Publications by authors named "José Paulo Gagliardi Leite"

77 Publications

Molecular Epidemiology of Sapovirus in Children Living in the Northwest Amazon Region.

Pathogens 2021 Jul 30;10(8). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology, Linköping University, 581 85 Linköping, Sweden.

Sapovirus is an important etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE), mainly in children under 5 years old living in lower-income communities. Eighteen identified sapovirus genotypes have been observed to infect humans. The aim of this study was to identify sapovirus genotypes circulating in the Amazon region. Twenty-eight samples were successfully genotyped using partial sequencing of the capsid gene. The genotypes identified were GI.1 ( = 3), GI.2 ( = 7), GII.1 ( = 1), GII.2 ( = 1), GII.3 ( = 5), GII.5 ( = 1), and GIV.1 ( = 10). The GIV genotype was the most detected genotype (35.7%, 10/28). The phylogenetic analysis identified sapovirus genotypes that had no similarity with other strains reported from Brazil, indicating that these genotypes may have entered the Amazon region via intense tourism in the Amazon rainforest. No association between histo-blood group antigen expression and sapovirus infection was observed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10080965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400878PMC
July 2021

Epidemiology of enteric virus infections in children living in the Amazon region.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 28;108:494-502. Epub 2021 May 28.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: To verify the frequency of viruses causing acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in association with the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) and Rotarix™ vaccination coverage in children from the Amazon region.

Design: Fecal and saliva samples were collected from children with AGE (n = 485) and acute respiratory infection (ARI) (n = 249) clinical symptoms. Rotavirus A (RVA), norovirus, human adenovirus (HAdV), and sapovirus (SaV) were verified in feces by molecular detection. Saliva samples were used for HBGA phenotyping/FUT3 genotyping. Blood group types, clinical aspects and Rotarix™ RVA vaccination data were recorded.

Results: Norovirus remained the most prevalently detected cause of AGE (38%, 184/485 and ARI 21.3%, 53/249). High HAdV frequencies were observed in AGE children (28.6%, 139/485) and ARI children (37.3%, 93/249). RVA was the third most prevalent virus causing AGE (22.7%, 110/485 and ARI 19.3%, 48/249) and a low RV1 coverage (61%, 448/734) was verified. The SaV frequencies were lower (7.2%, 35/485 for AGE and 6.8%, 17/249 for ARI). Secretor children were HBGA susceptible to HAdV infection (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3; P = 0.04) but not to RVA, norovirus or SaV infection.

Conclusions: Norovirus could be considered the main etiological agent of AGE. No association was verified for HBGA susceptibility to RVA, norovirus and SaV. Secretor children showed a slight susceptibility to HAdV infection and the Le (a-b-) heterogeneous SNPs on the FUT3 gene.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.05.060DOI Listing
July 2021

Should COVID-19 be branded to viral thrombotic fever?

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2021 30;116:e200552. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Virologia Comparada e Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Coronaviruses can cause a diverse array of clinical manifestations, from fever with symptoms of the common cold to highly lethal severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS). SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus discovered in Hubei province, China, at the end of 2019, became known worldwide for causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Over one year's time period, the scientific community has produced a large bulk of knowledge about this disease and countless reports about its immune-pathological aspects. This knowledge, including data obtained in postmortem studies, points unequivocally to a hypercoagulability state. However, the name COVID-19 tells us very little about the true meaning of the disease. Our proposal is more comprehensive; it intends to frame COVID-19 in more clinical terminology, making an analogy to viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF). Thus, we found irrefutable evidence in the current literature that COVID-19 is the first viral disease that can be branded as a viral thrombotic fever. This manuscript points out that SARS-CoV-2 goes far beyond pneumonia or SARS. COVID-19 infections promote remarkable interactions among the endothelium, coagulation, and immune response, building up a background capable of promoting a "thrombotic storm," much more than a "cytokine storm." The importance of a viral protease called main protease (Mpro) is highlighted as a critical component for its replication in the host cell. A deeper analysis of this protease and its importance on the coagulation system is also discussed for the first time, mainly because of its similarity with the thrombin and factor Xa molecules, as recently pointed out by structural comparison crystallographic structures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760200552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103775PMC
May 2021

First report of human astrovirus MLB2 in Brazil detected in feces of children with acute gastroenteritis living in the state of Roraima, Northern Brazil.

Braz J Infect Dis 2020 Nov - Dec;24(6):575-579. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Human astrovirus (HAstV) 1-8 and highly divergent HAstVMLB1-3 genotypes have been detected in children both with and without acute gastroenteritis (AGE). One hundred and seventy fecal samples from children (≤5 years old) living in the Amazon region were evaluated for the presence of HAstV1-8, HAstV MLB1-3 and HAstVVA1-3, using an usual RT-PCR protocol and a new protocol with specific primers designed to detect HAstVMLB1-3. HAstVMLB1 and HAstV MLB2, as well as the HAstV3 and 5 genotypes were detected. HAstVMLB1-2 genotype was detected for the first time in Brazil at a frequency of 3.5% (6/170).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2020.10.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Secretor Status and Polymorphisms of Children with Acute Diarrhea Infected with Rotavirus and Norovirus in Brazil.

Viruses 2020 09 25;12(10). Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Gastroenteritis, Pathology Department, Health Science Center, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Maruípe, Vitória 1468, ES, Brazil.

Host susceptibility according to human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) is widely known for norovirus infection, but is less described for rotavirus. Due to the variable HBGA polymorphism among populations, we aimed to evaluate the association between HBGA phenotypes (ABH, Lewis and secretor status) and susceptibility to rotavirus and norovirus symptomatic infection, and the polymorphisms of and , of children from southeastern Brazil. Paired fecal-buccal specimens from 272 children with acute diarrhea were used to determine rotavirus/norovirus genotypes and HBGAs phenotypes/genotypes, respectively. Altogether, 100 (36.8%) children were infected with rotavirus and norovirus. The rotavirus P[8] genotype predominates (85.7%). Most of the noroviruses (93.8%) belonged to genogroup II (GII). GII.4 Sydney represented 76% (35/46) amongst five other genotypes. Rotavirus and noroviruses infected predominantly children with secretor status (97% and 98.5%, respectively). However, fewer rotavirus-infected children were Lewis-negative (8.6%) than the norovirus-infected ones (18.5%). single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) occurred mostly at the T59G > G508A > T202C > C314T positions. Our results reinforce the current knowledge that secretors are more susceptible to infection by both rotavirus and norovirus than non-secretors. The high rate for Lewis negative (17.1%) and the combination of SNPs, beyond the secretor status, may reflect the highly mixed population in Brazil.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12101084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600990PMC
September 2020

Simple, Low-Cost and Long-Lasting Film for Virus Inactivation Using Avian Coronavirus Model as Challenge.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Sep 4;17(18). Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste, Rodovia Washington Luiz Km 234 s/n, São Carlos 13560-970, Brazil.

The COVID-19 infection, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is inequitably distributed and more lethal among populations with lower socioeconomic status. Direct contact with contaminated surfaces has been among the virus sources, as it remains infective up to days. Several disinfectants have been shown to inactivate SARS-CoV-2, but they rapidly evaporate, are flammable or toxic and may be scarce or inexistent for vulnerable populations. Therefore, we are proposing simple, easy to prepare, low-cost and efficient antiviral films, made with a widely available dishwashing detergent, which can be spread on hands and inanimate surfaces and is expected to maintain virucidal activity for longer periods than the current sanitizers. Avian coronavirus (ACoV) was used as model of the challenge to test the antivirus efficacy of the proposed films. Polystyrene petri dishes were covered with a thin layer of detergent formula. After drying, the films were exposed to different virus doses for 10 min and virus infectivity was determined using embryonated chicken eggs, and RNA virus quantification in allantoic fluids by RT-qPCR. The films inactivated the ACoV (ranging from 10 to 10 EID), which is chemically and morphologically similar to SARS-CoV-2, and may constitute an excellent alternative to minimize the spread of COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558860PMC
September 2020

Rotavirus A in Brazil: Molecular Epidemiology and Surveillance during 2018-2019.

Pathogens 2020 Jun 27;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Avenida Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil.

Rotavirus A (RVA) vaccines succeeded in lowering the burden of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide, especially preventing severe disease and mortality. In 2019, Brazil completed 13 years of RVA vaccine implementation (Rotarix™) within the National Immunization Program (NIP), and as reported elsewhere, the use of Rotarix™ in the country has reduced childhood mortality and morbidity due to AGE. Even though both marketed vaccines are widely distributed, the surveillance of RVA causing AGE and the monitoring of circulating genotypes are important tools to keep tracking the epidemiological scenario and vaccines impact. Thus, our study investigated RVA epidemiological features, viral load and G and P genotypes circulation in children and adults presenting AGE symptoms in eleven states from three out of five regions in Brazil. By using TaqMan-based one-step RT-qPCR, we investigated a total of 1536 stool samples collected from symptomatic inpatients, emergency department visits and outpatients from January 2018 to December 2019. G and P genotypes of RVA-positive samples were genetically characterized by multiplex RT-PCR or by nearly complete fragment sequencing. We detected RVA in 12% of samples, 10.5% in 2018 and 13.7% in 2019. A marked winter/spring seasonality was observed, especially in Southern Brazil. The most affected age group was children aged >24-60 months, with a positivity rate of 18.8% ( < 0.05). Evaluating shedding, we found a statistically lower RVA viral load in stool samples collected from children aged up to six months compared to the other age groups ( < 0.05). The genotype G3P[8] was the most prevalent during the two years (83.7% in 2018 and 65.5% in 2019), and nucleotide sequencing of some strains demonstrated that they belonged to the emergent equine-like G3P[8] genotype. The dominance of an emergent genotype causing AGE reinforces the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance to assess the impact of mass RVA immunization as well as to monitor the emergence of novel genotypes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400326PMC
June 2020

Rotavirus A shedding and HBGA host genetic susceptibility in a birth community-cohort, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2014-2018.

Sci Rep 2020 04 24;10(1):6965. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Recent studies have investigated whether the human histo-blood group antigen (HBGAs) could affect the effectiveness of the oral rotavirus vaccines, suggesting secretor positive individuals develop a more robust response. We investigated the Rotavirus A (RVA) shedding in association with the host susceptibility profile in children from a birth community-cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2014 to 2018. A total of 132 children were followed-up between 0 to 11-month-old, stool samples were collected before/after the 1/2 RV1 vaccination doses and saliva samples were collected during the study. RVA shedding was screened by RT-qPCR and G/P genotypes determined by multiplex RT-PCR and/or Sanger nucleotide sequencing. The sequencing indicated an F167L amino acid change in the RV1 VP8* P[8] in 20.5% of shedding follow-ups and these mutant subpopulations were quantified by pyrosequencing. The HBGA/secretor status was determined and 80.3% of the children were secretors. Twenty-one FUT2 gene SNPs were identified and two new mutations were observed. The mutant F167L RV1 VP8* P[8] was detected significantly more in Le (a+b+) secretors (90.5%) compared to non-secretors and even to secretors Le (a-b+) (9.5%). The study highlights the probable association between RV1 shedding and HBGAs as a marker for evaluating vaccine strain host susceptibility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64025-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181595PMC
April 2020

Human Bocavirus genotypes 1 and 2 detected in younger Amazonian children with acute gastroenteritis or respiratory infections, respectively.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 3;95:32-37. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Avenida Brasil, 4365 Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aimed to verify the frequency, genotypes, and etiological role of Human Bocavirus (HBoV) in younger Amazonian children with either acute gastroenteritis (AGE) or respiratory infections (ARI). The influence of Rotarix™ vaccination and co-infection status was also investigated.

Design: HBoV quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) testing was done on both fecal and saliva (1468 samples) from 734 children < 5 months old living in the Amazon (Brazil, Guyana, and Venezuela). High and median HBoV viral load samples were used for extraction, nested PCR amplification, and sequencing for genotyping. HBoV mRNA detection was done by reverse transcription following DNA amplification.

Results: The overall HBoV frequencies were 14.2% (69/485; AGE) and 14.1% (35/249; ARI) (p = 0.83). HBoV exclusively infected 4.5% (22/485; AGE) and 4% (10/249) of the Amazonian children (Odds ratios 1.13, 95% confidence interval= 2.42-0.52). HBoV 1 was mainly detected in feces and saliva from AGE children; and HBoV2, from ARI children. HBoV mRNA was detected only in feces. The Rotarix™ vaccination status did not affect the HBoV frequencies.

Conclusions: We suggest that, after entry into the air/oral pathways, HBoV1 continues infecting toward the intestinal tract causing AGE. HBoV2 can be a causative agent of AGE and ARI in younger Amazonian children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.046DOI Listing
June 2020

Norovirus infection and HBGA host genetic susceptibility in a birth community-cohort, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 08 9;82:104280. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Norovirus has emerged as an important viral agent of acute pediatric gastroenteritis, with a growing genetic diversity reported in the last decades. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) present on the surface of enterocytes are susceptibility factors for norovirus infection and differ between populations which could affects the epidemiology and evolution of these viruses. This study investigated the frequency, incidence and genetic diversity of noroviruses in a cohort of rotavirus A vaccinated children in association to the host HBGA (Secretor/Lewis) genetic susceptibility profile. Norovirus genogroups I and II (GI/GII) were screened by RT-qPCR in 569 stool samples from 132 children followed-up from birth to 11 months of age during 2014--2018. Noroviruses were identified in 21.2% of children enrolled in this study, with a norovirus detection rate of 5.6% (32/569), in 17.1% and 4.7% of acute diarrheic episodes (ADE) and non-ADE, respectively. The norovirus incidence was 5.8 infections per 100 child-months. Partial nucleotide sequencing characterized six different norovirus genotypes, with GII.4 Sydney 2012 being detected in 50% associated with three different polymerase genotypes (GII·P31, GII·P16 and GII·P4 New Orleans 2009). FUT3 genotyping was yielded seven new mutations in this population. A significant association between symptomatic norovirus infection and secretor profile could be inferred.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104280DOI Listing
August 2020

High genetic diversity of noroviruses in children from a community-based study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2014-2018.

Arch Virol 2019 May;164(5):1427-1432

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Pav. Hélio & Peggy Pereira, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, 21040-360, Brazil.

We report on the occurrence and diversity of noroviruses in children (younger than 5 years old of age) from a low-income urban area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sixty-one stool specimens collected from children between 1 and 4 years old with acute diarrhoeic episodes (ADE) and non-ADE were investigated. RT-qPCR and sequencing of PCR products after conventional RT-PCR analysis were performed. Noroviruses were detected in 29 (47.5%) samples: 21 (46.7%) from cases with ADE and 8 (50%) from non-ADE cases. Molecular characterization showed 10 different genotypes circulating in this community between November 2014 and April 2018.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04195-zDOI Listing
May 2019

Phenotyping of Lewis and secretor HBGA from saliva and detection of new FUT2 gene SNPs from young children from the Amazon presenting acute gastroenteritis and respiratory infection.

Infect Genet Evol 2019 06 18;70:61-66. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Avenida Brasil, 4365-Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

The Histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) are host genetic factors associated with susceptibility to rotavirus (RV) and human norovirus (HuNoV), the major etiological agents of viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. The FUT2 gene expressing the alpha-1, 2-L- fucosyltransferase enzyme is important for gut HBGA expression, and also provides a composition of the phenotypic profile achieved through mutations occurring in populations with different evolutionary histories; as such, it can be considered a genetic population marker. In this study, Lewis and secretor HBGA phenotyping was performed using 352 saliva samples collected from children between three months and five years old born in the Amazon (Brazil, Venezuela and English Guyana) presenting AGE or acute respiratory infection (ARI), the latter considered as control samples. The total of children phenotyped as secretors was 323, corresponding to 91.80%. From these, 207 (58.80%) had a Le (a + b+) profile. The HBGA profiles were equally found in children with AGE as well as with ARI. The rs1047781 of the FUT2 gene was not detected in DNA from saliva cells with a Le (a+b+) profile. However, mutations not yet described in the FUT2 gene were observed: missense 325A>T, 501C>T, 585C>T, 855A>T and missense substitutions 327C>T [S (Ser) > C (Cys)], 446 T>C [L(Leu) > P(Pro)], 723C>A [N(Asn) > K(Lys)], 724A>T [I(Ile) > F(Phe)], 736C>A [H(His) > N(Asn)]. The SNP distribution in the FUT2 gene of the analyzed samples was very similar to that described in Asian populations, including indigenous tribes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2019.02.011DOI Listing
June 2019

Detection and molecular characterization of the novel recombinant norovirus GII.P16-GII.4 Sydney in southeastern Brazil in 2016.

PLoS One 2017 13;12(12):e0189504. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Gastroenteritis, Pathology Department, Health Science Center, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Av. Marechal Campos 1468, Maruípe, Vitória, ES, Brazil.

Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in all age groups worldwide. Despite the high genetic diversity of noroviruses, most AGE outbreaks are caused by a single norovirus genotype: GII.4. Since 1995, several different variants of norovirus GII.4 have been associated with pandemics, with each variant circulating for 3 to 8 years. The Sydney_2012 variant was first reported in Australia and then in other countries. A new variant, GII.P16-GII.4, was recently described in Japan and South Korea and then in the USA, France, Germany and England. In our study, 190 faecal specimens were collected from children admitted to a paediatric hospital and a public health facility during a surveillance study of sporadic cases of AGE conducted between January 2015 and July 2016. The norovirus was detected by RT-qPCR in 51 samples (26.8%), and in 37 of them (72.5%), the ORF1-2 junction was successfully sequenced. The new recombinant GII.P16-GII.4 Sydney was revealed for the first time in Brazil in 2016 and predominated among other strains (9 GII.Pe-GII.4, 3 GII.P17-GII.17, 1 GII.Pg-GII.1, 1 GII.P16-GII.3 and 1 GII.PNA-GII.4). The epidemiological significance of this new recombinant is still unknown, but continuous surveillance studies may evaluate its impact on the population, its potential to replace the first recombinant GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, and the emergence of new recombinant forms of GII.P16.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0189504PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5728567PMC
January 2018

Norovirus GII.17 Associated with a Foodborne Acute Gastroenteritis Outbreak in Brazil, 2016.

Food Environ Virol 2018 06 17;10(2):212-216. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz. Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, 21040-900, Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Foodborne transmission gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreak occurred during a celebration lunch in July, 2016, Brazil. All stool samples tested were positive for noroviruses (NoV) and phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains were genetically close to GII.17 Kawasaki_2014. These findings indicated circulation of NoV GII.17 Kawasaki_2014 in the Brazilian population, associated with AGE outbreak.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-017-9326-0DOI Listing
June 2018

Enteric viruses in HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children with diarrheal diseases in Brazil.

PLoS One 2017 30;12(8):e0183196. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Diarrheal diseases (DD) have distinct etiological profiles in immune-deficient and immune-competent patients. This study compares detection rates, genotype distribution and viral loads of different enteric viral agents in HIV-1 seropositive (n = 200) and HIV-1 seronegative (n = 125) children hospitalized with DD in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Except for group A rotavirus (RVA), which were detected through enzyme immunoassay, the other enteric viruses (norovirus [NoV], astrovirus [HAstV], adenovirus [HAdV] and bocavirus [HBoV]) were detected through PCR or RT-PCR. A quantitative PCR was performed for RVA, NoV, HAstV, HAdV and HBoV. Infections with NoV (19% vs. 9.6%; p<0.001), HBoV (14% vs. 7.2%; p = 0.042) and HAdV (30.5% vs. 14.4%; p<0.001) were significantly more frequent among HIV-1 seropositive children. RVA was significantly less frequent among HIV-1 seropositive patients (6.5% vs. 20%; p<0.001). Similarly, frequency of infection with HAstV was lower among HIV-1 seropositive children (5.5% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.018). Among HIV-1 seropositive children 33 (16.5%) had co-infections, including three enteric viruses, such as NoV, HBoV and HAdV (n = 2) and NoV, HAstV and HAdV (n = 2). The frequency of infection with more than one virus was 17 (13.6%) in the HIV-1 negative group, triple infection (NoV + HAstV + HBoV) being observed in only one patient. The median viral load of HAstV in feces was significantly higher among HIV-1 positive children compared to HIV-1 negative children. Concerning children infected with RVA, NoV, HBoV and HAdV, no statistically significant differences were observed in the medians of viral loads in feces, comparing HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children. Similar detection rates were observed for RVA, HAstV and HAdV, whilst NoV and HBoV were significantly more prevalent among children with CD4+ T lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm3. Enteric viruses should be considered an important cause of DD in HIV-1 seropositive children, along with pathogens more classically associated with intestinal infections in immunocompromised hosts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0183196PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5576665PMC
October 2017

Surveillance of Noroviruses in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: Occurrence of New GIV Genotype in Clinical and Wastewater Samples.

Food Environ Virol 2018 03 21;10(1):1-6. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Rio de Janeiro, 21040-360, Brazil.

Genogroup (G) IV norovirus (NoV) has been described in the literature as infectious agents in humans, although there are few reports regarding the frequency and spread of this virus, resulting in insufficient epidemiological data. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of GIV norovirus in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in order to evaluate frequency, concentration, and genetic diversity using clinical and environmental approaches. For this purpose, 316 stool samples were collected from acute gastroenteritis cases reported over a period of three years. Wastewater samples were also obtained from the main wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in Rio de Janeiro throughout one year, totalizing 156 samples. All samples were submitted to quantitative analysis by TaqMan™ real-time PCR for GIV norovirus. Three out of 316 clinical samples were positive (0.9%) for GIV, with viral load ranging from 10 to 10 genome copies (CG) per gram. Regarding wastewater samples, GIV were detected in 52% of raw sewage, with viral load ranging from 10 to 10 CG per liter. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the circulation of a new GIV genotype in both clinical and environmental samples. To our knowledge, this is the first description of GIV norovirus in clinical samples in Brazil. These results demonstrate the importance of performing laboratory surveillance of clinical and environmental samples, assisting the comprehension of the epidemiology pattern of viruses with neglected diagnosis and indefinite impact in the population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-017-9308-2DOI Listing
March 2018

VP7 and VP8* genetic characterization of group A rotavirus genotype G12P[8]: Emergence and spreading in the Eastern Brazilian coast in 2014.

J Med Virol 2017 01 12;89(1):64-70. Epub 2016 Jul 12.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Ministry of Health, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Group A rotavirus (RVA) genotype G12 is habitually associated with diarrhea disease (DD) in African children and recently its detection has increased worldwide. A total of 970 stool samples collected from individuals with DD in the Northeastern, Southeastern, and Southern Brazilian regions, Eastern coast, were analyzed and 321 (33%) were positive for RVA and of these, 241 (75%) genotyped as G12P[8]. The rate of RVA positivity was higher among children aged 5-10 years old (60%). All RVA infections observed in adults aged >21 years were G12P[8] (n = 27) showing that this genotype affected older age groups during the year of 2014 in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of VP7 and VP8* G12P[8] strains demonstrated an elevated similarity among Brazilian and G12-III prototypes strains circulating worldwide recently, suggesting that this lineage is associated with the global spread of the G12 genotype, considered as the 6th most prevalent human RVA genotype nowadays; while other G12 lineages remain sporadically detected and usually detected in association with other P genotypes. VP8* analysis revealed that Brazilian strains belong to P[8]-3 lineage, the single P[8] lineage presently detected in the country. No major nucleotide/amino acid disparities were observed among strains recovered from children and adults for VP7 and VP8* genes. These data are essential to support the surveillance studies, particularly in countries where the RVA vaccine was introduced in their National Immunization Program enabling identification of potential alterations in the epidemiological profile that can impact its efficacy in vaccination programs. J. Med. Virol. 89:64-70, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24605DOI Listing
January 2017

A non-enteric adenovirus A12 gastroenteritis outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2016 May;111(6):403-6

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Virologia Comparada e Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro RJ , Brasil, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Virologia Comparada e Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

A gastroenteritis outbreak that occurred in 2013 in a low-income community in Rio de Janeiro was investigated for the presence of enteric viruses, including species A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), astrovirus (HAstV), bocavirus (HBoV), aichivirus (AiV), and adenovirus (HAdV). Five of nine stool samples (83%) from patients were positive for HAdV, and no other enteric viruses were detected. Polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis, which revealed four strains and one strain of non-enteric HAdV-A12 and HAdV-F41, respectively. The HAdV-A12 nucleotide sequences shared 100% nucleotide similarity. Viral load was assessed using a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Stool samples that were positive for HAdV-A12 had high viral loads (mean 1.9 X 107 DNA copies/g stool). All four patients with HAdV-A12 were < 25 months of age and had symptoms of fever and diarrhoea. Evaluation of enteric virus outbreaks allows the characterisation of novel or unique diarrhoea-associated viruses in regions where RVA vaccination is routinely performed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760160030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4909040PMC
May 2016

Norovirus Recombinant Strains Isolated from Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Southern Brazil, 2004-2011.

PLoS One 2016 26;11(4):e0145391. Epub 2016 Apr 26.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Noroviruses are recognized as one of the leading causes of viral acute gastroenteritis, responsible for almost 50% of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The positive single-strand RNA genome of noroviruses presents a high mutation rate and these viruses are constantly evolving by nucleotide mutation and genome recombination. Norovirus recombinant strains have been detected as causing acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in several countries. However, in Brazil, only one report of a norovirus recombinant strain (GII.P7/GII.20) has been described in the northern region so far. For this study, 38 norovirus strains representative of outbreaks, 11 GII.4 and 27 non-GII.4, were randomly selected and amplified at the ORF1/ORF2 junction. Genetic recombination was identified by constructing phylogenetic trees of the polymerase and capsid genes, and further SimPlot and Bootscan analysis of the ORF1/ORF2 overlap. Sequence analysis revealed that 23 out of 27 (85%) non-GII.4 noroviruses were recombinant strains, characterized as: GII.P7/GII.6 (n = 9); GIIP.g/GII.12 (n = 4); GII.P16/GII.3 (n = 4); GII.Pe/GII.17 (n = 2); GII.P7/GII.14 (n = 1); GII.P13/GII.17 (n = 1); GII.P21/GII.3 (n = 1); and GII.P21/GII.13 (n = 1). On the other hand, among the GII.4 variants analyzed (Den Haag_2006b and New Orleans_2009) no recombination was observed. These data revealed the great diversity of norovirus recombinant strains associated with outbreaks, and describe for the first time these recombinant types circulating in Brazil. Our results obtained in southern Brazil corroborate the previous report for the northern region, demonstrating that norovirus recombinant strains are circulating more frequently than we expected. In addition, these results emphasize the relevance of including ORF1/ORF2-based analysis in surveillance studies as well as the importance of characterizing strains from other Brazilian regions to obtain epidemiological data for norovirus recombinant strains circulating in the country.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0145391PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4846083PMC
February 2017

Epidemiology of rotavirus A diarrhea in Chókwè, Southern Mozambique, from February to September, 2011.

J Med Virol 2016 10 29;88(10):1751-8. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Acute diarrhea disease caused by Rotaviruses A (RVA) is still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children ≤5 years old in developing countries. An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted between February and September, 2011 to determine the proportion of acute diarrhea caused by RVA. A total of 254 stool specimens were collected from children ≤5 years old with acute diarrhea, including outpatients (222 children) and inpatients (32 children), in three local health centers in Chókwè District, Gaza Province, South of Mozambique. RVA antigens were detected using enzyme immunoassay (EIA); the RVA G (VP7) and P (VP4) genotypes were determined by RT-PCR or analysis sequencing. Sixty (24%) out of 254 fecal specimens were positive for RVA by EIA; being 58 (97%) from children ≤2 years of age. RVA prevalence peaks in June and July (coldest and drier months) and the G[P] binary combination observed were G12P[8] (57%); G1P[8] (9%); G12P[6] (6%); and 2% for each of the following genotypes: G1P[6], G2P[6] G4P[6], and G9P[8]. Non-Typeable (NT) G and/or P genotypes were observed as follows: G12P [NT] (6%); G1P [NT], G3P[NT] and GNTP[NT] (4%). Considering the different GP combinations, G12 represented 67% of the genotypes. This is the first data showing the diversity of RVA genotypes in Mozambique highlighting the epidemiological importance of these viruses in acute diarrhea cases in children ≤2 years old. In addition, these findings will provide a baseline data before the introduction of the RVA monovalent (Rotarix(®) ) vaccine in the National Immunization Program in September 2015. J. Med. Virol. 88:1751-1758, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24531DOI Listing
October 2016

The role of human adenoviruses type 41 in acute diarrheal disease in Minas Gerais after rotavirus vaccination.

Braz J Microbiol 2016 Jan-Mar;47(1):243-50. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

Laboratory of Virology, Microbiology Department, Institute of Biological Science, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.

Human adenovirus species F (HAdV-F) type 40 and 41 are commonly associated with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) across the world. Despite being the largest state in southeastern Brazil and having the second largest number of inhabitants, there is no information in the State of Minas Gerais regarding the role of HAdV-F in the etiology of ADD. This study was performed to determine the prevalence, to verify the epidemiological aspects of infection, and to characterize the strains of human adenoviruses (HAdV) detected. A total of 377 diarrheal fecal samples were obtained between January 2007 and August 2011 from inpatient and outpatient children of age ranging from 0 to 12 years. All samples were previously tested for rotavirus, norovirus, and astrovirus, and 314 of 377 were negative. The viral DNA was extracted, amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and the HAdV-positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test (p<0.05), considering two conditions: the total of samples tested (377) and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (314). The overall prevalence of HAdV was 12.47% (47/377); and in 76.60% (36/47) of the positive samples, this virus was the only infectious agent detected. The phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of 32 positive samples revealed that they all clustered with the HAdV-F type 41. The statistical analysis showed that there was no correlation between the onset of the HAdV infection and the origin of the samples (inpatients or outpatients) in the two conditions tested: the total of samples tested (p=0.598) and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (p=0.614). There was a significant association in the occurrence of infection in children aged 0-12 months for the condition 1 (p=0.030) as well as condition 2 (p=0.019). The occurrence of infections due to HAdV did not coincide with a pattern of seasonal distribution. These data indicate the significant involvement of HAdV-F type 41 in the etiology of ADD in Minas Gerais, which demonstrates the importance of other viral agents in the development of the disease after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine immunization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjm.2015.11.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4822746PMC
November 2016

Surveillance of Human Astrovirus Infection in Brazil: The First Report of MLB1 Astrovirus.

PLoS One 2015 14;10(8):e0135687. Epub 2015 Aug 14.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology-Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Ministry of Health, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Human astrovirus (HAstV) represents the third most common virus associated with acute diarrhea (AD). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HAstV infection in Brazilian children under 5 years of age with AD, investigate the presence of recently described HAstV strains, through extensive laboratory-based surveillance of enteric viral agents in three Brazilian coastal regions between 2005 and 2011. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the overall HAstV detection rate reached 7.1% (207/2.913) with percentage varying according to the geographic region: 3.9% (36/921) in the northeast, 7.9% in the south (71/903) and 9.2% in the southeast (100/1.089) (p < 0.001). HAstV were detected in cases of all age groups. Detection rates were slightly higher during the spring. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a 320-bp ORF2 fragment revealed that HAstV-1 was the predominant genotype throughout the seven years of the study. The novel AstV-MLB1 was detected in two children with AD from a subset of 200 samples tested, demonstrating the circulation of this virus both the in northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. These results provide additional epidemiological and molecular data on HAstV circulation in three Brazilian coastal regions, highlighting its potential to cause infantile AD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0135687PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4537245PMC
May 2016

Detection of Common, Emerging and Uncommon VP4, and VP7 Human Group A Rotavirus Genotypes from Urban Sewage Samples in Uruguay.

Food Environ Virol 2015 Dec 13;7(4):342-53. Epub 2015 Aug 13.

Laboratorio de Virología Molecular, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Regional Norte - CENUR Litoral Norte, Universidad de la República, Gral. Rivera 1350, 50000, Salto, Uruguay.

Environmental approach has proven to be a useful tool for epidemiological studies demonstrating through environmental studies the diversity of viruses circulating in a given population. The aim of this study was to perform a phylogenetic characterization of the group A rotavirus (RVA) glycoprotein (G)- and protease-sensitive (P)-genotypes obtained from sewage samples (n = 116) collected in six cities of Uruguay during March 2011 to April 2013. A worldwide standardized semi-nested multiplex RT-PCR (SNM RT-PCR) protocol directed against VP4 and VP7 genes were conducted for RVA detection and consensual DNA fragments were submitted to nucleotide sequencing. P and/or G genotype was successfully determined by phylogenetic analysis in 61% (n = 37) of the positive samples obtained by SNM RT-PCR (n = 61). The RVA genotypes were as follow: G1 (n = 2), G2 (n = 14), G3 (n = 5), G12 (n = 2), P[4] (n = 4), P[8] (n = 16), and P[3] (n = 2). Interestingly, through phylogenetic analysis, emerging, and uncommon human genotypes could be detected. Results obtained from the comparison of RVA genotypes detected in the current study and Uruguayan RVA strains previously described for contemporary clinical pediatric cases showed that monitoring sewage may be a good screening option for a rapid and economical overview of the circulating genotypes in the surrounding human population and a useful approximation to study RVA epidemiology in a future vaccine monitoring program. The present study represents the first report in Uruguay that describes the phylogenetic diversity of RVA from urban sewage samples.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-015-9213-5DOI Listing
December 2015

Aichi Virus Positivity in HIV-1 Seropositive Children Hospitalized with Diarrheal Disease.

Curr HIV Res 2015 ;13(4):325-31

Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Pav. Helio & Peggy Pereira, Av. Brazil 4.365 - Manguinhos - 21040-360 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil.

Aichi viruses (AiV) have been detected in patients with diarrheal diseases (DD). The aim of this study was to assess AiV infection rates in hospitalized children with DD, including 123 HIV-1 seropositive and 125 HIV-1 seronegative patients, in two public pediatric hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. AiV was investigated by nested RT-PCR. The AiV-positive samples were also tested for specie A rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, enteric adenovirus and bocavirus in order to assess co-infections. AiV parcial genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed. AiV were detected in 9/123 (7.32%) of the HIV-1 seropositive subjects and 1/125 (0.8%) of the HIV seronegative patients with DD (p = 0.019). The phylogenetic analysis of positive samples disclosed that: i) 13 samples were characterized as genotype A, with one of them being from the HIV-1 seronegative patient; ii) one sample from a HIV-1 seropositive patient was characterized as genotype B. AiV genotype A was grouped into 3 genetic clusters. Data suggest that AiV may be an opportunistic pathogen infecting children with AIDS and DD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162x13666150511145950DOI Listing
March 2016

Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in Latin American and Caribbean countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Vaccine 2015 May;33 Suppl 1:A248-54

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Introduction: There are two group A rotavirus (RVA) vaccines available worldwide since 2006: monovalent (Rotarix(®), RV1) and pentavalent (RotaTeq(®), RV5). Currently, 16 countries and 1 territory in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have introduced RVA vaccines and since their introduction several impact and effectiveness studies have been conducted in different countries. The purpose of this study was to assess RVA vaccine effectiveness in LAC countries.

Methodology: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in children under-five who were admitted with laboratory-confirmed RVA diarrhea. We searched Medline, WOS, LILACS, Scopus, and other sources from 2006 to October 2013. Two independent evaluators identified the studies that met predefined selection criteria and extracted relevant information according to a protocol. Pooled estimates were obtained with fixed and random-effects models and stratified according to selected effect modifiers.

Results: Of the 806 articles meeting the initial criteria, 8 case-control studies which involved 27,713 participants (6265 cases and 21,448 controls) were included in the final analyses. The pooled estimates were calculated using different types of controls, leading to different degrees of effectiveness. The effectiveness of two doses of RV1 against rotavirus-related hospitalizations ranged from 63.5% (95% CI: 39.2-78.0) to 72.2% (95%CI: 60.9-80.2). Effectiveness ranged from 75.4% (95%CI: 64.6-82.9) to 81.8% (CI 95%:72.3-88.1) among infants <12 months for RV1, and from 56.5% (95%CI: 26.2-74.3) to 66.4% (95%CI: 54.1-75.5) for infants >12 months. The RV5 effectiveness for diarrhea with a Vesikari score >11 in infants 6 to 11 months old ranged from 76.1% (95%CI: 57.6-86.6) to 88.8% (95%CI: 78.3-94.3). Also, it showed 63.5% (95%CI: 29.4-82.6) of effectiveness against G2P [4].

Conclusion: RVA vaccines consistently showed protection against diarrhea-related hospitalizations in LAC. Results were more robust for RV1. Effectiveness was shown with different types of controls, but appeared somewhat higher with community controls. Effectiveness was higher among infants <12 months and lower in older children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.11.060DOI Listing
May 2015

Molecular epidemiology of group A rotavirus among children admitted to hospital in Salto, Uruguay, 2011-2012: first detection of the emerging genotype G12.

J Med Virol 2015 May 3;87(5):754-63. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Molecular Virology Laboratory, North Regional, University of Republic, Salto, Uruguay.

Group A rotavirus (RVA) is the most important etiologic agent of infant acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Detection and molecular characterization of RVA in Salto department, Northwestern region of Uruguay, was conducted on 175 clinical samples, being 153 stool and 22 vomit samples, collected from hospitalized children with AGE, between 0-15 years old, from two hospitals of Salto city during 2011 and 2012. RVA was detected and genotyped by seminested multiplex RT-PCR in order to determine G- and P-genotypes. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were carried out in order to determine lineages and sub-lineages. RVA were detected in 64 (37%) of the samples and the G and P genotypes observed were: 6% G1P[8], 23% G2P[4]/G2P[X]/GXP[4], 23% G3P[8]/G3P[X], 14% G12P[8]/G12P[X], 16% GXP[8], 1,5% G12P[9], 3% G2P[4]/[8], and 16% non-typeable. VP7 and VP4 genotypes related to DS-1 like gene constellation were prevalent during 2011 and those VP7 and VP4 genotypes related to Wa-like constellation were prevalent during 2012 (mainly represented by G3P[8]). Interestingly, RVA was detected in vomit samples in a high prevalence (41%). RVA was observed mainly in the age group between 1 and 5 years old (75% of the cases), and seasonality with a high detection rate in winter season was observed for the two consecutive years of surveillance. To our knowledge, this study represents the first detection and molecular characterization of RVA in Salto department, Northwestern region of Uruguay; and the first identification of the emerging genotype G12 in the country.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24123DOI Listing
May 2015

G1P[8] species A rotavirus over 27 years--pre- and post-vaccination eras--in Brazil: full genomic constellation analysis and no evidence for selection pressure by Rotarix® vaccine.

Infect Genet Evol 2015 Mar 3;30:206-218. Epub 2015 Jan 3.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Epidemiological data on species A rotavirus (RVA) infections have demonstrated the genetic diversity of strains circulating worldwide. Many G and P genotype combinations have been described over the years, varying regionally and temporally, especially in developing countries. However, the most common G and P genotype combinations identified in RVA human strains worldwide are G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8] and G9P[8]. RVA genotype G1P[8] strains are responsible for more than 50% of child infections worldwide and component of the two vaccines (Rotarix® [RV1] and RotaTeq® [RV5]) licensed globally. For a better understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms of this genotype in Brazil, phylogenetic analyses based on the 11 RVA genome segments (genomic constellation) from 90 G1P[8] RVA strains collected in two eras - (i) pre-vaccination with RV1 (1996-February 2006); (ii) post-vaccination (March 2006-2013) - in different Brazilian states were performed. The results showed the Wa-like genomic constellation of the Brazilian G1P[8] strains with a I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1 specificity, except for two strains (rj14055-07 and ba19030-10) that belong to a I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T3-E1-H1 genomic constellation, evidencing the occurrence of reassortment (Wa-like×AU-1-like) of the NSP3 gene. Reassortment events were also demonstrated between Brazilian G1P[8] strains and the RV1 vaccine strain in some genes in vaccinated and unvaccinated children. VP7 and VP8* antigenic site analysis showed that the amino acid substitutions observed in samples collected after the introduction of RV1 in Brazil were already detected in samples collected in the 1980s and 1990s, suggesting that mass Brazilian RV1 vaccination had no impact on the diversity observed inside antigenic sites for these two proteins.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2014.12.030DOI Listing
March 2015

Prevalence and genomic characterization of G2P[4] group A rotavirus strains during monovalent vaccine introduction in Brazil.

Infect Genet Evol 2014 Dec 17;28:486-94. Epub 2014 Sep 17.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

This study aims to: estimate the prevalence of G2P[4] rotaviruses in Brazil between 2001-2011 from patients with acute gastroenteritis; perform phylogenetic analyses of G2P[4] Brazilian strains (from vaccinated and non-vaccinated children) based on VP7 and VP8(∗) encoding genes and analyze the antigenic regions of these proteins comparing with RV1; and assess the full genetic background of eleven selected Brazilian strains. The G2P[4] detection rate among RVA positive samples was 0/157 in 2001, 3/226 (1.3%) in 2002, 0/514 in 2003, 0/651 in 2004, 31/344 (9%)/2005, 112/227 (49%)/2006, 139/211 (66%)/2007, 240/284 (85%)/2008, 66/176 (37.5%)/2009, 367/422 (87%)/2010 and 75/149 (50%)/2011. For the VP7 and VP8(∗) encoding genes, 52 sequences were analyzed and shared up to 99% nucleotide identity with other contemporary G2P[4] strains detected worldwide, grouping into different clusters. Most differences inside antigenic epitopes of VP7 and VP8(∗) have been maintained in the G2P[4] Brazilian strains along the years, and all were present before RV1 introduction. Eleven G2P[4] strains (4-vaccinated/7-non-vaccinated) were completely characterized and possessed the typical DS-1-like genotype constellation (G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2) sharing up to 99% of nucleotide identity with contemporary worldwide strains. Reassortments between Brazilian G2P[4] human strains were observed. In conclusion, the data obtained in the current study suggests that implementation of RV1 vaccination might not influence the genetic diversity observed in G2P[4] analyzed strains. Several factors might have contributed to the increased prevalence of this genotype in Brazil since 2005: the introduction of RV1 into the Brazilian National Immunization Program has resulted in a decrease in the relative prevalence of predominant Wa-like RVA strains facilitating the increase of the heterotypic (DS-1-like) RVA strain G2P[4] in the Brazilian population; the genetic diversity found in different geographical regions throughout the years before, and after the introduction of RV1; the long period of low or no circulation of this genotype in Brazil previous to RV1 introduction could have created favorable conditions for the accumulation of immunological susceptible individuals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2014.09.012DOI Listing
December 2014

Noroviruses associated with outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 2004-2011.

J Clin Virol 2014 Nov 3;61(3):345-52. Epub 2014 Sep 3.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology - Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Ministry of Health, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Background: Acute gastroenteritis norovirus (NoV) in a country of continental dimensions like Brazil has resulted in under-reporting of the number of outbreaks, as well as the genotypes associated.

Objectives: To demonstrate the role of NoV in outbreaks occurring in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, we determined its prevalence, as well as the genotypes associated, and evaluated clinical and epidemiological aspects.

Study Design: NoV investigation was carried out in rotavirus group A negative stool samples from 2265 patients from 741 outbreaks that occurred in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during a period of eight years (2004-2011). NoV detection and nucleotide sequencing for genotype characterization was carried by using sets of primers targeting a conservative Rd-Rp polymerase genome region and the viral capsid gene, respectively.

Results: NoVs were detected in 817 stool samples (36.1%) and associated with 327 outbreaks (44.1%). NoV GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.12, GII.13, GII.14, GII.15, GII.17, GII.21; and GI.1 and GI.3 were characterized. GII.4 was the most frequently detected (72.3%), with five variants identified (Asia_2003, Hunter_2004, Yerseke_2006a, Den_Haag_2006b, New Orleans_2009). This study describes the first detection of GI.1 and GII.13 and GII.15 in Brazil and demonstrates NoV winter-spring seasonality in this region of the country.

Conclusions: NoVs were responsible for almost 50% of outbreaks, with about 70% of them resulting from genotype GII.4 and its variants. The seasonality observed could help health authorities to establish a system of active surveillance in order to reduce NoV impact especially in congregate settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2014.08.024DOI Listing
November 2014

A decade of G3P[8] and G9P[8] rotaviruses in Brazil: epidemiology and evolutionary analyses.

Infect Genet Evol 2014 Dec 23;28:389-97. Epub 2014 May 23.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

This study aims to estimate the frequency of group A rotaviruses (RVA) infection with genotypes G3P[8] and G9P[8] in children that suffered from diarrheal disease (DD) between 2001 and 2011 in different Brazilian regions. In addition, the genetic diversity of G3P[8] and G9P[8] RVA strains recovered from vaccinated and non-vaccinated children was assessed. Laboratory-based RVA surveillance included 15,115 cases of DD, and RVA was detected by enzyme immune-assay and/or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in 3357 (22%) samples. RVA was genotyped by the semi-nested RT-PCR and among RVA-positive samples, 100 (2.9%) were G3 (63 G3P[8], 32 G3P not typed [NT], and 5 G3P[6]) and 378 (16.2%) were G9 (318 G9P[8], 59 G9P[NT], and 1 G9P[6]). From the G3 and G9 positive samples, 16 and 12, respectively, were obtained from children aged 4-48months vaccinated with the monovalent vaccine (Rotarix®, RV1). Phylogenetic analyses of the VP7 and VP8(∗) encoding genes were performed for 26 G3P[8] and 48 G9P[8] strains. VP8(∗) phylogenetic analysis revealed that all strains analyzed belonged to P[8] lineage III, whereas RV1 belongs to P[8]-I lineage. VP7 analysis revealed that all G3 and G9 strains belonged to G3-lineage III and G9-lineage III. The comparison of the VP7 and VP8(∗) antigenic epitopes regions of Brazilian strains with RV1 strain revealed several amino acid changes. However, no particular differences among Brazilian strains detected before and after vaccine introduction were observed, or among strains detected from vaccinated and non-vaccinated children. Complete genome characterization of four G3P[8] and seven G9P[8] strains revealed a typical conserved human Wa-like genomic constellation. Changes in the genetic diversity of G3P[8] and G9P[8] RVA detected from 2001 to 2011 in Brazil seemed not be related to RV1 introduction in Brazil.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2014.05.016DOI Listing
December 2014
-->