Publications by authors named "José Mariano Escalona"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Plant water status and genotype affect fruit respiration in grapevines.

Physiol Plant 2020 Aug 31;169(4):544-554. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Research Group in Plant Biology under Mediterranean Conditions, Biology Department, Balearic Island University (UIB), 07122, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

An understanding of fruit gas exchange is necessary to determine the carbon balance in grapevines, but little attention has been paid to the relationships among fruit respiration, plant water status and genetic variability. The effect of plant water status and genotype on cluster respiration was studied over two seasons (2013 and 2014) under field conditions using a whole cluster respiration chamber. Whole cluster CO fluxes were measured in growing grapevines at hard-green, veraison and ripening stages under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, and under light and dark conditions in two grapevine varieties, Tempranillo and Grenache. A direct relationship between cluster CO efflux and plant water status was found at hard-green stage. Genotype influenced the fruit CO efflux that resulted in higher carbon losses in Tempranillo than in Grenache. Fruit respiration rates decreased from the first berry developmental stages to ripening stage. The integration of fruit respiration rates under light and dark conditions showed the magnitude of fruit carbon losses and gains as well as interesting variety and environmental conditions effects on those processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13093DOI Listing
August 2020

Nano and Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): A New Grand Challenge for Precision Agriculture?

Curr Protoc Plant Biol 2020 03;5(1):e20103

Grup de Recerca en Biologia de les Plantes en Condicions Mediterrànies, Departament de Biologia, University of the Balearic Islands (UIB)/Instituto de investigaciones Agroambientales y de la Economía del Agua (INAGEA), Palma, Spain.

By collecting data at spatial and temporal scales that are inaccessible to satellite and field observation, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are revolutionizing a number of scientific and management disciplines. UAVs may be particularly valuable for precision agricultural applications, offering strong potential to improve the efficiency of water, nutrient, and disease management. However, some authors have suggested that the UAV industry has overhyped the potential value of this technology for agriculture, given that it is difficult for non-specialists to operate UAVs as well as to process and interpret the resulting data. Here, we analyze the barriers to applying UAVs for precision agriculture, which range from regulatory issues to technical requirements. We then evaluate how new developments in the nano- and micro-UAV (NAV and MAV, respectively) markets may help to overcome these barriers. Among the possible breakthroughs that we identify is the ability of NAV/MAV platforms to directly quantify plant traits using methods (e.g., object-oriented classification) that require less image calibration and interpretation than spectral index-based approaches. We suggest that this potential, when combined with steady improvements in sensor miniaturization, flight precision, and autonomy as well as cloud-based image processing, will make UAVs a tool with much broader adoption by agricultural managers in the near future. If this wider uptake is realized, then UAVs have real potential to improve agriculture's resource-use efficiency. © 2020 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cppb.20103DOI Listing
March 2020

Whole-Plant Water Use in Field Grown Grapevine: Seasonal and Environmental Effects on Water and Carbon Balance.

Front Plant Sci 2018 12;9:1540. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino, Logroño, Spain.

Water scarcity is a main challenge in vineyards sustainability in most of the grapevine areas now and even more in near future due to climatic change perspectives. In consequence, water use efficiency (WUE) measurements are of the highest interest to improve the sustainability of this crop. The vast majority of WUE measurements relays on measurements of leaf carbon and water fluxes at leaf-level. However, less data are available at the whole-plant level, and for the moment those data are not totally coincident with conclusions reached at leaf scale. In this study, we used whole-plant chambers able to enclose an entire plant of 12 years old to measure at the same time water and carbon fluxes under realistic field grown conditions. The main objectives were to identify the technical issues interfering the whole-plant measurements and track the environmental and other abiotic factors that can affect water and carbon balance, i.e., WUE at the whole-plant scale. To achieve those objectives, we measured whole-plant water and carbon fluxes in grapevine exposed to two different water regimes at three phenological stages [pea size (July), ripening (August), and harvest (September)]. In September, measurements were repeated under high CO to also check its effect at the whole-plant scale. The results indicate that water and carbon fluxes are well coordinated under both water availability treatments. Under drought conditions, both fluxes were drastically reduced, but surprisingly the estimated WUE resulted not improved but decreased, contrarily to what is shown at the leaf scale. The phenology (September) also strongly decreased both water and carbon fluxes when compared to measurements in July. We hypostatized that harvest load respiration rates could have an important weight on the whole-plant net carbon exchange (NCE). Finally, high CO measurements, after correction for leaks, indicated an increase of whole-plant NCE as well as increased whole-plant WUE, as expected. Several technical issues were identified, like 1/instability of [CO] during the night period that prevent robust estimation of whole-plant respiration and 2/condensation during last night and sun-rise hours which may affect the estimation of daily plant transpiration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6240650PMC
November 2018

Integrative field scale phenotyping for investigating metabolic components of water stress within a vineyard.

Plant Methods 2017 30;13:90. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Research Group on Plant Biology under Mediterranean Conditions, Universitat de les Illes Balears, cta. de Valldemossa Km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears, Spain.

Background: There is currently a high requirement for field phenotyping methodologies/technologies to determine quantitative traits related to crop yield and plant stress responses under field conditions.

Methods: We employed an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a thermal camera as a high-throughput phenotyping platform to obtain canopy level data of the vines under three irrigation treatments. High-resolution imagery (< 2.5 cm/pixel) was employed to estimate the canopy conductance ( ) via the leaf energy balance model. In parallel, physiological stress measurements at leaf and stem level as well as leaf sampling for primary and secondary metabolome analysis were performed.

Results: Aerial correlated significantly with leaf stomatal conductance ( ) and stem sap flow, benchmarking the quality of our remote sensing technique. Metabolome profiles were subsequently linked with and via partial least square modelling. By this approach malate and flavonols, which have previously been implicated to play a role in stomatal function under controlled greenhouse conditions within model species, were demonstrated to also be relevant in field conditions.

Conclusions: We propose an integrative methodology combining metabolomics, organ-level physiology and UAV-based remote sensing of the whole canopy responses to water stress within a vineyard. Finally, we discuss the general utility of this integrative methodology for broad field phenotyping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13007-017-0241-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5663058PMC
October 2017

Exploring the genetic variability in water use efficiency: Evaluation of inter and intra cultivar genetic diversity in grapevines.

Plant Sci 2016 Oct 18;251:35-43. Epub 2016 Jun 18.

Research Group on Plant Biology Under Mediterranean Conditions, Department of Biology, IMEDEA (CSIC-Universitat de les Illes Balears), Carretera de Valldemossa Km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain. Electronic address:

Genetic improvement of crop Water Use Efficiency (WUE) is a general goal because the increasing water scarcity and the trend to a more sustainable agriculture. For grapevines, this subject is relevant and need an urgent response because their wide distribution in semi-arid areas. New cultivars are difficult to introduce in viticulture due to the narrow dependency of consumer appreciation often linked to a certain particular wine taste. Clones of reputed cultivars would presumably be more accepted but little is known on the intra-cultivar genetic variability of the WUE. The present work compares, on the basis of two field assays, the variability of intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) in a large collection of cultivars in contrast with a collection of clones of Tempranillo cultivar. The results show that clonal variability of WUEi was around 80% of the inter-cultivar, thus providing a first assessment on the opportunity for clonal selection by WUE. Plotting the WUEi data against stem water potential or stomatal conductance it was possible to identify cultivars and clones out of the confidence intervals of this linear regression thus with significantly higher and lower WUEi values. The present results contribute to open the expectative for a genetic improvement of grapevine WUE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2016.05.008DOI Listing
October 2016

Steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) measurements as a tool to follow variations of net CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance during water-stress in C3 plants.

Physiol Plant 2002 Feb;114(2):231-240

Laboratori de Fisiologia Vegetal, Departament de Biologia, Universitat de les Illes Balears-Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats (UIB-CSIC). Carretera de Valldemossa Km. 7.5, E-07071 Palma de Mallorca. Balears, Spain Laboratoire pour l'Utilization du Rayonnement Electromagnétique (LURE), Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, B.P. 34; F-91898 Orsay Cedex, France Research School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University, Box 475, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

Water stress experiments were performed with grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) and other C3 plants in the field, in potted plants in the laboratory, and with detached leaves. It was found that, in all cases, the ratio of steady state chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) normalized to dark-adapted intrinsic fluorescence (Fo) inversely correlated with non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Also, at high irradiance, the ratio Fs/Fo was positively correlated with CO2 assimilation in air, with electron transport rate calculated from fluorescence, and with stomatal conductance, but no clear correlation was observed with qP. The significance of these relationships is discussed. The ratio Fs/Fo, measured with a portable instrument (PAM-2000) or with a remote sensing FIPAM system, provides a good method for the early detection of water stress, and may become a useful guide to irrigation requirements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3054.2002.1140209.xDOI Listing
February 2002
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