Publications by authors named "José Cola Zanuncio"

124 Publications

Does invasion by Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) affect the ecological succession in Atlantic Forest areas after a fire?

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Oct 3. Epub 2021 Oct 3.

Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciência Florestal, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Campus JK, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, 39100-000, Brazil.

Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) colonization affects ecological and restoration processes. The knowledge of the impacts on the ecological succession by this species allows the use of restoration strategies in invaded environments. This work aimed to evaluate the floristic composition, diversity, structure, density, basal area, height, and diameter of natural regeneration in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in the Serra do Espinhaço Biosphere Reserve in an area invaded by P. aquilinum after a fire. Three environments with different coverage intensities by P. aquilinum were studied, and the plants over 10 cm in height or 5 cm in canopy diameter were measured. The floristic composition and diversity were analyzed using indices presented by Chao, Fisher, Margalef, Pielou, Shannon-Weaver, and Simpson, and similarity was evaluated by the Jaccard index. Species density, basal area, height, and canopy diameter classes were also evaluated. The floristic composition, diversity, structure of natural regeneration, density, and basal area were higher in post-fire areas with a lower coverage by P. aquilinum. The topsoil coverage with plant litter and the possible effect of P. aquilinum allelopathy probably reduced the species richness and diversity. The proportion of plants from the lowest height and canopy diameter classes was higher under moderate coverage by P. aquilinum. The reduction in the floristic composition, diversity, number of species, and basal area in post-fire areas colonized by P. aquilinum is probably due to this species aggressiveness. The population of this plant is high, accumulating large quantities of plant litter as a physical barrier preventing light and propagules from reaching the soil, reducing the germination of the seed bank and, consequently, the natural regeneration. The floristic composition, diversity, structure of natural regeneration, density, and basal area were lower in areas with higher coverage by P. aquilinum. The proportion of plants in the most significant height and canopy diameter classes was higher with reduced coverage by P. aquilinum. The P. aquilinum reduced forest succession in areas after a fire.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16761-7DOI Listing
October 2021

Exposure to insecticides causes effects on survival, prey consumption, and histological changes in the midgut of the predatory bug, Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Nov 5;28(41):57449-57458. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Departamento de Entomologia/BIOAGRO, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-900, Brazil.

The control of defoliating caterpillars in forestry includes the use of insecticides and releases of the predatory bug Podisus nigrispinus, but some compounds may affect non-target natural enemies, which need evaluation of risk assessment. This research investigates the survival, preference, and prey consumption of P. nigrispinus adults fed with prey treated with the lethal concentration (LC) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), permethrin, tebufenozide, and thiamethoxam. Moreover, midgut histopathology of P. nigrispinus fed with preys treated with LC of each insecticide was investigated. The insecticides Bt, permethrin, and thiamethoxam reduce the survival and the prey consumption in P. nigrispinus fed with preys contaminate with these chemicals. However, the four tested insecticides, including tebufenozide, cause histological changes such as irregular epithelial architecture, cytoplasm vacuolization, and release of cell fragments in the midgut lumen of P. nigrispinus. The sublethal effects of Bt, permethrin, tebufenozide, and thiamethoxam to the natural enemy suggest that they should be better evaluated to be used together with P. nigrispinus for integrated pest management in forestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14589-9DOI Listing
November 2021

Deltamethrin-Mediated Effects on Locomotion, Respiration, Feeding, and Histological Changes in the Midgut of Caterpillars.

Insects 2021 May 22;12(6). Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of General Biology, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa 36570000, Brazil.

(J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is the main pest of maize crops, and effective methods for pest management are needed. The insecticidal efficacy of deltamethrin was evaluated against for toxicity, survival, locomotion, anti-feeding, and histological changes in the midgut. Concentration-mortality bioassays confirmed that deltamethrin (LC = 3.58 mg mL) is toxic to caterpillars. The survival rate was 99.7% in caterpillars not exposed to deltamethrin, decreasing to 50.3% in caterpillars exposed to LC, and 0.1% in caterpillars treated with LC. demonstrated reduced mobility on deltamethrin-treated surfaces. Deltamethrin promoted a low respiration rate of for up to 3 h after insecticide exposure, displaying immobilization and inhibiting food consumption. Deltamethrin induces histological alterations (e.g., disorganization of the striated border, cytoplasm vacuolization, and cell fragmentation) in the midgut, damaging the digestive cells and peritrophic matrix, affecting digestion and nutrient absorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12060483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8224794PMC
May 2021

Life History of Bedellia somnulentella (Lepidoptera: Bedelliidae) Feeding on Ipomoea batatas (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) Leaves and Survey of Parasitoids in Brazil.

J Econ Entomol 2021 08;114(4):1631-1637

Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The microlepidoptera, Bedellia somnulentella (Zeller), is an important pest of sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. Damage by B. somnulentella occurs in the larval stage and when consuming the foliar mesophyll of I. batatas make the leaves brown, wrinkled, and reducing the photosynthetic area and the yield. The detection and management of this pest depends on knowing its biological cycle and identifying its natural enemies. The objectives of this study were to determine the life history of B. somnulentella feeding on I. batatas leaves and to survey parasitoids of this pest in the field. The duration and viability of B. somnulentella egg, larva, prepupa, pupa, and adult stages were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Cephalic capsule width was measured to determine the number of B. somnulentella instars, based on the Dyar rule and analyzed by the Akaike statistical model (AIC). The developmental period of B. somnulentella was 32.5 ± 0. 21 d with a viability of 75, 84, 100, and 84% for the egg, larva, prepupa, and pupa stages, respectively. The identification of this pest on the plants is possible from the third instar and in the pupal and adult stages. The parasitoid Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) was identified parasitizing pupae of B. somnulentella and could be considered a potential natural enemy for the integrated management of this pest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab078DOI Listing
August 2021

Energetic characterization and radiographic analysis of torrefied coated MDF residues.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 1;11(1):4899. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, 1349-017, Lisboa, Portugal.

The use of wood panel residues as biomass for energy production is feasible. Heat treatments can improve energy properties while minimizing the emission of toxic gases due to thermoset polymers used in Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) panels. Torrefaction or pre-carbonization, a heat treatment between 200 and 300 °C with low oxygen availability accumulates carbon and lignin, decreases hygroscopicity, and increases energy efficiency. The objective of this work was to evaluate the energy parameters (immediate, structural, and elementary chemical composition, moisture content, and yield) and density in torrefied MDF panels. The torrefaction improved the energetic features of coated MDF, decreasing the moisture content, volatile matter, and consequently, concentrating the carbon with better results in the samples torrefied for 40 min. The densitometric profiles of the torrefied MDF, obtained by X-ray densitometry, showed a decrease in the apparent density as torrefaction time increased. The digital X-ray images in gray and rainbow scale enabled the most detailed study of the density variation of MDF residues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84296-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921406PMC
March 2021

The salivary glands of Brontocoris tabidus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae): Morphology and secretory cycle.

Tissue Cell 2021 Jun 22;70:101498. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of General Biology, Federal University of Viçosa, 36570-900, Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is a zoophytophagous insect used for biological control in agriculture and forest systems because its nymphs and adults feed on insects and plants. The predatory Pentatomidae insert the mouthparts into the prey, releasing saliva to paralysis and kills the insect, as well as digest body parts to be sucked in a preliminary extra-oral digestion. In a short period of time, this insect shows the ability to feed again, suggesting the existence of a constant and abundant secretory cycle in the salivary glands. This study evaluated the morphological, histochemical and ultrastructural changes of the salivary glands of B. tabidus in fed and starved insects. The salivary complex of this predatory bug has a pair of bilobed salivary glands and a pair of tubular accessory salivary glands. The accessory glands have the lumen lined by a thick non-cuticular layer rich in glycoproteins. The secretory cells of the B. tabidus principal salivary glands have constant secretory activity, with each lobe producing different substances. The physiological processes that occur in the salivary gland of B. tabidus indicate that the insect needs to feed constantly, corroborating the potential of this insect to be used in biological control programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2021.101498DOI Listing
June 2021

Quality of Pinus sp. pellets with kraft lignin and starch addition.

Sci Rep 2021 01 13;11(1):900. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, 1349-017, Portugal.

Pellets are widely used for power generation because they use renewable raw material with easy storage, transport and high energy density. However, the structural fragility, disintegrating during handling, transport and storage, is one of the main problems of pellets, but the addition of binders/additives can minimize this fragility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of wood pellets with the addition of starch (corn and wheat) and kraft lignin in different proportions. Pellets were produced with the addition of starch (wheat and corn) and kraft lignin in the proportions of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% in relation to the mass of wood particles of Pinus sp., with 12% moisture (dry basis), classified in 3 and 1 mm sieves and compacted in a pelleting press in the laboratory, according to European standard EN 14961-2. Physical and mechanical properties of the pellets were evaluated and their densitometric profiles obtained from the Faxitron LX-60 X-ray equipment. Corn starch and kraft lignin additives at 4% improved pellet properties (density, fines and hardness), reducing their losses during handling, storage and transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78918-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807050PMC
January 2021

Oviposition behaviour of mated or unmated Cleruchoides noackae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae).

PLoS One 2020 2;15(10):e0239285. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Departament of Plant Protection, School of Agricultural Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Campus of Botucatu, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

Cleruchoides noackae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), native to Australia, is the most promising biological control agent for Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae), an exotic Eucalyptus spp. pest in Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine the courtship behaviour, mating and oviposition of unmated or mated C. noackae females parasitizing T. peregrinus eggs utilizing the same rearing system used in biological control programmes in Brazil. The mating behaviour of eleven C. noackae unmated couples was observed and the time taken for males and females to find each other in polystyrene vials and the duration and number of copulations were recorded. Ten unmated or mated females were placed individually in vials with 10 T. peregrinus eggs each, and oviposition behaviour, percentage of eggs inserted and parasitized, viability and sex ratio of emerged C. noackae were recorded. This species lacked defined courtship behaviour and mated in less than an hour after adults' emergence. The time spent finding the first host, evaluating and inserting the ovipositor was similar for mated and unmated C. noackae females, as well as the frequency of inserted and parasitized eggs and their viability. Mated females took less time to find other host eggs and the sex ratio is female-biased. Occurrence of arrhenotokous parthenogenesis was confirmed. The ability of C. noackae to mate and lay eggs in less than one hour and parasitism of T. peregrinus eggs by females can improve the parasitoid mass rearing and biological control of T. peregrinus.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239285PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7531830PMC
November 2020

(Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) parasitizing (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Aug 5;7(8):200282. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Departamento de Proteção Vegetal, Departamento de Proteção Vegetal, 18610-034, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can control pests due to mutualistic association with bacteria that reproduce and kill the host from septicemia, making the environment favourable for nematode development and reproduction. The objective of this study was to identify an EPN isolate collected in eucalyptus cultivation and to determine its pathogenicity with regard to Marelli (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Four steel-mesh traps with two seventh-instar larvae were buried 5 cm deep in the soil in a commercial plantation. After 7 days, the traps were packed in plastic bags and transported to laboratory to isolate the EPNs using White traps. The obtained nematodes were multiplied in larvae and identified by sequencing their D2/D3 expansion of the 28S rDNA region by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and specific primers for ITS regions. was identified and inoculated into pupae at doses of 500, 1000 and 5000 infective juveniles (IJs) to determine its pathogenicity to this pest. At 8 days after inoculation, the mortality rate of the pupae was 80% with the lowest concentration and 100% with the others. The emergence of nematodes and the rapid degradation of pupae were observed in those inoculated with IJs. The pathogenicity to the pupae indicates potential for using this nematode in the integrated management of this insect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.200282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7481718PMC
August 2020

Seed germination and early seedling survival of the invasive species (Fabaceae) depend on habitat and seed dispersal mode in the Caatinga dry forest.

PeerJ 2020 3;8:e9607. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil.

Background: Biological invasion is one of the main threats to tropical biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. (Sw) DC. (Fabales: Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) was introduced in the Caatinga dry forest of Northeast Brazil at early 1940s and successfully spread across the region. As other invasive species, it may benefit from the soils and seed dispersal by livestock. Here we examine how seed dispersal ecology and soil conditions collectively affect seed germination, early seedling performance and consequently the invasive potential.

Methods: Seed germination, early seedling survival, life expectancy and soil attributes were examined in 10 plots located across three habitats (flooding plain, alluvial terrace and plateau) into a human-modified landscape of the Caatinga dry forest (a total of 12,000 seeds). Seeds were exposed to four seed dispersal methods: deposition on the soil surface, burial in the soil, passed through cattle () digestive tracts and mixed with cattle manure and passed through mule ( × ) digestive tracts and mixed with mule manure. Seeds and seedlings were monitored through a year and their performance examined with expectancy tables.

Results: Soils differed among habitats, particularly its nutrient availability, texture and water with finely-textured and more fertile soils in the flooding plain. Total seed germination was relatively low (14.5%), with the highest score among seeds buried in the flooding plain (47.4 ± 25.3%). Seed dispersal by cattle and mule also positively impacted seed germination. Early seedling survival rate of was dramatically reduced with few seedlings still alive elapsed a year. Survival rate was highest in the first 30 days and declined between 30 and 60 days with stabilization at 70 days after germination in all seed treatments and habitats. However, survival and life expectancy were higher in the flooding plain at 75 days and lower in the plateau. seedling survival and life expectancy were higher in the case seeds were mixed with cattle manure.

Synthesis: seeds and seedlings are sensitive to water stress and habitat desiccation. Therefore, they benefit from the humid soils often present across human-disturbed flooding plains. This plant also benefits from seed deposition/dispersal by livestock in these landscapes, since cattle manure represents a nutrient-rich and humid substrate for both seeds and seedlings. The quality of the seed dispersal service varies among livestock species, but this key mutualism between exotic species is due to the arillate, hard-coated and palatable seeds. traits allow this species to take multiple benefits from human presence and thus operating as a human commensal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7474883PMC
September 2020

Selectivity of mycoinsecticides and a pyrethroid to the egg parasitoid Cleruchoides noackae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae).

Sci Rep 2020 09 3;10(1):14617. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Campus de Botucatu, Botucatu, São Paulo, 18610-034, Brasil.

Plants of the genus Eucalyptus, cultivated in many countries, have great importance for the world economy. In Brazil, this culture occupies a total of 5.7 million hectares, but native and exotic insect pests can reduce its productivity. Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae), an exotic Australian pest, damages Eucalyptus plants. Biological control using the egg parasitoid Cleruchoides noackae Lin & Huber (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), Heteroptera predators and entomopathogenic fungi, such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, have potential for managing T. peregrinus. Chemical insecticides, including bifenthrin and acetamiprid + bifenthrin, also control this insect. The compatibility of chemical and biological control methods favors integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selectivity of commercial products based on B. bassiana, M. anisopliae and the chemical bifenthrin on the parasitoid C. noackae and its parasitism on T. peregrinus eggs. The selectivity test followed the standards recommended by the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC). Beauveria bassiana has selectivity to parasitism as well as viability, but was slightly harmful to C. noackae adults; M. anisopliae was innocuous to adults and to the viability of the offspring of this parasitoid, but it reduced the parasitism rate; and bifenthrin did not show selectivity to this parasitoid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71151-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471308PMC
September 2020

Exposure to chlorantraniliprole reduces locomotion, respiration, and causes histological changes in the midgut of velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 17;263:128008. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

The anthranilic diamide, chlorantraniliprole is a systemic insecticide affecting ryanodine receptors. This insecticide is used to control caterpillars in soybean crops because it has low toxicity to non-target organisms. The objective was to identify side-effects of chlorantraniliprole on midgut histopathology, respiration and behavior of the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis in laboratoty. Chlorantraniliprole has LC = 0.61 (0.58-0.64) mg mL for A. gemmatalis fourth instar caterpillars after 96 h. The insecticide causes severe histopathological effects in the midgut with epithelial disorganization, microvilli degeneration, cytoplasm vacuolization, cell fragmentation, and peritrophic matrix disorganization. The respiratory rate and the walking speed decrease, whereas the resting period increase for caterpillars exposed to this insecticide. Chlorantraniliprole is toxic to A. gemmatalis at median lethal concentrations causing severe histological and ultrastructural changes with degeneration of the midgut epithelium, reduction of respiratory rates and inducing an arresting behavioral response of this insect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128008DOI Listing
January 2021

Toxicity of Essential Oils to Diaphania hyalinata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Selectivity to Its Parasitoid Trichospilus pupivorus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

J Econ Entomol 2020 10;113(5):2399-2406

Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil.

Diaphania hyalinata (Linnaeus, 1767) is one of the main pests of the cucurbit crops. Biological control and botanicals are used in integrated pest management (IPM), especially in agro-ecological agricultures where the use of synthetic pesticides is restricted. Toxicological effects of plant essential oils on target and nontarget organisms should be evaluated to determine its use in IPM. The toxicity of ginger, peppermint, oregano, and thyme essential oils to D. hyalinata eggs, larvae, and pupae and their selectivity to the parasitoid Trichospilus pupivorus and the LC50, LC99 and the relative selectivity index (RSI) of these botanicals were determined. The eggs of D. hyalinata were more sensitive to the botanicals applied than its larvae and pupae, with higher toxicity of oregano and thyme essential oils, followed by those of peppermint and ginger. Topical application was the least toxic method to D. hyalinata larvae. Ginger, peppermint, and thyme essential oils were more toxic by ingestion and oregano by contact to D. hyalinata larvae. The essential oil concentrations applied to D. hyalinata pupae prevent the emergence of adults of this insect with the oregano essential oil showing the greatest toxicity. Peppermint, ginger, thyme, and oregano essential oils were selective to T. pupivorus with RSI50 of 5.40, 1.38, 8.15, and 6.98 and RSI99 of 1.54, 2.53, 3.90, and 4.16 respectively. The ginger, peppermint, oregano, and thyme essential oils were toxic to immature D. hyalinata and selective to T. pupivorus females presenting potential as an alternative control in the IPM of this pest in Cucurbitaceae crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toaa172DOI Listing
October 2020

Ecological indices of phytophagous Hemiptera and their natural enemies on Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae) plants with or without dehydrated sewage sludge application in a degraded area.

PLoS One 2020 17;15(8):e0237261. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service-Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, Tallahassee, Florida, United States of America.

Soil fertilization with dehydrated sewage sludge (DSS) accelerates the recovery process of degraded areas by improving nutrient concentration, and favors the development of trophic webs with pioneer plants such as Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Beth (Fabales: Fabaceae), phytophagous Hemiptera, predators, and protocooperanting ants. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of A. auriculiformis litter with or without dehydrated sewage sludge application and the ecological indices of sucking insects (Hemiptera), their predators and protocooperating ants, as bioindicators, in a degraded area for 24 months. Complete randomization was applied for two treatments (with or without application of dehydrated sewage sludge) in 24 replications (one repetition = one plant). We evaluated the number of leaves/branch and branches/plant, percentage of soil cover (litter), ecological indices of phytophagous Hemiptera, their predators, and protocooperating ants. The plants of A. auriculiformis, that were applied with dehydrated sewage sludge, had superior development when compared to plants where DSS were not applied. The highest abundance and richness of phytophagous Hemiptera species and Sternorrhyncha predators occurred on A. auriculiformis plants that were applied with dehydrated sewage sludge. The increase in richness of species of protocooperanting ants that established mutualistic relationships positively influenced the phytophagous Hemiptera. The use of A. auriculiformis, with application of dehydrated sewage sludge, can increase recovery of degraded areas due to its higher soil cover (e.g., litter) and results in higher ecological indices of phytophagous Hemiptera and their predators.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237261PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430702PMC
October 2020

Respiration, predatory behavior and prey consumption by Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs exposed to some insecticides.

Chemosphere 2020 Dec 16;261:127720. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Departamento de Entomologia/BIOAGRO, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

Podisus nigrispinus Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) preys on insect pests in eucalyptus plantations where it can be exposed to insecticides used in pest control. The effect of insecticides on non-target natural enemies requires further study. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the side-effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), permethrin, tebufenozide and thiamethoxam on third instar nymphs of the predator P. nigrispinus in the laboratory. The toxicity of insecticides for this insect was determined by estimating their lethal concentrations. Podisus nigrispinus behavior after exposure to insecticides was analyzed using a video tracking system and the respiratory rate with a respirometer. Prey/nymph consumption was assessed after 24 h of starvation. The preference of P. nigrispinus nymphs, for prey treated or not with the insecticides, was evaluated in free choice tests. The insecticides Bt [LC = 1.10(0.83-1.46) mg mL], permethrin [LC = 0.25(0.17-0.34) mg mL], tebufenozide [LC = 5.71(4.17-7.57) mg mL] and thiamethoxam [LC = 0.04(0.02-0.06) mg mL] are toxic to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Bt and the insecticides tebufenozide, permethrin and thiamethoxam reduced the respiratory rate of P. nigrispinus. The insecticides permethrin, tebufenozide and thiamethoxam affect the locomotion of this insect's nymphs. Prey treated with Bt, permethrin and thiamethoxam are less preferred by P. nigrispinus. The survival of the nymphs of this predator was 93.3%, 66.7%, 56.6%, 0% and 0% in the control, tebufenozide, Bt, permethrin and thiamethoxam treatments, respectively. In addition, the reduction of prey consumption, treated with neurotoxic insecticides, reduces the predatory potential of this natural enemy. Bt and tefubenozide present low toxicity for P. nigrispinus, but the neurotoxic products have low compatibility with this natural enemy and, therefore, are not recommended, with this predator in the management of forest insect pests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127720DOI Listing
December 2020

Selectivity of deltamethrin doses on Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitizing Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

Sci Rep 2020 07 24;10(1):12395. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, Tallahassee, FL, 32308, USA.

Insecticides are the main method of controlling lepidopteran pests of eucalyptus plantations and those selective to natural enemies, such as the endoparasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare et LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), are preferable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selectivity and effects on biological parameters of the insecticide deltamethrin, registered for the control of defoliator caterpillars of eucalyptus, to the parasitoid P. elaeisis aiming the rational use of this insecticide and its compatibility with parasitoids. The experiment was in a completely randomized design. The treatments were the doses of 0.64, 1.40, 3.10, 6.83, 15.03, 33.05, 72.7 and 160 mg a.i./L of deltamethrin and the control (distilled water) with 10 replications, each with a pupae of the alternative host Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exposed by the immersion method. The parasitism, biological cycle, emergence, longevity, head width and metatibia length of the natural enemy were evaluated. Deltamethrin reduced parasitism and the emergence rates of P. elaeisis. The duration of the biological cycle of this parasitoid, emerged from T. molitor pupae exposed to 15.03 mg a.i./L of deltamethrin, was higher. The morphometric parameters of P. elaeisis exposed to the doses of 0.64 and 1.40 mg a.i./L of the insecticide were lower. However, the morphometric parameter values were higher with the doses above 3.10 mg a.i./L than in the control. The parasitism and emergence of P. elaeisis were also reduced by the deltamethrin doses lower than the commercially recommended one and therefore, this insecticide is not selective for this natural enemy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69200-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7381671PMC
July 2020

Does fertilization with dehydrated sewage sludge affect Terminalia argentea (Combretaceae) and associated arthropods community in a degraded area?

Sci Rep 2020 07 16;10(1):11811. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, FL, 32308, USA.

Nutrients from dehydrated sewage sludge play an essential role in the development of many plants such as Terminalia argentea, in the recovery of degraded areas. The aims were to assess the abundance, diversity and species richness of phytophagous, pollinators and predators arthropods, as well as the percentage of defoliation of T. argentea trees, fertilized (or not) with dehydrated sewage sludge in a degraded area. The abundance, diversity and species richness of phytophagous Coleoptera and total predators (predator insects + protocooperating ants + spiders); abundance and species richness of Diptera, pollinator insects, spiders, and predators (predator insects + spiders) were higher on trees fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge. The abundance of phytophagous Coleoptera declined with the presence of phytophagous Hemiptera and protocooperating ants; population of phytophagous Orthoptera declined in response to phytophagous Coleoptera and total predators; the numbers of the leafminer Lyriomyza sp. directly increased with the numbers of spiders. The ecological indices of phytophagous, pollinators, and predator arthopods increased on Terminalia argentea trees fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge; such a better ecological indices in fertilized than in unfertilized trees, show it more suitable for the recovery of degraded areas. We discuss the competition between phytophagous insects groups as well as herbivory reduction by predators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68747-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367274PMC
July 2020

Acute Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of Lemongrass Essential Oil and Their Components against the Granary Weevil, .

Insects 2020 Jun 18;11(6). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of General Biology, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, MG 36570-000, Brazil.

In the present work, we evaluate the toxic and repellent properties of lemongrass ( (DC. ex Nees) Stapf.) essential oil and its components against Linnaeus as an alternative to insecticide use. The lethal dose (LD and LD), survivorship, respiration rate, and repellency on adults of exposed to different doses of lemongrass oil and some of its components were evaluated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was found to have the major components of neral (24.6%), citral (18.7%), geranyl acetate (12.4%), geranial (12.3%), and limonene (7.55%). Lemongrass essential oil (LD = 4.03 µg·insect), citral (LD = 6.92 µg·insect), and geranyl acetate (LD = 3.93 µg·insect) were toxic to adults. Survivorship was 99.9% in insects not exposed to lemongrass essential oil, decreasing to 57.6%, 43.1%, and 25.9% in insects exposed to LD of essential oil, citral, and geranyl acetate, respectively. The insects had low respiratory rates and locomotion after exposure to the essential oil, geranyl acetate, and citral. Our data show that lemongrass essential oils and their components have insecticidal and repellent activity against and, therefore, have the potential for application in stored grain pest management schemes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects11060379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7349354PMC
June 2020

Tetrastichus howardi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae): first report of parasitism in Oxydia vesulia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

Braz J Biol 2021 Mar-May;81(2):406-410

Departamento de Proteção Vegetal, Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Av. Universitária, 3780, CEP 18610-034, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

The adaptation of native lepidopteran species to eucalyptus plantations reduces the productivity of this crop in Brazil. Oxydia vesulia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a secondary pest, frequently reported in eucalyptus plantations with population outbreaks and economic damages. Methods of biological control of this pest may include the use of the exotic pupae endoparasitoid Tetrastichus howardi Olliff (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), reported as efficient to controlling lepidopteran pests. The parasitism of O. vesulia caterpillars and pupae by T. howardi was evaluated under controlled conditions (25 ± 1 ºC, 60 ± 20% humidity and 12:12 h L:D). Each O. vesulia caterpillar or pupae was individually placed in a flat-bottom tube with 10 and 15 females of T. howardi for 48h, respectively. The parasitoids were removed after that period, the caterpillars were fed and the pupae were maintained until emergence of the parasitoid or formation of pupae and emergence of adults of this pest. The fourth-instar caterpillars of O. vesulia, after the parasitism period, were kept in pots with Eucalyptus urophylla leaves, changed daily until the end of the experiment. A total of 40% of the caterpillars died before the pre-pupae stage, 40% reached the pupae stage and died due to inadequate adult formation and 20% generated moths, but none adult parasitoid emerged from the caterpillars. All pupae of O. vesulia were parasitized and showed emergence of parasitoids. The parasitism of O. vesulia caterpillars and pupae by T. howardi shows the potential of this natural enemy for the integrated management of this defoliator pest in eucalyptus plantations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.228541DOI Listing
February 2021

Diversity of arthropods on (Fabaceae) and production of this plant with dehydrated sewage sludge in degraded area.

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Feb 26;7(2):191196. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Departamento de Entomologia/BIOAGRO, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil.

Sewage sludge is an organic matter-rich material with abundant fractions of nitrogen and other macro and micronutrients, essential for plant growth and development such as Willd. (Fabales: Fabaceae) used in recovering actions of degraded areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate over 24 months the abundance and diversity of chewing and pollinator insects and arthropod predators on plants and the mass production and soil coverage by this plant, fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge, in a degraded area. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with two treatments (with and without dehydrated sewage sludge) and 24 replications. The number of leaves per branch and branches per plant, defoliation percentage by chewing insects, soil cover and abundance of chewing and pollinator insects and arthropod predators were higher on plants fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge. sp. (Blattodea: Termitidae) and F. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the most observed insects on trunks and leaves, respectively, of plants fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge. The fertilization increases the populations of different insect and spider groups on this plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.191196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7062056PMC
February 2020

Selectivity of the botanical compounds to the pollinators Apis mellifera and Trigona hyalinata (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

Sci Rep 2020 03 16;10(1):4820. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil.

The toxicity of essential oils that can be used in insect pest management to pollinators needs further studies. Apis mellifera Linnaeus and Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foragers were exposed by three pathways to ginger, mint, oregano and thyme essential oils to provide their LC LD and LC LD. Oregano and thyme were more toxic through contact and topically for A. mellifera while the toxicity of mint and ginger was lower. Trigona hyalinata was more tolerant to the essential oils than A. mellifera. In the walking test, the area was treated (totally or partially) with sub-doses (LC) obtained via contact. The area fully treated with oregano reduced the distance traveled and the movement speed increased the number of stops by A. mellifera. Similar results were observed for T. hyalinata with oregano and thyme oils. Apis mellifera showed irritability remaining shorter time in the area partially treated with ginger, mint and thyme essential oils while T. hyalinata had similar behavior with ginger and thyme. Essential oils did not repel A. mellifera or T. hyalinata, but those of ginger, mint and thyme reduced the time spent by A. mellifera in areas treated with sublethal doses. Oregano and thyme essential oils reduced the survival, mainly, of A. mellifera, while ginger and mint were selective for both pollinators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61469-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076031PMC
March 2020

The effect of soil nutrients and moisture during ontogeny on apparent wood density of Eucalyptus grandis.

Sci Rep 2020 02 13;10(1):2530. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias-ICIAG, Monte Carmelo, 38500-000, Brasil.

Knowledge of the effect of soil nutrients, such as K and Na and their interaction with water availability, on the growth and wood properties of the eucalypts, is needed to increase the productivity of commercial plantation forests in Brazil that generate employment and taxes. The present study evaluates the apparent wood density (at 12% wood moisture) of Eucalyptus grandis trees at 12, 24, 36 and 48 months old under ambient and lower than ambient (66%) rainfall conditions and K and Na nutrient enrichment. The treatments were two water availability (100 and 66% of the rainfall) and the three nutrient treatments were: K (4.5 kmol/ha), Na (4.5 kmol/ha) and a control (natural conditions). The apparent wood density of samples at breast height (1.3 m) was determined by X-ray densitometry and digital images. Increased nutrients at all four ages and water availability at 36 and 48 months reduced apparent wood density in E. grandis trees, however, effects of nutrients are lower under water availability reduction. The radial profile of wood density was higher in four-year-old trees, but there was radial variation in apparent wood density at all ages. These findings predict that, under water stress, apparent wood density will not decline in commercial E. grandis plantations fertilized with potassium. The use of sodium, as a substitute of potassium, should consider their negative impacts on wood density of Eucalyptus grandis trees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-59559-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7018959PMC
February 2020

Green leaves and seeds alcoholic extract controls Sporobulus indicus germination in laboratory conditions.

Sci Rep 2020 01 31;10(1):1599. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Horticultura Tropical, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58.840-000, Pombal, Paraíba, Brasil.

High seed production makes Sporobolus indicus var. pyramidalis a difficult to control invasive grassland plant. The objective of the present study was to investigate the bioactivity of Cyperus rotundus, Phyllanthus tenellus and Ricinus communis green leaf extracts and of Carica papaya seeds on S. indicus germination without breaking dormancy, simulating the field conditions. The ethanolic extract bioactivity of C. rotundus, P. tenellus, R. communis green leaves and C. papaya seeds, at concentrations of 25, 50 and 75% in S. indicus germination was evaluated. Carotenoids, flavonoids, soluble phenolic compounds and total tannins were quantified in the extracts. The chemical component concentrations varied between alcoholic extracts. The P. tenellus extracts at all dilutions and those of R. communis and C. papaya at 75% completely suppressed S. indicus seed germination at five and ten days which can be attributed to their high tannin concentration, total phenolic compounds and flavonoids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58321-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6994682PMC
January 2020

Phytoremediation by and decay atrazine and clomazone residues in the soil.

Int J Phytoremediation 2020 16;22(8):827-833. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Departamento de Entomologia/BIOAGRO, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The atrazine and clomazone molecules have potential to contaminate environments, especially water resources. Phytoremediation decontamination can prevent or reduce the quantity of these products reaching watercourses. The objective was to evaluate the remedial potential and the physiological sensitivity of (DC.) Sch. Bip and Benth to atrazine and clomazone in soils contaminated with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 times the recommended commercial dose of these herbicides. The photosynthesis, CO consumed stomatal conductance and transpiration of and , in soils contaminated with atrazine and clomazone, were evaluated. The herbicide residues were detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) 30 days after the last herbicide application. The photosynthesis rate and CO consumed by and were lower in soils contaminated by atrazine and clomazone. had lower stomatal conductance and transpiration in soil contaminated with clomazone. and reduced the residues of these herbicides. The atrazine and clomazone reduced the physiological variables of and . These plants can be used to recover areas with residues of these herbicides, acting as filters that will decrease the amount of herbicides that would reach the watercourses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2019.1710818DOI Listing
June 2020

Side effects of Bacillus thuringiensis on the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Feb 21;189:109978. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Departamento de Entomologia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 36570-000, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The endoparasitoid wasp Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is used to control defoliating lepidopteran pests. Chemical insecticides are not compatible with natural enemies, but bioinsecticides, such as Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt), have great potential for use in integrated pest management. However, interactions between Bt and P. elaeisis still need to be investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Bt on parental and first-generation P. elaeisis parasitizing Bt-susceptible and -resistant Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). An additional aim was to determine the toxicity of Bt to susceptible third-instar S. frugiperda larvae. Larvae were exposed to lethal concentrations (LC and LC) of Bt and then allowed to be parasitized by P. elaeisis. Parasitoid longevity, immature production, reproductive performance, and behavioral responses were evaluated. Bt repelled P. elaeisis and reduced immature production. Parental and first filial generation parasitoids of both sexes emerged from Bt-treated larvae showed lower survivorship than controls. Parasitoids had poorer reproductive performance in Bt-susceptible and -resistant pupae than in untreated pupae. Palmistichus elaeisis emerged from Bt-susceptible and -resistant S. frugiperda showed altered host-searching behavior and reproductive parameters, which indicates low compatibility between the bioinsecticide agent and the parasitoid wasp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109978DOI Listing
February 2020

Evidence for a transcellular route for vitellogenin transport in the telotrophic ovary of Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

Sci Rep 2019 11 11;9(1):16441. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of General Biology, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 36570-000, Viçosa, Brazil.

Vitellogenin is the main yolk precursor protein in insect oocytes. It is synthesized in the fat body and released into the hemolymph. To reach the oocyte surface, vitellogenin must cross a single layer of follicular epithelium cells. The transport of vitellogenin across the follicular epithelium has been suggested to occur through the enlarged intercellular spaces (patency) by a paracellular route or by endocytosis by follicular cells and release onto oocyte surface in a transcelluar route. In this study, we investigated whether vitellogenin transport in the meroistic telotrophic ovary of Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera) occurs via a paracellular or transcellular route. Light and transmission electron microscopies showed that short cell-cell contacts with well-developed occluding septate junctions were present in follicular cells with patency. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of vitellogenin receptors in the plasma membrane and of vitellogenin in the cytoplasm of follicular cells. Data suggest that cell-cell contacts serve as a barrier to large vitellogenin molecules and that this protein is transported via a transcellular route of receptor-mediated endocytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-52789-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6848487PMC
November 2019

A peritrophin mediates the peritrophic matrix permeability in the workers of the bees Melipona quadrifasciata and Apis mellifera.

Arthropod Struct Dev 2019 Nov 12;53:100885. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Department of General Biology, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 36570-000, Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

The permeability of the peritrophic matrix, essential for its function, depends on its chemical composition. The objective was to determine if the permeability of the peritrophic matrix varies along the midgut and in the presence of anti-peritrophin-55 antibody in Melipona quadrifasciata and Apis mellifera bees. The thickness of the peritrophic matrix in both species varies between the anterior and posterior midgut regions in workers. In A. mellifera dextran molecules with 40 kDa cross the peritrophic matrix, whereas those ≥70 kDa are retained in the endoperitrophic space. In M. quadrifasciata the peritrophic matrix permeability was for molecules <40 kDa. Bees fed on anti-peritrophin-55 antibody showed an increase in peritrophic matrix permeability, but survival was not affected. In the bees studied, the peritrophic matrices have morphological differences between midgut regions, but there is no difference in their permeability along the midgut, which is affected by peritrophin 55.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asd.2019.100885DOI Listing
November 2019

Histopathological and cytotoxic changes induced by spinosad on midgut cells of the non-target predator Podisus nigrispinus Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

Chemosphere 2020 Jan 19;238:124585. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Broad-spectrum insecticides used in pest control are a risk for non-target insects. Their compatibility to the insecticide spinosad, used in agriculture and forestry as a biological control tool, needs to be evaluated. Podisus nigrispinus Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is a predatory bug used in the pest management of agricultural and forest systems where spinosad is also frequently applied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity, histopathology and cytotoxicity in midgut cells of P. nigrispinus exposed to spinosad. The toxicity test was performed to determine the lethal concentrations of spinosad after exposure by ingestion. The histopathology and cytotoxicity caused by spinosad were analyzed in the three midgut regions (anterior, middle and posterior) of P. nigrispinus during different exposure periods. Spinosad, at low concentrations, was toxic to P. nigrispinus [LC = 3.15 (3.02-3.26) μg.L]. Cell degeneration features such as cytoplasm vacuolization, chromatin condensation and release of cell fragments to the midgut lumen were observed in this organ. Cell death via apoptosis was found in the three midgut regions of this predator after exposure to the insecticide. Spinosad is toxic to P. nigrispinus, and causes histological and cytological damage followed by cell death in the midgut, suggesting a dangerous effect on a beneficial non-target insect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124585DOI Listing
January 2020

Healing of corms and infection.

Plant Signal Behav 2019 14;14(10):e1652520. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Departamento de Entomologia/BIOAGRO, Universidade Federal de Viçosa , Viçosa Minas Gerais , Brasil.

L. is highly susceptible to and losses caused by this disease varies from 60% to 100%. Injuries caused during harvest, transport and inadequate storage, facilitate infection. The dynamics of wound healing can reduce infection by . The objective was to characterize the wound healing in corms of stored under refrigeration and how it affects the entry and establishment of f. sp. infection. Corms were wounded and stored at 12 ± 4°C and relative humidity of 90 ± 5%. Cell damage, fresh weight loss, respiration, phenolic compounds, tissue darkening, suberization, lignification and resistance to infection were evaluated. Wounds on corms caused transepidermal damage with collapse and cell death. Physiological (increased loss of mass and respiration) and biochemical changes (deposition of lignin and suberin, enzymatic activity) occurred in the cells neighboring those death by the injury. The injury caused gradual darkening of the tissue, injured and neighbor. infection decreased with wound healing. The healing of injured corms stored at 12ºC occurs from the 3rd day after injury by the accumulation of suberin, lignin, and melanin, inhibiting f. sp. infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592324.2019.1652520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6768183PMC
June 2020
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