Publications by authors named "José G Peñaloza-González"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields and the Risk of Childhood B-Lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in a City With High Incidence of Leukemia and Elevated Exposure to ELF Magnetic Fields.

Bioelectromagnetics 2020 Dec 23;41(8):581-597. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Unidad de Investigación Médica en Epidemiología Clínica, Unidad Médica de Alta Especialidad (UMAE), Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional (CMN) "Siglo XXI," Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Mexico City, Mexico.

It is important to study the relationship between extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) and childhood leukemia, particularly in locations with a high incidence of this neoplasm in children and an elevated exposure to ELF-MF, such as Mexico City. The aim was to investigate the association between ELF-MF exposure and the risk of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). A case-control study was conducted in Mexico City during the period from 2010 to 2011. Residential 24-h ELF-MF measurements were obtained for 290 incident B-ALL patients and 407 controls, aged less than 16 years. Controls were frequency-matched by sex, age (±18 months), and health institution. The adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. ELF-MF exposure at <0.2 μT was used to define the reference group. ELF-MF exposure at ≥0.3 μT was observed in 11.3% of the controls. Different ELF-MF intensity cutoff values were used to define the highest exposure category; the highest exposure category for each cutoff value was associated with an increased risk of B-ALL compared with the corresponding lower exposure categories. The aORs were as follows: ≥0.2 μT = 1.26 (95% CI: 0.84-1.89); ≥0.3 μT = 1.53 (95% CI: 0.95-2.48); ≥0.4 μT = 1.87 (95% CI: 1.04-3.35); ≥0.5 μT = 1.80 (95% CI 0.95-3.44); ≥0.6 μT = 2.32 (95% CI: 1.10-4.93). ELF-MF exposure as a continuous variable (per 0.2 μT intervals) was associated with B-ALL risk (aOR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.12). In the present study, the proportion of children exposed to ≥0.3 μT is among the highest reported worldwide. Additionally, an ELF-MF exposure ≥0.4 μT may be associated with the risk of B-ALL. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2020 Bioelectromagnetics Society.
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December 2020

Safety and efficacy of step-down to oral outpatient treatment versus inpatient antimicrobial treatment in pediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia: A noninferiority multicenter randomized clinical trial.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 06 20;67(6):e28251. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Oncology Department, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: It has been suggested that low-risk febrile neutropenia (FN) episodes can be treated in a step-down manner in the outpatient setting. This recommendation has been limited to implementation in middle-income countries due to concerns about infrastructure and lack of trained personnel. We aimed to determine whether early step-down to oral antimicrobial outpatient treatment is not inferior in safety and efficacy to inpatient intravenous treatment in children with low-risk FN.

Procedure: A noninferiority randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in three hospitals in Mexico City. Low-risk FN was identified in children younger than 18 years. After 48 to 72 hours of intravenous treatment, children were randomly allocated to receive outpatient oral treatment (experimental arm, cefixime) or to continue inpatient treatment (standard of care, cefepime). Daily monitoring was performed until neutropenia resolution. The presence of any unfavorable clinical outcome was the endpoint of interest. We performed a noninferiority test for comparison of proportions.

Results: We identified 1237 FN episodes; 117 cases were randomized: 60 to the outpatient group and 57 for continued inpatient treatment. Of the FN episodes, 100% in the outpatient group and 93% in the inpatient group had a favorable outcome (P < 0.001). The mean duration of antibiotics was 4.1 days (SD 2.5; 95% CI, 3.4-4.8 days) in the outpatient group and 4.4 days (SD 2.5; 95% CI, 3.7-5.0 days) in the inpatient group (P = 0.70).

Conclusions: In our population, step-down oral outpatient treatment of low-risk FN was as safe and effective as inpatient intravenous treatment. Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT04000711.
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June 2020