difference of less than 5 mm from the corresponding intended point, in all cases. The overall average accuracy observed was 1.6 ± 1.0 mm. The app was used in the surgical planning of trepanations for ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts and for drainage of abscesses, and in the definition of craniotomies for meningiomas, gliomas, brain metastases, intracranial hematomas, cavernomas, and arteriovenous malformation. The sample consisted of 88 volunteers who exhibited the following pathologies: 41 (46.6%) had brain tumors, 17 (19.3%) had traumatic brain injuries, 16 (18.2%) had spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages, 2 (2.3%) had cavernomas, 1 (1.1%) had arteriovenous malformation (AVM), 4 (4.5%) had brain abscesses, and 7 (7.9%) had a VP shunt placement. In cases approached by craniotomy, with the exception of AVM, straight incisions and minicraniotomy were performed. Surgical planning with the aid of the NeuroKeypoint app is feasible and reliable. It has enabled neurological surgeries by craniotomy and trepanation in an accurate, precise, and less invasive manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85472-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991647PMC
March 2021

Properties versus application requirements of solubilized lignins from an elm clone during different pre-treatments.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 21;181:99-111. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Forestry Products Department, Forest Research Center, INIA, Ctra de la Coruña Km 7.5, Madrid 28040, Spain. Electronic address:

Kraft pulping, organosolv process and acid hydrolysis were applied on an elm clone. The solubilized lignins were recovered and analyzed. Kraft pulping and acid hydrolysis led to lignins with higher phenolic OH content as result of extensive cleavage of β-O-4' linkages, as revealed by C solid state and C-H heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance. This depolymerization also yielded lower molecular weight lignins inferred by size exclusion chromatography. Contrarily, organosolv process gave rise to a lignin with a more preserved structure, maintaining a large number of β-O-4' linkages. Consequently, organosolv lignin presented lower phenolic OH content and higher molecular weight. Moreover, the high content of the labile native β-O-4' linkages in organosolv lignin resulted in a lower thermostability as compared to the kraft and acid lignins. On the other hand, the solubilized lignins from kraft and acid processes displayed an enrichment of S-units, whereas lignin from organosolv process was slightly enriched in G-units, containing all of them different native as well as pre-treatment derived units. These results could help to increase the inventory of lignin sources available for future lignin-based products, for which knowledge of the lignin properties versus application requirements is crucial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.03.093DOI Listing
March 2021

Examining the association between exposome score for schizophrenia and functioning in schizophrenia, siblings, and healthy controls: Results from the EUGEI study.

Eur Psychiatry 2021 Mar 19;64(1):e25. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Biomedical Research Networking Centre in Mental Health (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain.

Background: A cumulative environmental exposure score for schizophrenia (exposome score for schizophrenia [ES-SCZ]) may provide potential utility for risk stratification and outcome prediction. Here, we investigated whether ES-SCZ was associated with functioning in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.

Methods: This cross-sectional sample consisted of 1,261 patients, 1,282 unaffected siblings, and 1,525 healthy controls. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale was used to assess functioning. ES-SCZ was calculated based on our previously validated method. The association between ES-SCZ and the GAF dimensions (symptom and disability) was analyzed by applying regression models in each group (patients, siblings, and controls). Additional models included polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ) as a covariate.

Results: ES-SCZ was associated with the GAF dimensions in patients (symptom: B = -1.53, p-value = 0.001; disability: B = -1.44, p-value = 0.001), siblings (symptom: B = -3.07, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = -2.52, p-value < 0.001), and healthy controls (symptom: B = -1.50, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = -1.31, p-value < 0.001). The results remained the same after adjusting for PRS-SCZ. The degree of associations of ES-SCZ with both symptom and disability dimensions were higher in unaffected siblings than in patients and controls. By analyzing an independent dataset (the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis study), we replicated the results observed in the patient group.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that ES-SCZ shows promise for enhancing risk prediction and stratification in research practice. From a clinical perspective, ES-SCZ may aid in efforts of clinical characterization, operationalizing transdiagnostic clinical staging models, and personalizing clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/j.eurpsy.2021.19DOI Listing
March 2021

Regeneration of critical-sized defects, in a goat model, using a dextrin-based hydrogel associated with granular synthetic bone substitute.

Regen Biomater 2021 Feb 28;8(1):rbaa036. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

CEB, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga 4710-057, Portugal.

The development of injectable bone substitutes (IBS) have obtained great importance in the bone regeneration field, as a strategy to reach hardly accessible defects using minimally invasive techniques and able to fit to irregular topographies. In this scenario, the association of injectable hydrogels and bone graft granules is emerging as a well-established trend. Particularly, forming hydrogels have arisen as a new IBS generation. An forming and injectable dextrin-based hydrogel (HG) was developed, aiming to act as a carrier of granular bone substitutes and bioactive agents. In this work, the HG was associated to a granular bone substitute (Bonelike) and implanted in goat critical-sized calvarial defects (14 mm) for 3, 6 and 12 weeks. The results showed that HG improved the handling properties of the Bonelike granules and did not affect its osteoconductive features, neither impairing the bone regeneration process. Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells from the umbilical cord, extracellular matrix hydrolysates and the pro-angiogenic peptide LLKKK18 were also combined with the IBS. These bioactive agents did not enhance the new bone formation significantly under the conditions tested, according to micro-computed tomography and histological analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rb/rbaa036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947577PMC
February 2021

Knowledge and attitudes of schoolchildren about the prevention of accidents.

Cien Saude Colet 2021 Mar 10;26(3):1077-1084. Epub 2019 May 10.

Universidade Federal de Sergipe. Av. Governador Marcelo Déda 13, Centro. 49400-000 Lagarto SE Brasil.

Accidents are frequent in childhood because of the lower risk perception and greater vulnerability to disasters. This study aimed to analyze the knowledge and attitudes of schoolchildren concerning the prevention of accidents and associated factors. This is a cross-sectional and quantitative study conducted in November and December/2017 in Simão Dias, Sergipe, Brazil. Ninety-seven schoolchildren aged between 7 and 9 years of age from a sample calculation were evaluated through interviews with representative images. The results showed that little more than half of the children consider the use of personal protective equipment as a way of preventing injuries in case of accidents (58.8%; n=57), and is infrequent among those with low education level (PR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.16- 0.99). The knowledge or use of this equipment was 60.8% (n=59) for safety belt, 54.6% (n=53) for helmet, 47.4% (n=46) for knee pad and 40.2% (n=39) for elbow support. Regarding attitudes, 20.6% (n=20) answered that there is no problem putting their (unwashed) hand on the wound and 12.4% (n=12) crossing the street accompanied without an adult. It was concluded that the knowledge and attitudes of schoolchildren concerning the prevention of accidents are misguided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232021263.06562019DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparative study between minimally invasive supraorbital craniotomy and pterional craniotomy for treating anterior circulation cerebral aneurysms in a low-resource setting.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 10;11(1):5555. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Surgery, ABC Medical School, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil.

The challenges encountered in performing minimally invasive approaches, such as supraorbital minicraniotomy (SOMC), in services without adequate equipment are rarely reported in the literature. This study analyzes the viability of SOMC in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms, using exactly the same resources as pterional craniotomy (PC). The results of these two techniques are compared. 35 patients underwent SOMC, compared to 50 patients underwent CP (100 aneurysms in total), using the same microsurgical instruments. The following variables were compared: operative time, angiographic cure, length of intensive care unit stay during the post-operative period, surgical complications, length of hospital stay after surgery until hospital discharge, intraoperative aneurysm rupture, aesthetic satisfaction with the scar, and neurological status at discharge. SOMC had a significantly shorter operative time in relation to PC (213.9 ± 11.09 min and 268.6 ± 15.44 min, respectively) (p = 0.0081).With respect to the cosmetic parameters assessed by the Visual Analog Scale, the average for SOMC was 94.12 ± 1.92 points, and the average for PC was 83.57 ± 4.75 points (p = 0.036). SOMC was as effective as PC in relation to successful aneurysm clipping (p = 0.77). The SOMC technique did not show advantages over PC in any other variable. Even in a general neurosurgery service lacking a specific structure for minimally invasive surgeries, SOMC was feasible and effective for treating intracranial aneurysms, using the same set of microsurgical instruments used for PC, obtaining better results in operating time and cosmetic satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85115-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946868PMC
March 2021

Nociception alterations precede motor symptoms in a progressive model of parkinsonism induced by reserpine in middle-aged rats.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Jun 3;171:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Laboratory of Behavioral and Evolutionary Neurobiology, Department of Biosciences, Federal University of Sergipe, Itabaiana, SE, Brazil. Electronic address:

Nociception alterations are frequent non-motor symptoms of the prodromal phase of Parkinson's disease (PD). The period for the onset of symptoms and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these alterations remain unclear. We investigated the course of nociception alterations in a progressive model of parkinsonism induced by reserpine (RES) in rats. Male Wistar rats (6-7 months) received 5 or 10 subcutaneous injections of RES (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle daily for 20 days. Motor evaluation and nociceptive assessment were performed throughout the treatment. At the end of the treatment rats were euthanized, the brains removed and processed for immunohistochemical analysis (TH and c-Fos). The RES-treated rats exhibited an increased nociceptive response to mechanical and chemical stimulation in the electronic von Frey and formalin tests, respectively. Moreover, these alterations preceded the motor impairment observed in the catalepsy test. In addition, the RES treatment reduced the TH-immunoreactivity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and increased the c-Fos expression in the ventral-lateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), rostral ventral medulla (RVM) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) after noxious stimuli induced by formalin. Taken together, our results reinforce that nociceptive changes are one of the early signs of PD and monoamine depletion in basal ganglia can be involved in the abnormal processing of nociceptive information in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.03.001DOI Listing
June 2021

Manipulating bovine granulosa cell energy metabolism limits inflammation.

Reproduction 2021 May;161(5):499-512

Swansea University Medical School, Swansea University, Swansea, UK.

Bovine granulosa cells are often exposed to energy stress, due to the energy demands of lactation, and exposed to lipopolysaccharide from postpartum bacterial infections. Granulosa cells mount innate immune responses to lipopolysaccharide, including the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and production of pro-inflammatory interleukins. Cellular energy depends on glycolysis, and energy stress activates intracellular AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), which in turn inhibits mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin). Here, we tested the hypothesis that manipulating glycolysis, AMPK or mTOR to mimic energy stress in bovine granulosa cells limits the inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide. We inhibited glycolysis, activated AMPK or inhibited mTOR in granulosa cells isolated from 4-8mm and from > 8.5 mm diameter ovarian follicles, and then challenged the cells with lipopolysaccharide and measured the production of interleukins IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8. We found that inhibiting glycolysis with 2-deoxy-d-glucose reduced lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-1α > 80%, IL-1β > 90%, and IL-8 > 65% in granulosa cells from 4-8 mm and from > 8.5 mm diameter ovarian follicles. Activating AMPK with AICAR also reduced lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-1α > 60%, IL-1β > 75%, and IL-8 > 20%, and shortened the duration of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 and JNK. However, only the mTOR inhibitor Torin 1, and not rapamycin, reduced lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-1α and IL-1β. In conclusion, manipulating granulosa cell energy metabolism with a glycolysis inhibitor, an AMPK activator, or an mTOR inhibitor, limited inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide. Our findings imply that energy stress compromises ovarian follicle immune defences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-20-0554DOI Listing
May 2021

Perceived major experiences of discrimination, ethnic group, and risk of psychosis in a six-country case-control study.

Psychol Med 2021 Mar 2:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, CambridgeCB2 0SZ, UK.

Background: Perceived discrimination is associated with worse mental health. Few studies have assessed whether perceived discrimination (i) is associated with the risk of psychotic disorders and (ii) contributes to an increased risk among minority ethnic groups relative to the ethnic majority.

Methods: We used data from the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions Work Package 2, a population-based case-control study of incident psychotic disorders in 17 catchment sites across six countries. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between perceived discrimination and psychosis using mixed-effects logistic regression models. We used stratified and mediation analyses to explore differences for minority ethnic groups.

Results: Reporting any perceived experience of major discrimination (e.g. unfair treatment by police, not getting hired) was higher in cases than controls (41.8% v. 34.2%). Pervasive experiences of discrimination (≥3 types) were also higher in cases than controls (11.3% v. 5.5%). In fully adjusted models, the odds of psychosis were 1.20 (95% CI 0.91-1.59) for any discrimination and 1.79 (95% CI 1.19-1.59) for pervasive discrimination compared with no discrimination. In stratified analyses, the magnitude of association for pervasive experiences of discrimination appeared stronger for minority ethnic groups (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.12-2.68) than the ethnic majority (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 0.65-3.10). In exploratory mediation analysis, pervasive discrimination minimally explained excess risk among minority ethnic groups (5.1%).

Conclusions: Pervasive experiences of discrimination are associated with slightly increased odds of psychotic disorders and may minimally help explain excess risk for minority ethnic groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721000453DOI Listing
March 2021

On-site percutaneous coronary intervention: Does it matter when treating patients with acute coronary syndromes?

Rev Port Cardiol 2021 03 23;40(3):189-190. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Serviço de Cardiologia, Hospital da Luz, Setúbal, Portugal. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.repc.2021.01.001DOI Listing
March 2021

Association of PON1, TNF-α and TGF-β gene polymorphisms with prognosis in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Acta Odontol Scand 2021 Feb 15:1-8. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Applied Sciences to Health, Post-Graduate Program, Federal University of Sergipe, Lagarto, SE, Brazil.

Objective: The oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OOSCC) accounts for 90-95% of tumours in the oral cavity. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the coding region of PON1, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) have been associated with to development of different cancers. Our aim was to investigate the prognostic value of PON1 (rs854560 and rs662), TNF-α (rs1800629 and rs361525) and TGF-β (rs1800469) SNPs in OOSCC.

Materials And Methods: We genotyped 163 OOSCC patients and 146 patients from group of control for PON1 (rs854560 and rs662), TNF-α (rs1800629 and rs361525) and TGF-β (rs1800469) SNPs by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Results: TNF-α (rs1800629) GG genotype was significantly more frequent in intraoral lesions and clinical stages III and IV, while the polymorphic AA genotype in lip lesion and clinical stages I and II. Moreover, TGF-β (rs1800469) AG and AA genotypes were significantly more frequent in larger tumours (T3 e T4). TNF-α (rs1800629) AG genotype had poor survival and patients carrying the PON1 (rs662) TT genotype tended to poor survival.

Conclusions: Results suggest that the rs1800629 and rs1800469 could exert influence in the more aggressive behaviour of OOSCC and the genotypes AG of rs1800629, and TT of rs662 could be markers with prognostic value in OOSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016357.2020.1850856DOI Listing
February 2021

Work environment of hospital nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil.

Int Nurs Rev 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Nursing Department, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil.

Aim: To investigate the nurses' work environment in university hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic brought challenging times for nurses worldwide. In Brazil, as well as in several countries, nurses are working hard in hospital settings caring for patients infected with the virus, sometimes with unfavourable work environment conditions.

Methods: This study was a convergent embedded mixed methods research. The sample comprised 104 nurses from three Brazilian university hospitals. Data were collected in April-June 2020 from an online questionnaire with a self-reporting Likert scale survey designed to measure the nurses' perceptions of their work environment. Qualitative data in the form of written comments were also collected through an open question. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis.

Results: The quantitative results showed that the responses to 'I received training on the correct use of personal protective equipment' and 'I am afraid of being infected' items had the best and worst evaluations, respectively. The qualitative findings revealed five themes: feeling of insecurity, lack of personal protective equipment, lack of diagnostic tests, changes in the care flow and fear of the unknown.

Conclusion: The study has highlighted the challenges faced by hospital nurses while caring for patients with COVID-19.

Implications For Nursing And Nursing Policy: The gaps identified will assist the policymakers and hospital managers in developing policies to enhance the support offered to nurses and improve the care provided to patients with COVID-19 in university hospitals. The results also indicate the need for attention to the mental health of the professionals due to the increasing workload and treatment of an illness hitherto unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/inr.12662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014554PMC
February 2021

Migration history and risk of psychosis: results from the multinational EU-GEI study.

Psychol Med 2021 Feb 10:1-13. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Univ Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires « H. Mondor », DMU IMPACT, INSERM, IMRB, Fondation FondaMental, F-94010Creteil, France.

Background: Psychosis rates are higher among some migrant groups. We hypothesized that psychosis in migrants is associated with cumulative social disadvantage during different phases of migration.

Methods: We used data from the EUropean Network of National Schizophrenia Networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) case-control study. We defined a set of three indicators of social disadvantage for each phase: pre-migration, migration and post-migration. We examined whether social disadvantage in the pre- and post-migration phases, migration adversities, and mismatch between achievements and expectations differed between first-generation migrants with first-episode psychosis and healthy first-generation migrants, and tested whether this accounted for differences in odds of psychosis in multivariable logistic regression models.

Results: In total, 249 cases and 219 controls were assessed. Pre-migration (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.06-2.44, p = 0.027) and post-migration social disadvantages (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.02-3.51, p = 0.044), along with expectations/achievements mismatch (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.26, p = 0.014) were all significantly associated with psychosis. Migration adversities (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.672-2.06, p = 0.568) were not significantly related to the outcome. Finally, we found a dose-response effect between the number of adversities across all phases and odds of psychosis (⩾6: OR 14.09, 95% CI 2.06-96.47, p = 0.007).

Conclusions: The cumulative effect of social disadvantages before, during and after migration was associated with increased odds of psychosis in migrants, independently of ethnicity or length of stay in the country of arrival. Public health initiatives that address the social disadvantages that many migrants face during the whole migration process and post-migration psychological support may reduce the excess of psychosis in migrants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003329172000495XDOI Listing
February 2021

Self-Adaptation of Biofilms to Hydrodynamic Stress.

Front Microbiol 2020 12;11:588884. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Departamento de Farmacia Galénica y Tecnología Alimentaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

In some conditions, bacteria self-organize into biofilms, supracellular structures made of a self-produced embedding matrix, mainly composed of polysaccharides, DNA, proteins, and lipids. It is known that bacteria change their colony/matrix ratio in the presence of external stimuli such as hydrodynamic stress. However, little is still known about the molecular mechanisms driving this self-adaptation. In this work, we monitor structural features of biofilms grown with and without hydrodynamic stress. Our measurements show that the hydrodynamic stress concomitantly increases the cell density population and the matrix production. At short growth timescales, the matrix mediates a weak cell-cell attractive interaction due to the depletion forces originated by the polymer constituents. Using a population dynamics model, we conclude that hydrodynamic stress causes a faster diffusion of nutrients and a higher incorporation of planktonic bacteria to the already formed microcolonies. This results in the formation of more mechanically stable biofilms due to an increase of the number of crosslinks, as shown by computer simulations. The mechanical stability also relies on a change in the chemical compositions of the matrix, which becomes enriched in carbohydrates, known to display adhering properties. Overall, we demonstrate that bacteria are capable of self-adapting to hostile hydrodynamic stress by tailoring the biofilm chemical composition, thus affecting both the mesoscale structure of the matrix and its viscoelastic properties that ultimately regulate the bacteria-polymer interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.588884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835673PMC
January 2021

Clinical, epidemiological and transmission cycle aspects of leishmaniasis urbanization in Barreiras, Bahia, Brazil.

Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol 2021 Feb 11;36:100395. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Núcleo de Estudos de Agentes Infecciosos e Vetores (NAIVE), Centro das Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Oeste da Bahia (UFOB), Barreiras, Bahia, Brasil. Electronic address:

Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's leading infectious diseases and a public health problem for Bahia and Brazil. We made a retrospective cohort study of leishmaniasis cases reported between 2007 and 2016 in the Barreiras city, an important agribusiness city whose urbanization process was recent. Leishmaniasis presented epidemiological data with similar characteristics of the disease in other regions of the Brazil, that is, with the highest prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis found in children, while cutaneous leishmaniais was found in adults. The disease presented an urban configuration with wide distribution in the Barreiras city. We found the vectors of the different clinical forms of the disease occurring in the urban area of Barreiras city, particularly the sand fly of the Lutzmyia longipalpis, Evandromyia sallesi and Nyssomyia intermedia species. More studies will be necessary to indentify whether these species are really incriminated in the urban transmission of the parasites in the urban areas. This study indicates the places of the spatio-temporal greatest occurrence and transmission of the disease in the urban zones of Barreiras city.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sste.2020.100395DOI Listing
February 2021

Laboratory Observation of, Astrochemical Search for, and Structure of Elusive Erythrulose in the Interstellar Medium.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Feb 28;12(4):1352-1359. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Spain.

Rotational spectroscopy provides the most powerful means of identifying molecules of biological interest in the interstellar medium (ISM), but despite their importance, the detection of carbohydrates has remained rather elusive. Here, we present a comprehensive Fourier transform rotational spectroscopic study of elusive erythrulose, a sugar building block likely to be present in the ISM, employing a novel method of transferring the hygroscopic oily carbohydrate into the gas phase. The high sensitivity of the experiment allowed the rotational spectra of all monosubstituted isotopologue species of C-CHO to be recorded, which, together with quantum chemical calculations, enabled us to determine their equilibrium geometries () with great precision. Searches employing the new experimental data for erythrulose have been undertaken in different ISM regions, so far including the cold areas Barnard 1, the pre-stellar core TMC-1, Sagittarius B2. Although no lines of erythrulose were found, this data will serve to enable future searches and possible detections in other ISM regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c03050DOI Listing
February 2021

Measuring the α-particle charge radius with muonic helium-4 ions.

Nature 2021 01 27;589(7843):527-531. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, ENS-PSL Research University, Collège de France, Paris, France.

The energy levels of hydrogen-like atomic systems can be calculated with great precision. Starting from their quantum mechanical solution, they have been refined over the years to include the electron spin, the relativistic and quantum field effects, and tiny energy shifts related to the complex structure of the nucleus. These energy shifts caused by the nuclear structure are vastly magnified in hydrogen-like systems formed by a negative muon and a nucleus, so spectroscopy of these muonic ions can be used to investigate the nuclear structure with high precision. Here we present the measurement of two 2S-2P transitions in the muonic helium-4 ion that yields a precise determination of the root-mean-square charge radius of the α particle of 1.67824(83) femtometres. This determination from atomic spectroscopy is in excellent agreement with the value from electron scattering, but a factor of 4.8 more precise, providing a benchmark for few-nucleon theories, lattice quantum chromodynamics and electron scattering. This agreement also constrains several beyond-standard-model theories proposed to explain the proton-radius puzzle, in line with recent determinations of the proton charge radius, and establishes spectroscopy of light muonic atoms and ions as a precise tool for studies of nuclear properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03183-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914124PMC
January 2021

IS THE NEW PROCORE 20G DOUBLE FORWARD-BEVEL NEEDLE CAPABLE TO OBTAIN BETTER HISTOLOGICAL SAMPLES BY ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASOUND FOR DIAGNOSING SOLID PANCREATIC LESIONS?

Arq Bras Cir Dig 2021 25;33(4):e1554. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Division of Gastrointestinal Surgery (Endoscopy Unit), Department of Surgery and Anatomy, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Fine needle biopsy (FNB) histological samples by endoscopic ultrasound. It is important to obtain representative histological samples of solid biliopancreatic lesions without a clear indication for resection. The role of new needles in such task is yet to be determined.

Aim: To compare performance assessment between 20G double fine needle biopsy (FNB) and conventional 22G fine needle aspiration (FNA) needles for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biopsy.

Methods: This prospective study examined 20 patients who underwent the random puncture of solid pancreatic lesions with both needles and the analysis of tissue samples by a single pathologist.

Results: The ProCore 20G FNB needle provided more adequate tissue samples (16 vs. 9, p=0.039) with better cellularity quantitative scores (11 vs. 5, p=0.002) and larger diameter of the histological sample (1.51±1.3 mm vs. 0.94±0.55 mm, p=0.032) than the 22G needle. The technical success, puncture difficulty, and sample bleeding were similar between groups. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 88.9%, 100%, and 90% and 77.8%, 100%, and 78.9% for the 20G and 22G needles, respectively.

Conclusions: The samples obtained with the ProCore 20G FNB showed better histological parameters; although there was no difference in the diagnostic performance between the two needles, these findings may improve pathologist performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-672020200004e1554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836075PMC
February 2021

Collision of Fundamental Human Rights and the Right to Health Access During the Novel Coronavirus Pandemic.

Front Public Health 2020;8:570243. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Laboratório de Delineamento de Estudos e de Escrita Científica, Centro Universitário Saúde ABC Faculdade de Medicina do ABC (FMABC), Santo André, Brazil.

COVID-19 requires governmental measures to protect healthcare system access for people. In this process, the collision of fundamental rights emerges as a crucial challenge for decision-making. This policy review analyzes selected articles by the PubMed searcher about extreme measures taken in several countries during precedent pandemics and the current pandemic, and selects hard decisions relating to the exceptional measures taken by judicial departments in Brazil, connecting them to the "collision of fundamental rights and law principles." The collision of rights and principles imposed on decision makers a duty to provide balanced rights, and to adopt the enforcement of some rights prioritization. Ethical concerns were also verified in this field involving rights limitations. During a pandemic, the importance of extreme measures to protect health rights and healthcare systems is instrumental for focused, fast, and correct decision making to avoid loss of life and the collapse of healthcare systems. The main goals of this research are to discuss the implications and guidelines for public health decision making, the indispensable ethical and legal aspects for safeguarding health systems and the lives of people, and the respect of the Justice principle and of fundamental health and dignity rights. We conclude that COVID-19 justifies the prioritization of collective and individual health access rights. Acceptable standards of fundamental rights restrictions are established at the constitutional and international levels and must be enforced by rules and governmental action, to ensure fast and accurate decision making during a pandemic. Freedom rights exercises must be linked to solidarity for the realization of social welfare, for the health rights of all individuals and for health systems to function well during a pandemic. All individuals are free and equal, therefore social exclusion is prohibited. Institutions must consider social inequalities when discussing public health measures and be guided by ethical standards, by law principles, and rules recognized by constitutional and international law for the benefit of all during a health pandemic. Collective and individual health rights prevail over the collision of rights when facing pandemic occurrences, case by case, in health systems protection, based on the literature, on precedent pandemics and on legitimate Public Health efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.570243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820746PMC
February 2021

Glyphosate effects on tree species natives from Cerrado and Caatinga Brazilian biome: Assessing sensitivity to two ways of contamination.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 9;769:144113. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri - Campus JK, Agricultural Science Center, Rodovia MGT 367, Km 583, n° 5000, Alto da Jacuba, CEP: 39100-000 Diamantina, MG, Brazil.

Glyphosate is applied for dissection in no-till and post-emergence management in transgenic crops in agricultural fields near the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes. These biomes together represent 33.8% of the Brazilian territory, contributing to the maintenance of great world diversity in flora and fauna. Despite actions to protect them, the proximity with agricultural areas and intense use of glyphosate puts at risk the preservation of native vegetation due to the contamination via herbicide transport processes. Our objectives were: i) to determine the sensitivity of native species from the Cerrado and Caatinga to glyphosate contamination via drift and groundwater; ii) evaluate the level of sensitivity to glyphosate among the different organs of plants. The highest intoxications (upper 80%) were observed for Bauhinia cheilantha, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Mimosa tenuiflora and Amburana cearensis due to drift simullation. The species with 90% of total dry matter reduction were Bauhinia cheilantha, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Mimosa tenuiflora, Tabebuia aurea. B. cheilantha and M. tenuiflora are most affected by exposure to glyphosate drift, with 50% of total dry matter reduction when exposed to doses below 444,0 g ha. Leaf growth is more sensitive to glyphosate for drift exposure for most species. Hymenaea courbaril is an exception, with greater sensitivity to root growth (50% dry matter reduction at doses below 666,0 g ha). B. cheilantha is the species most sensitive to drift exposure; however, it showed complete tolerance to contamination in subsurface waters. Other species such as Anadenanthera macrocarpa and M. caesalpiniifolia are also sensitive to drift, but without reach 90% of total dry matter reduction. A. macrocarpa, M. caesalpiniifolia and T. aurea were tolerant to contamination by subsurface water. The differential tolerance of trees confirms glyphosate's potential as a species selection agent in the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144113DOI Listing
May 2021

Antioxidative defense against omeprazole-induced toxicogenetical effects in Swiss mice.

Pharmacol Rep 2021 Apr 21;73(2):551-562. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Laboratory of Genetics and Toxicology (LAPGENIC), Federal University of Piauí, 64.049-550, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil.

Background: Omeprazole (OME), a most frequently used proton pump inhibitor in gastric acidosis, is evident to show many adverse effects, including genetic instability. This study evaluated toxicogenic effects of OME in Mus musculus.

Methods: For this study, 40 male Swiss mice were divided into 8 groups (n = 5) and treated with OME at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg and/or treated with the antioxidants retinol palmitate (100 IU/kg) and ascorbic acid (2.0 μM/kg). Cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg, (cytotoxic agent) and the vehicle were served as positive and negative control group, respectively. After 14 days of treatment, the stomach cells along with the bone marrow and peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected and submitted to the comet assay (alkaline version) and micronucleus test. Additionally, hematological and biochemical parameters of the animals were also determined inspect of vehicle group.

Results: The results suggest that OME at all doses induced genotoxicity and mutagenicity in the treated cells. However, in association with the antioxidants, these effects were modulated and/or inhibited along with a DNA repair capacity.

Conclusions: Taken together, antioxidants (such as retinol palmitate and ascorbic acid) may be one of the best options to counteract OME-induced cytogenetic instability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43440-021-00219-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Induced reproduction and early development in dourado, Lima & Britski, 2007 (Pisces: Characiformes).

Zygote 2021 Jan 15:1-6. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia de Vertebrados, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais. Av. Dom José Gaspar, 500, 30535-610, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Our study aimed to establish the response of Salminus franciscanus to hypophysation and describe the main morphological events of its embryonic process. Wild fish were captured in São Francisco River and selected broodstock (females: 66.4 ± 11.1 cm and 4.04 ± 2.32 kg; males: 58.3 ± 10.2 cm and 3.62 ± 1.12 kg) were kept at 26.1 ± 0.6°C for induction of final maturation/gamete release via the hypophysation technique. In females, two doses (0.8 and 5.6 mg/kg body weight) of crude pituitary extract of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were administered with a 14 h interval. For males, a single dose (2.7 mg/kg body weight) of crude pituitary extract was applied at the same time as the females' second dose. Oocytes and sperm were manually stripped 8 h after a females' second hormonal dose. Fertilization was carried out using the dry method. Eggs were kept in funnel-type 60 L incubators at 24.3 ± 0.3°C and were analyzed and photographed every 10 min. After hormonal induction, 60% of females and 100% of males reacted positively and no broodstock mortality was recorded. The females released an average of 385.2 ± 78.4 g of oocytes and the fertilization rate observed was 50.4 ± 12.3%. The blastopore closure occurred at 7.5 h, somite formation at 12 h and hatching at 20 h post-fertilization. In general, the results of this study improve the understanding of the reproductive biology of dourado and confirm its potential for fish farming in the neotropical region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0967199420000854DOI Listing
January 2021

Entrepreneurial tendency of Nursing students: a comparison between graduating beginners and undergraduate students.

Rev Lat Am Enfermagem 2021 8;29:e3402. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Santo Antônio de Jesus, BA, Brazil.

Objective: to compare the entrepreneurial tendency between beginner and graduating students from undergraduate Nursing courses.

Method: this is a cross-sectional and quantitative research study. Data was collected from 377 Nursing students from four undergraduate Nursing courses in different Brazilian regions, 162 of them in first year and 215 in last year. Data was collected by means of a social and academic characterization form and the General Entrepreneurial Tendency Test. Data analysis was conducted by means of descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: the scores of the beginner students were below the mean in all dimensions of the instrument. The senior year students were above the test mean in the Impulse and determination dimension. A statistically significant difference was identified in relation to the course period and to the entrepreneurial tendency in the following dimensions: Need for achievement (p=0.001) and Impulse and determination (p=0.000).

Conclusion: the results indicate the importance of investment by universities in the development of an entrepreneurial culture in higher education in Nursing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1518-8345.4397.3402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798398PMC
January 2021