Publications by authors named "José Biller"

161 Publications

Stroke Prevention in Cervical Artery Dissection.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2021 Oct 23;23(12):182. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Neurology, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL, 560153, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Cervical artery dissection (CAD) is rare, yet it is a common cause of stroke in young and middle-aged adults. Historically, some senior clinicians favored anticoagulation in the prevention of stroke due to CAD. Choosing the optimal antithrombotic treatment with either antiplatelet (AP) or anticoagulant (AC) medications remains a challenge. This paper will review the clinical features and imaging of CAD, and the acute treatment and prevention of stroke due to CAD.

Recent Findings: Until 2015, there were no prospective randomized trials in the optimal antithrombotic management of CAD. The Cervical Artery Dissection in Stroke Study (CADISS) trial found that treatment with AC did not lower the risk of subsequent stroke or death at 3 months when compared to AP agents. This led to a paradigm shift in national guidelines. In 2021, The Biomarkers and Antithrombotic Treatment in of Cervical Artery Dissection (TREAT-CAD) trial however did not confirm the non-inferiority of AP therapy in stroke prevention due to CAD. The optimal antithrombotic management for stroke prevention in CAD remains uncertain, while the superiority of anticoagulation has not been established, nor has the non-inferiority of AP agents. The future direction of research should consider early preventative treatment, dual treatment with AP agents, direct oral AC medications, and aggregation of data from existing randomized trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-021-01603-2DOI Listing
October 2021

Safety and Outcomes of Intravenous Thrombolytic Therapy in Ischemic Stroke Patients with COVID-19: CASCADE Initiative.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Sep 20;30(12):106121. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Doctor of Medical Science, Professor Doctor of Medical Science, Professor, Department of Medicine, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University. Almaty, Kazakhstan.

Background: There is little information regarding the safety of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) in patients with stroke and COVID-19.

Methods: This multicenter study included consecutive stroke patients with and without COVID-19 treated with IV-tPA between February 18, 2019, to December 31, 2020, at 9 centers participating in the CASCADE initiative. Clinical outcomes included modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at hospital discharge, in-hospital mortality, the rate of hemorrhagic transformation. Using Bayesian multiple regression and after adjusting for variables with significant value in univariable analysis, we reported the posterior adjusted odds ratio (OR, with 95% Credible Intervals [CrI]) of the main outcomes.

Results: A total of 545 stroke patients, including 101 patients with COVID-19 were evaluated. Patients with COVID-19 had a more severe stroke at admission. In the study cohort, 85 (15.9%) patients had a hemorrhagic transformation, and 72 (13.1%) died in the hospital. After adjustment for confounding variables, discharge mRS score ≥2 (OR: 0.73, 95% CrI: 0.16, 3.05), in-hospital mortality (OR: 2.06, 95% CrI: 0.76, 5.53), and hemorrhagic transformation (OR: 1.514, 95% CrI: 0.66, 3.31) were similar in COVID-19 and non COVID-19 patients. High-sensitivity C reactive protein level was a predictor of hemorrhagic transformation in all cases (OR:1.01, 95%CI: 1.0026, 1.018), including those with COVID-19 (OR:1.024, 95%CI:1.002, 1.054).

Conclusion: IV-tPA treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke and COVID-19 was not associated with an increased risk of disability, mortality, and hemorrhagic transformation compared to those without COVID-19. IV-tPA should continue to be considered as the standard of care in patients with hyper acute stroke and COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8450304PMC
September 2021

The Neurological Manifestations of Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2021 06 28;21(9):44. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, 1 University of New Mexico, MSC10-5620, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global health challenge. This review aims to summarize the incidence, risk factors, possible pathophysiology, and proposed management of neurological manifestations of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) or neuro-PASC based on the published literature.

Recent Findings: The National Institutes of Health has noted that PASC is a multi-organ disorder ranging from mild symptoms to an incapacitating state that can last for weeks or longer following recovery from initial infection with SARS-CoV-2. Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed as the culprit for the development of PASC. These include, but are not limited to, direct or indirect invasion of the virus into the brain, immune dysregulation, hormonal disturbances, elevated cytokine levels due to immune reaction leading to chronic inflammation, direct tissue damage to other organs, and persistent low-grade infection. A multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of neuro-PASC will be required to diagnose and address these symptoms. Tailored rehabilitation and novel cognitive therapy protocols are as important as pharmacological treatments to treat neuro-PASC effectively. With recognizing the growing numbers of COVID-19 patients suffering from neuro-PASC, there is an urgent need to identify affected individuals early to provide the most appropriate and efficient treatments. Awareness among the general population and health care professionals about PASC is rising, and more efforts are needed to understand and treat this new emerging challenge. In this review, we summarize the relevant scientific literature about neuro-PASC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-021-01130-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237541PMC
June 2021

Global Impact of COVID-19 on Stroke Care and IV Thrombolysis.

Neurology 2021 06 25;96(23):e2824-e2838. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology (R.G.N., M.H.M., M.Frankel, D.C.H.), Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Department of Radiology (M.M.Q., M.A., T.N.N., A.K.) and Radiation Oncology (M.M.Q.), Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (S.O.M.), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (S.O.M.), Brazil; Department of Stroke Neurology (H. Yamagami), National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Japan; Department of Neurology (Z.Q.), Xinqiao Hospital of the Army Medical University, Chongqing, China; Department of Neurology (O.Y.M.), Stroke and Neurointervention Division, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria University, Egypt; Boston University School of Medicine (A.S.), Massachusetts; 2nd Department of Neurology (A.C.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Neurology (G.T., L.P.), National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece; Faculdade de Medicina (D.A.d.S.), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurology (J.D., R.L.), Leuven University Hospital, Belgium; International Clinical Research Center and Department of Neurology (R.M.), St. Anne´s University Hospital in Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Neurology (P.V.), Groeninge Hospital, Kortrijk; Department of Neurology (P.V.), University Hospitals Antwerp; Department of Translational Neuroscience (P.V.), University of Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Neurology (J.E.S., T.G.J.), Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (J. Kõrv), University of Tartu, Estonia; Department of Neurology (J.B., R.V.,S.R.), Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Illinois; Department of Neurosurgery (C.W.L.), Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center; Department of Neurology (N.S.S.), Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center; Department of Neurology (A.M.Z., S.A.S.), UT Health McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas; Department of Neurology (A.L.Z.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Department of Internal Medicine (G.N.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Department of Neurology (K.M., A.T.), Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (A.L.), Ohio Health Riverside Methodist Hospital Columbus; Department of Medicine and Neurology (A.R.), University of Otago and Wellington Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (E.A.M.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Department of Neurology (A.W.A., D. Alsbrook), University of Tennessee Health Center, Memphis; Department of Neurology (D.Y.H.), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Departments of Neurology (S.Y.) and Radiology (E.R.), New York University Grossman School of Medicine; Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (E.G.B.L.), University of Douala, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science, Cameroon; Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital (H.M.A., H.M.S., A.E., T.R.); Cairo University Affiliated MOH Network (F.H.); Department of Neurology (TM.), Nasser Institute for Research and Treatment, Cairo; Mansoura University Affiliated Private Hospitals Network (W.M.), Egypt; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S.), Kumasi, Ghana; Stroke Unit (T.O.A., K.W.), University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital; Neurology Unit (B.A.), Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital; Department of Medicine (E.O.N.), Federal Medical Centre Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Neurology Unit (T.A.S.), Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria; University College Hospital (J.Y.), Ibadan, Nigeria; The National Ribat University Affiliated Hospitals (H.H.M.), Khartoum, Sudan; Neurology Section (P.B.A.), Department of Internal Medicine, Aga-Khan University, Medical College East Africa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tunis El Manar University (A.D.R.), Military Hospital of Tunis; Department of Neurology (S.B.S.), Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunisia; Department of Physiology (L.G.), Parirenyatwa Hospital, and Departments of Physiology and Medicine (G.W.N.), University of Zimbabwe, Harare; Department of Cerebrovascular/Endovascular Neurosurgery Division (D.S.), Erebouni Medical Center, Yerevan, Armenia; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Sir Salimulah College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Neurology (Z.A.), Taihe Hospital of Shiyan City, Hubei; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Nanyang Central Hospital, Henan; Department of Neurology (Z.D.), Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Hubei, China; Department of Neurology (Y. Hao.), Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (W.H.), Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Maoming, Guangdong; Department of Neurology (G.Li.), Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (W.L), The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College; Department of Neurology (G.Liu.), Wuhan Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (J.L.), Mianyang 404th Hospital, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (X.S.), Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Anhui; Department of Neurology and Neuroscience (Y.S.), Shenyang Brain Institute, Shenyang First People's Hospital, Shenyang Medical College Affiliated Brain Hospital; Department of Neurology (L.T.), Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (H.W.), Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (B.W., Y.Yan), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; Department of Neurology (Z.Y.), Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (H.Z.), Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (J.Z.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University; Department of Neurology (W.Z.), First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, China; Acute Stroke Unit (T.W.L.), The Prince of Wales Hospital, Kwok Tak Seng Centre for Stroke Research and Intervention, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Interventional Neurology (C.C.), MAX Superspecialty Hospital, Saket, New Delhi; NH Institute of Neurosciences (V.H.), NH Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bangalore; Department of Neurology (B.M.), Apollo Speciality Hospitals Nellore; Department of Neurology (J.D.P.), Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab; Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (P.N.S.), Kerala, India; Stroke Unit (F.S.U.), Pelni Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Neurosciences Research Center (M. Farhoudi, E.S.H.), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Beer Sheva Hospital (A.H.); Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Rambam Healthcare Campus, Haifa, Israel (A.R., R.S.H.); Departments of Neurology (N.O.) and Neurosurgery (N.S.), Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe; Department of Stroke and Neurovascular Surgery (D.W.), IMS Tokyo-Katsushika General Hospital; Yokohama Brain and Spine Center (R.Y.); Iwate Prefectural Central (R.D.); Department of Neurology and Stroke Treatment (N.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Hospital; Department of Stroke Neurology (Y. Yazawa), Kohnan Hospital, Sendai; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.U.), Saga-Ken Medical Centre; Department of Neurology (T.D.), Saitama Medical Center, Kawagoe; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Nara City Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka; Department of Neurology (F. Miyashita), Kagoshima City Hospital; Department of Neurology (H.F.), Japanese Red Cross Matsue Hospital, Shimane; Department of Neurology (K.M.), Shiroyama Hospital, Osaka; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (J.E.S.), Niigata City General Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Sugimura Hospital, Kumamoto; Stroke Medicine (Y. Yagita), Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama; Department of Neurology (Y.T.), Osaka Red Cross Hospital; Department of Stroke Prevention and Treatment (Y.M.), Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki; Department of Neurology (S.Y.), Stroke Center and Neuroendovascular Therapy, Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo; Department of Neurology (R.K.), Kin-ikyo Chuo Hospital, Hokkaido; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.K.), NTT Medical Center Tokyo; Department of Neurology and Neuroendovascular Treatment (H. Yamazaki), Yokohama Shintoshi Neurosurgical Hospital; Department of Neurology (M.S.), Osaka General Medical Center; Department of Neurology (K.T.), Osaka University Hospital; Department of Advanced Brain Research (N.Y.), Tokushima University Hospital Tokushima; Department of Neurology (K.S.), Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Tane General Hospital, Osaka; Division of Stroke (H.H.), Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Rosai Hospital; Department of Comprehensive Stroke (I.N.), Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan; Department of Neurology (A.K.), Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University; Republican Center for eHealth (K.F.), Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Department of Medicine (S.K.), Al-Farabi Kazakh National University; Kazakh-Russian Medical University (M.Z.), Kazakhstan; Department of Neurology (J.-H.B.), Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul; Department of Neurology (Y. Hwang), Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University; Ajou University Hospital (J.S.L.); Department of Neurology (S.B.L.), Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea; Department of Neurology (J.M.), National Medical Center, Seoul; Department of Neurology (H.P., S.I.S.), Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu; Department of Neurology (J.H.S.), Busan Paik Hospital, School of Medicine, Inje University, Busan; Department of Neurology (K.-D.S.), National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang; Asan Medical Center (C.J.Y.), Seoul, South Korea; Department of Neurology (R.A.), LAU Medical Center-Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Medicine (W.A.W.Z., N.W.Y.), Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur; Sultanah Nur Zahirah (Z.A.A., K.A.I.), Kuala Terengganu; University Putra Malaysia (H.b.B.); Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching (L.W.C.); Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (A.B.I.), Sungai Petani Kedah; Hospital Seberang Jaya (I.L.), Pulau Pinang; Thomson Hospital Kota Damansara (W.Y.T.), Malaysia; "Nicolae Testemitanu" State University of Medicine and Pharmacy (S.G., P.L.), and Department of Neurology, Emergency Medicine Institute, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova; Department of Stroke Unit (A.M.A.H.), Royal Hospital Muscat, Oman; Neuroscience Institute (Y.Z.I., N.A.), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; St. Luke's Medical Center-Institute of Neurosciences (M.C.P.-F., C.O.C.), Quezon City, Philippines; Endovascular Neurosurgery (D.K.), Saint-Petersburg Dzhanelidze Research Institute of Emergency Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia; Department of Neurology (A.A.), Stroke Unit, King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh; Department of Neurosurgery (H.A.-J.), Interventional Radiology, and Critical Care Medicine, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia; Singapore National Neuroscience Institute (C.H.T.); Changi General Hospital (M.J.M.), Singapore; Neuroscience Center, Raffles Hospital (N.V.), Singapore; Department of Neurology (C.-H.C., S.-C.T.), National Taiwan University Hospital; Department of Radiology (A.C.), Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Dicle University Medical School and Hospital (E.A.), Diyarbakir; Stroke and Neurointervention Unit (O.A., A.O.O.), Eskisehir Osmangazi University; Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine (S.G.), Turkey; Department of Neurology (S.I.H., S.J.), Neurological Institute at Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Stroke Center (H.L.V., A.D.C.), Hue Central Hospital, Hue, Vietnam; Stroke Department (H.H.N., T.N.P.), Da Nang Hospital, Da Nang City; 115 People's Hospital (T.H.N., T.Q.N.), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Department of Neurology (T.G., C.E.), Medical University of Graz; Department of Neurology (M. K.-O.), Research Institute of Neurointervention, University Hospital Salzburg/Paracelsus Medical University, Austria; Department of Neurology (F.B., A.D.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Charleroi, Belgium; Department of Neurology (S.D.B., G.V.), Sint Jan Hospital, Bruges; Department of Neurology (S.D.R.), Brussels University Hospital (UZ Brussel); Department of Neurology (N.L.), ULB Erasme Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (M.P.R.), Europe Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (L.Y.), Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium; Neurology Clinic (F.A., T.S.), St. Anna University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria; Department of Neurology (M.R.B.), Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (H.B.), Sveti Duh University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (I.C.), General Hospital Virovitica; Department of Neurology (Z.H.), General Hospital Zabok; Department of Radiology (F. Pfeifer), University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia; Regional Hospital Karlovy Vary (I.K.); Masaryk Hospital Usti nad Labem (D.C.); Military University Hospital Praha (M. Sramek); Oblastní Nemocnice Náchod (M. Skoda); Regional Hospital Pribram (H.H.); Municipal Hospital Ostrava (L.K.); Hospital Mlada Boleslav (M. Koutny); Hospital Vitkovice (D.V.); Hospital Jihlava (O.S.); General University Hospital Praha (J.F.); Hospital Litomysl (K.H.); Hospital České Budejovice (M.N.); Hospital Pisek (R.R.); Hospital Uherske Hradiste (P.P.); Hospital Prostejov (G.K.); Regional Hospital Chomutov (J.N.); Hospital Teplice (M.V.); Mining Hospital Karvina (H.B.); Thomayer Hospital Praha (D.H.); Hospital Blansko (D.T.); University Hospital Brno (R.J.); Regional Hospital Liberec (L.J.); Hospital Ceska Lipa (J.N.); Hospital Sokolov (A.N.); Regional Hospital Kolin (Z.T.); Hospital Trutnov (P. Fibrich); Hospital Trinec (H.S.); Department of Neurology (O.V.), University Hospital Ostrava, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Bispebjerg Hospital (H.K.C.), University of Copenhagen; Stroke Center (H.K.I., T.C.T.), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen; Aarhus University Hospital (C.Z.S.), Aarhus; Neurovascular Center, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen (T.W.), Roskilde, Denmark; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (R.V.), University of Tartu, Estonia; Neurology Clinic (K.G.-P.), West Tallinn Central Hospital; Center of Neurology (T.T.), East Tallinn Central Hospital, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University; Internal Medicine Clinic (K.A.), Pärnu Hospital, Estonia; Université Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille Neuroscience & Cognition (C.C., F.C.); Centre Hospitalier d'Arcachon (M.D.), Gujan-Mestras; Centre Hospitalier d'Agen (J.-M.F.); Neurologie Vasculaire (L.M.) and Neuroradiologie (O.E.), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Pierre Wertheimer, Bron; Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Bordeaux (E.L., F.R.); Centre Hospitalier de Mont de Marsan (B.O.); Neurologie (R.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University (F. Pico); Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (M.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (R.P.), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France; K. Eristavi National Center of Experimental and Clinical Surgery (T.G.), Tbilisi; Department of Neurosurgery (M. Khinikadze), New Vision University Hospital, Tbilisi; Vivamedi Medical Center (M. Khinikadze), Tbilisi; Pineo Medical Ecosystem (N.L.), Tbilisi; Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (A.T.), Tbilisi, Georgia; Department of Neurology (S.N., P.A.R.), University Hospital Heidelberg; Department of Neurology (M. Rosenkranz), Albertinen Krankenhaus, Hamburg; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Elbe Klinken Stade, University Medical Center Göttingen; Department of Neurology (T.S.), University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden; Kristina Szabo (K.S.), Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Mannheim; Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie (G.T.), Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine (D.S.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa; Second Department of Neurology (O.K.), Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece; University of Szeged (P.K.), Szeged; University of Pecs (L.S., G.T.), Hungary; Stroke Center (A.A.), IRCCS Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Negrar, Verona; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Ospedale San Paolo, Savona,; Institute of Neurology (P.C., G.F.), Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Rome; Interventional Neurovascular Unit (L.R.), Careggi University Hospital, Florence; Stroke Unit (D.S.), Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) di Lecco, Italy; Maastricht University Medical Center; Department of Neurology (M.U.), Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen; Department of Neurology (I.v.d.W.), Haaglanden Medical Center, the Hague, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (E.S.K.), Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, General Practice, HELSAM, University of Oslo, Norway; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (W.B.), Specialist Hospital in Konskie, Gimnazjalna, Poland and Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (M.F.), District Hospital in Skarzysko-Kamienna; Department of Neurology (E.H.L.), Szpitala im T. Marciniaka in Wroclaw; 2nd Department of Neurology (M. Karlinski), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disorders (R.K., P.K.), Poznan University of Medical Sciences; 107th Military Hospital with Polyclinic (M.R.), Walcz; Department of Neurology (R.K.), St. Queen Jadwiga, Clinical Regional Hospital No. 2, Rzeszow; Department of Neurology (P.L.), Medical University of Lublin; 1st Department of Neurology (H.S.-J.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit (P.S.), Holy Spirit Specialist Hospital in Sandomierz, Collegium Medicum Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce; Copernicus PL (W.F.), Neurology and Stroke Department, Hospital M. Kopernik, Gdansk; Stroke Unit (M.W.), Neurological Department, Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences, Pila, Poland; Hospital São José (Patricia Ferreira), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Stroke Unit (Paulo Ferreira, V.T.C.), Hospital Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos; Stroke Unit, Internal Medicine Department (L.F.), Neuroradiology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto; Department of Neurology (J.P.M.), Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurosciences (T.P.e.M.), Hospital de Santa Maria-CHLN, North Lisbon University Hospital; Hospital São José (A.P.N.), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Department of Neurology (M. Rodrigues), Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal; Department of Neurology (C.F.-P.), Transilvania University, Brasov, Romania; Department of Neurology (G.K., M. Mako), Faculty Hospital Trnava, Slovakia; Department of Neurology and Stroke Center (M.A.d.L., E.D.T.), Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid; Department of Neurology (J.F.A.), Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad de Valladolid; Department of Neurology (O.A.-M.), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete; Department of Neurology (A.C.C.), Unidad de Ictus, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid; Department of Neurology (S.P.-S), Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena & Neurovascular Research Laboratory (J.M.), Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla-IbiS; Rio Hortega University Hospital (M.A.T.A.), University of Valladolid; Cerebrovascular Diseases (A.R.V.), Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (M. Mazya), Karolinska University Hospital and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (G.B.), University Hospitals of Geneva; Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology (A.B., M.-N.P.), Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel; Department of Neurology (U.F.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroradiology (J.G.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroscience (P.L.M., D.S.), Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland; Department of Stroke Medicine (S.B., J. Kwan), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London; Department of Neurology (K.K.), Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology (A.B., A. Shuaib), University of Alberta, Edmonton; Department of Neurology (L.C., A. Shoamanesh), McMaster University, Hamilton; Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute (A.M.D., M.D.H.), University of Calgary; Department of Neurology (T.F., S.Y.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mackenzie Health (J.H., C.A.S.) Richmond Hill, Ontario; Department of Neurology (H.K.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto; Department of Neurology (A. Mackey), Hopital Enfant Jesus, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite Laval, Quebec City; Department of Neurology (A.P.), University of Toronto; Medicine (G.S.), St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurosciences (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. Rafael A. Calderon Guardia, CCSS. San Jose, Costa Rica; Neurovascular Service (J.D.B.), Hospital General San Juan de Dios, Guatemala City; Department of Neurología (L.I.P.R.), Hospital General de Enfermedades, Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social, Guatemala City, Guatemala; Department of Neurology (F.G.-R.), University Hospital Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Mexico; Pacífica Salud-Hospital Punta Pacífica (N.N.-E., A.B., R.K.), Panama; Department of Neurology, Radiology (M.A.), University of Kansas Medical Center; Department of Neurointerventional Neurosurgery (D. Altschul), The Valley Baptist Hospital, Ridgewood, New Jersey; Palmetto General Hospital (A.J.A.-O.), Tenet, Florida; Neurology (I.B., P.K.), University Hospital Newark, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey; Community Healthcare System (A.B.), Munster, Indiana; Department of Neurology (N.B., C.B.N.), California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco; Department of Neurology (C.B.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; University of Toledo (A.C.), Ohio; Department of Neurology (S.C.), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Neuroscience (S.A.C.), Inova Fairfax Hospital, Virginia; Department of Neurology (H.C.), Abington Jefferson Hospital, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (J.H.C.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; Baptist Health Medical Center (S.D.), Little Rock, Arkansas; Department of Neurology (K.D.), HCA Houston Healthcare Clearlake, Texas; Department of Neurology (T.G.D., R.S.), Erlanger, Tennessee; Wilmington North Carolina (V.T.D.); Department of Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (R.E.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Department of Neurology (M.E.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology (M.F., S.O.-G., N.R.), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City; Department of Radiology (D.F.), Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, Colorado; Department of Radiology (D.G.), Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Adventist Health Glendale Comprehensive Stroke Center (M.G.), Los Angeles, California; Wellstar Neuroscience Institute (R.G.), Marietta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (A.E.H.), University of Texas Rio Grande Valley-Valley Baptist Medical Center, Texas; Department of Neurology (J.H., B.V.), Lahey Hospital & Medical Center, Beth Israel Lahey Health, Burlington, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (A.M.K.), Wayne State, Detroit, Michigan; HSHS St. John's Hospital (N.N.K.), Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield; Virginia Hospital Center (B.S.K.), Arlington; Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Weill-Cornell Medical College (D.O.K.), New York-Presbyterian Queens; Department of Neurology (V.H.L.), Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Neurology (L.Y.L.), Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (G.L.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (I.L., A.K.S.), Florida; Department of Neurology (H.L.L.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Department of Emergency Medicine (L.M., M.S.), Steward Holy Family Hospital, Methuen, MA; Vidant Medical Center (S.M.), Greenville, North Carolina; Department of Neurology (A.M.M., D.R.Y.) and Neurosurgery (D.R.Y.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida; Department of Neurology (H.M.), SUNY Upstate New York, Syracuse; Memorial Neuroscience Institute (B.P.M.), Pembroke Pines, Florida; Neurosciences (J.M., J.P.T.), Spectrum Health, Michigan State University College of Medicine, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Sutter Health (M.M.), Sacramento, California; Department of Neurology (J.G.M.), Maine Medical Center, Portland; Department of Neurology (S.S.M.), Bayhealth, Dover, Delaware; Department of Neurology and Pediatrics (F.N.), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (K.N.), University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock; Department of Radiology and Neurology (R.N.-W.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Ascension St. John Medical Center (R.H.R.), Tulsa, Oklahoma; Riverside Regional Medical Center (P.R.), Newport, Virginia; Department of Neurology (J.R.R., T.N.N.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (M.S.), University of Washington School Medicine, Seattle; Department of Neurology (B.S.), University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester; Department of Neurology (A.S.), CHI-Immanuel Neurological Institute, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska; Holy Cross Hospital (S.L.S.), Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Department of Neurology (V.S.), Interventional Neuroradiology, University of California in Los Angeles; Banner Desert Medical Center (M.T.), Mesa, Arizona; Hospital de Agudos Dr. Ignacio Privano (O.B., A.L.), Argentina; Institute for Neurological Research, FLENI (V.A.P.L.), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Hospital das Clinicas/São Paulo University (M.S.A., A.C.); Sumare State Hospital (F.B.C., L.V.), São Paulo; Hospital Vera Cruz (L.D.D.S.), Deus Campinas; Irmanandade Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (L.V.G.); Stroke Unit (F.O.L., F. Mont'alverne), Hospital Geral de Fortaleza; Stroke Unit (A.L.L., P.S.C.M.), Hospital Sao Jose, Joinville, Santa Catarina; Stroke Unit (R.T.M.), Neurology, Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (D.L.M.C.), Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (L.C.R.), Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal; Hospital Ana (V.F.C.), Hospital Juliane, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; Vascular Neurology Unit (P.M.L., V.V.O.), Neurology Service, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago; Hospital Padre Hurtado (V.N., J.M.A.T.) Santiago, Chile; Fundación Valle del Lili (P.F.R.A.), Cali; Stroke Center (H.B.), Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá; Department of Neurology (A.B.C.-Q.), Hospital Departamental Universitario del Quindio San Juan de Dios, Armenia; Clinica Universitaria Colombia (C.E.R.O.), Bogotá; University Hospital of San Vicente Foundation (D.K.M.B.), Medellin; Barranquilla, Colombia (O.L.); Hospital Infantil Universitario de San Jose (M.R.P.), Bogota; Stroke Unit (L.F.D.-E.), Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Asunción; Neurology Service (D.E.D.M.F., A.C.V.), Hospital Central del Instituto de Prevision Social, Paraguay; Internal Medicine Service (A.J.Z.Z.), Hospital Central de Policia "Rigoberto Caballero", Paraguay; National Institute of Neurological Sciences of Lima Peru (D.M.B.I.); Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Lima-Peru (L.R.K.); Department of Neurology (B.C.), Royal Melbourne Hospital; Department of Neurology (G.J.H.), Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth; University of Melbourne (C.H., R.S.), Ballarat Health Service, Australia University of Melbourne; Department of Neurology (T.K.), Royal Adelaide Hospital; Department of Neurosurgery (A. Ma), Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney; Department of Neurology (R.T.M.), Mater Hospital, Brisbane; Department of Neurology (R.S.), Austin Health, Victoria; Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health (R.S.), Parkville, Melbourne, Australia; Greymouth Base Hospital (D.S.), New Zealand; Department of Neurology (T.Y.-H.W.), Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (D.L.), University of California in Los Angeles; and Department of Neurology (O.O.Z.), Mercy Health Neurosciences, Toledo, Ohio.

Objective: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases.

Results: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205458PMC
June 2021

Preface.

Authors:
José Biller

Handb Clin Neurol 2021;177:ix

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-819814-8.09988-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations Associated with COVID-19.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2021 02 14;21(3). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, NM, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The present review discusses the peripheral nervous system (PNS) manifestations associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Recent Findings: Nerve pain and skeletal muscle injury, Guillain-Barré syndrome, cranial polyneuritis, neuromuscular junction disorders, neuro-ophthalmological disorders, neurosensory hearing loss, and dysautonomia have been reported as PNS manifestations in patients with COVID-19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19. COVID-19 has shown syndromic complexity. Not only does SARS-CoV-2 affect the central nervous system but also it involves the PNS. The PNS involvement may be due to dysregulation of the immune system attributable to COVID-19. Here we review the broad spectrum of PNS involvement of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-021-01102-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882462PMC
February 2021

Treatment challenges in idiopathic extracranial ICA vasospasm case report and review of the literature.

eNeurologicalSci 2021 Mar 6;22:100304. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL, United States of America.

Idiopathic extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) vasospasm is a rare pathological phenomenon that may lead to stroke in young patients. We report a case of an 18 year-old female with recurrent extracranial ICA vasospasm since age thirteen. We summarize published data related to this condition including all twenty-three reported cases of extracranial ICA vasospasm. We describe the various proposed pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder. Various treatment modalities have been attempted but there is no known long-term effective treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2020.100304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732996PMC
March 2021

Therapy in Neurology.

Authors:
José Biller

Neurol Clin 2021 02 7;39(1):xiii-xiv. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Neurology, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, 2160 S. First Avenue, Building 105, Room 2700, Maywood, IL 60153, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2020.09.016DOI Listing
February 2021

Correction to: Central Nervous System Manifestations Associated with COVID-19.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2020 Nov 12;20(12):66. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Departments of Clinical Neurological sciences, Western University, London, Canada.

The original version contained incorrect formatting of Dr. Napolis. His first name should be Mario and his last name should be Di Napoli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-020-01086-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661013PMC
November 2020

Central Nervous System Manifestations Associated with COVID-19.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2020 10 30;20(12):60. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Departments of Clinical Neurological sciences, Western University, London, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global health crisis of our time. The disease arises from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on host cells for its internalization. COVID-19 has a wide range of respiratory symptoms from mild to severe and affects several other organs, increasing the complexity of the treatment. There is accumulating evidence to suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can target the nervous system. In this review, we provide an account of the COVID-19 central nervous system (CNS) manifestations.

Recent Findings: A broad spectrum of the CNS manifestations including headache, impaired consciousness, delirium, loss of smell and taste, encephalitis, seizures, strokes, myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neurogenic respiratory failure, encephalopathy, silent hypoxemia, generalized myoclonus, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and Kawasaki syndrome has been reported in patients with COVID-19. CNS manifestations associated with COVID-19 should be considered in clinical practice. There is a need for modification of current protocols and standing orders to provide better care for COVID-19 patients presenting with neurological symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-020-01079-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599061PMC
October 2020

Stroke Care Trends During COVID-19 Pandemic in Zanjan Province, Iran. From the CASCADE Initiative: Statistical Analysis Plan and Preliminary Results.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Dec 16;29(12):105321. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Westchester Medical Center Health Network, Director of Neurocritical Care and Emergency Neurological Services, Valhalla, NY, USA; Westchester Medical Center Health Network, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.

Background: The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted global healthcare systems and this may affect stroke care and outcomes. This study examines the changes in stroke epidemiology and care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Zanjan Province, Iran.

Methods: This study is part of the CASCADE international initiative. From February 18, 2019, to July 18, 2020, we followed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke hospitalization rates and outcomes in Valiasr Hospital, Zanjan, Iran. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model and an interrupted time series analysis (ITS) to identify changes in stroke hospitalization rate, baseline stroke severity [measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)], disability [measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS)], presentation time (last seen normal to hospital presentation), thrombolytic therapy rate, median door-to-needle time, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality. We compared in-hospital mortality between study periods using Cox-regression model.

Results: During the study period, 1,026 stroke patients were hospitalized. Stroke hospitalization rates per 100,000 population decreased from 68.09 before the pandemic to 44.50 during the pandemic, with a significant decline in both Bayesian [Beta: -1.034; Standard Error (SE): 0.22, 95% CrI: -1.48, -0.59] and ITS analysis (estimate: -1.03, SE = 0.24, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, we observed lower admission rates for patients with mild (NIHSS < 5) ischemic stroke (p < 0.0001). Although, the presentation time and door-to-needle time did not change during the pandemic, a lower proportion of patients received thrombolysis (-10.1%; p = 0.004). We did not see significant changes in admission rate to the stroke unit and in-hospital mortality rate; however, disability at discharge increased (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: In Zanjan, Iran, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted stroke outcomes and altered the delivery of stroke care. Observed lower admission rates for milder stroke may possibly be due to fear of exposure related to COVID-19. The decrease in patients treated with thrombolysis and the increased disability at discharge may indicate changes in the delivery of stroke care and increased pressure on existing stroke acute and subacute services. The results of this research will contribute to a similar analysis of the larger CASCADE dataset in order to confirm findings at a global scale and improve measures to ensure the best quality of care for stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7494258PMC
December 2020

Blood Pressure Variability: A New Predicting Factor for Clinical Outcomes of Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Dec 2;29(12):105340. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, MSC10-5620, 1, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA. Electronic address:

Spontaneous primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a stroke subtype associated with the highest mortality rate. High blood pressure (BP) is the most common cause of non-lobar ICH. Recent clinical trials have been inconclusive regarding the efficacy of aggressive BP lowering to improve ICH outcome. The association between high BP and ICH prognosis is rather complex and parameters other than absolute BP levels may be involved. In this regard, there is accruing evidence that BP variability (BPV) plays a major role in ICH outcome. Different BPV indices have been used to predict hematoma growth, neurological deterioration, and functional recovery. This review highlights the available evidence about the relationship between BPV and clinical outcomes among patients. We identified standard deviation (SD), residual SD, coefficient of variation, mean absolute change, average real variability, successive variation, spectral analysis using Fourier analysis, and functional successive variation (FSV) as indices to assess BPV. Most studies have demonstrated the association of BPV with ICH outcome, suggesting a need to monitor and control BP fluctuations in the routine clinical care of ICH patients. When large inter-subject variability exists, FSV is a viable alternative quantification of BPV as its computation is less sensitive to differences in the patient-specific observation schedules for BP than that of traditional indices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105340DOI Listing
December 2020

COVID-19 Pandemic and Burden of Non-Communicable Diseases: An Ecological Study on Data of 185 Countries.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Sep 25;29(9):105089. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit, San Camillo de' Lellis General District Hospital, Rieti, Italy; Neurological Section, Neuro-epidemiology Unit, SMDN-Centre for Cardiovascular Medicine and Cerebrovascular Disease Prevention, Sulmona, L'Aquila, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: The interaction between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-communicable diseases may increase the global burden of disease. We assessed the association of COVID-19 with ageing and non-communicable diseases.

Methods: We extracted data regarding non-communicable disease, particularly cardiovascular disease, deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and healthy life expectancy (HALE) from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017. We obtained data of confirmed COVID-19 cases, deaths, and tests from the Our World in Data database as of May 28, 2020. Potential confounders of pandemic outcomes analyzed include institutional lockdown delay, hemispheric geographical location, and number of tourists. We compared all countries according to GBD classification and World Bank income level. We assessed the correlation between independent variables associated with COVID-19 caseload and mortality using Spearman's rank correlation and adjusted mixed model analysis.

Findings: High-income had the highest, and the Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Oceania region had the least cases per million population (3050.60 vs. 63.86). Sub-saharan region has reported the lowest number of COVID-19 mortality (1.9). Median delay to lockdown initiation varied from one day following the first case in Latin America and Caribbean region, to 34 days in Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Oceania. Globally, non-communicable disease DALYs were correlated with COVID-19 cases (r = 0.32, p<0.001) and deaths (r = 0.37, p<0.001). HALE correlated with COVID-19 cases (r = 0.63, p<0.001) and deaths (r = 0.61, p<0.001). HALE was independently associated with COVID-19 case rate and the number of tourists was associated with COVID-19 mortality in the adjusted model.

Interpretation: Preventive measures against COVID-19 should protect the public from the dual burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases, particularly in the elderly. In addition to active COVID-19 surveillance, policymakers should utilize this evidence as a guide for prevention and coordination of health services. This model is timely, as many countries have begun to reduce social isolation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315949PMC
September 2020

Call to Action: SARS-CoV-2 and CerebrovAscular DisordErs (CASCADE).

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Sep 8;29(9):104938. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background And Purpose: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), now named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), may change the risk of stroke through an enhanced systemic inflammatory response, hypercoagulable state, and endothelial damage in the cerebrovascular system. Moreover, due to the current pandemic, some countries have prioritized health resources towards COVID-19 management, making it more challenging to appropriately care for other potentially disabling and fatal diseases such as stroke. The aim of this study is to identify and describe changes in stroke epidemiological trends before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: This is an international, multicenter, hospital-based study on stroke incidence and outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. We will describe patterns in stroke management, stroke hospitalization rate, and stroke severity, subtype (ischemic/hemorrhagic), and outcomes (including in-hospital mortality) in 2020 during COVID-19 pandemic, comparing them with the corresponding data from 2018 and 2019, and subsequently 2021. We will also use an interrupted time series (ITS) analysis to assess the change in stroke hospitalization rates before, during, and after COVID-19, in each participating center.

Conclusion: The proposed study will potentially enable us to better understand the changes in stroke care protocols, differential hospitalization rate, and severity of stroke, as it pertains to the COVID-19 pandemic. Ultimately, this will help guide clinical-based policies surrounding COVID-19 and other similar global pandemics to ensure that management of cerebrovascular comorbidity is appropriately prioritized during the global crisis. It will also guide public health guidelines for at-risk populations to reduce risks of complications from such comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205703PMC
September 2020

Tenecteplase for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Current Evidence and Practical Considerations.

CNS Drugs 2020 10;34(10):1009-1014

Department of Neurology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Tenecteplase offers pharmacological advantages over alteplase, and growing evidence supports its consideration for the treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Its ease of administration as a single bolus makes it a preferable agent for patients who need to be urgently transported to a comprehensive stroke center for endovascular therapy (drip and ship) and for patients first evaluated at comprehensive stroke centers who are eligible for endovascular intervention (combined intravenous and endovascular approach). Recent randomized controlled trials indicated that the efficacy of tenecteplase may be similar to that of alteplase in patients with mild strokes and that it is superior to alteplase for patients with more severe strokes from a large vessel occlusion. Cumulative evidence currently favors the use of the 0.25 mg/kg dose. While tenecteplase has not been approved by regulatory agencies in the USA or the EU for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, ongoing trials and additional clinical experience from countries where it is already being used in practice will likely clarify the role of tenecteplase for the acute management of ischemic stroke in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40263-020-00757-xDOI Listing
October 2020

Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Stroke: Clinical Manifestations and Pathophysiological Insights.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Aug 12;29(8):104941. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131, New Mexico, USA. Electronic address:

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global health threat. Some COVID-19 patients have exhibited widespread neurological manifestations including stroke. Acute ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis have been reported in patients with COVID-19. COVID-19-associated coagulopathy is increasingly recognized as a result of acute infection and is likely caused by inflammation, including inflammatory cytokine storm. Recent studies suggest that axonal transport of SARS-CoV-2 to the brain can occur via the cribriform plate adjacent to the olfactory bulb that may lead to symptomatic anosmia. The internalization of SARS-CoV-2 is mediated by the binding of the spike glycoprotein of the virus to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on cellular membranes. ACE2 is expressed in several tissues including lung alveolar cells, gastrointestinal tissue, and brain. The aim of this review is to provide insights into the clinical manifestations and pathophysiological mechanisms of stroke in COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 can down-regulate ACE2 and, in turn, overactivate the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) axis and decrease the activation of the alternative RAS pathway in the brain. The consequent imbalance in vasodilation, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and thrombotic response may contribute to the pathophysiology of stroke during SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214348PMC
August 2020

Correlations between COVID-19 and burden of dementia: An ecological study and review of literature.

J Neurol Sci 2020 09 4;416:117013. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit, San Camillo de' Lellis General District Hospital, Rieti, Italy; Neurological Section, Neuro-epidemiology Unit, SMDN-Centre for Cardiovascular Medicine and Cerebrovascular Disease Prevention, Sulmona, L'Aquila, Italy. Electronic address:

Introduction: Current evidence on the association between COVID-19 and dementia is sparse. This study aims to investigate the associations between COVID-19 caseload and the burden of dementia.

Methods: We gathered data regarding burden of dementia (disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] per 100,000), life expectancy, and healthy life expectancy (HALE) from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study. We obtained COVID-19 data from Our World in Data database. We analyzed the association of COVID-19 cases and deaths with the burden of dementia using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient.

Results: Globally, we found significant positive (p < .001) correlations between life expectancy (r = 0.60), HALE (r = 0.58), and dementia DALYs (r = 0.46) with COVID-19 caseloads. Likewise, we found similar correlations between life expectancy (r = 0.60), HALE (r = 0.58) and dementia DALYs (r = 0.54) with COVID-19 mortality.

Conclusion: Health policymakers should clarify a targeted model of disease surveillance in order to reduce the dual burden of dementia and COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.117013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334961PMC
September 2020

Preserving stroke care during the COVID-19 pandemic: Potential issues and solutions.

Neurology 2020 07 8;95(3):124-133. Epub 2020 May 8.

From the Departments of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Epidemiology (E.C.L.), University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA; Cerebrovascular Center (A.N.R.), Cleveland Clinic, OH; Department of Neurology (J.B.), Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL; Department of Neurology (D.L.B.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; Department of Neurology (C.D.B.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Stroke Unit (V.C.), University of Perugia, Italy; Department of Neurology (A.C.), Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (C.J.C., D.L.T.), University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Department of Neurology (S.C.-F.), Texas Tech University, El Paso, TX; Departments of Neurology & Epidemiology (M.S.V.E.), Columbia University, New York, NY; Department of Neurological Sciences (P.F.), University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE; Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery (M.T.F.), Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN; Department of Neurology (L.B.G.), University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY; Department of Neurology (N.R.G.), McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Houston, TX; Department of Health Management and Policy (B.K.), University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA; Department of Neurology (P.K.), University of Cincinnati, OH; Department of Adult Health & Gerontology Nursing (S.L.), Rush University, Chicago, IL; Department of Neurology (D.S.L.), UCLA; Department of Neurology (J.J.M.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT; Neurocritical Care, OhioHealth Riverside Methodist Hospital (A.M.M.), Columbus, OH; Department of Neurology (J.G.R.), University of Miami, FL; Department of Neurology (N.S.), University Southern California, Los Angeles, CA; Department of Neurology (L.H.S.), Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; Department of Neurology (B.S.), University of Massachusetts, Worcester, MA; Department of Neurology (A.N.S.), University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; Department of Neurology (W.S.), UCSF; Department of Neurology (D.Z.W.), Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ; Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery (D.R.Y.), University of Miami, FL; and Department of Neurology (B.B.W.), University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires drastic changes in allocation of resources, which can affect the delivery of stroke care, and many providers are seeking guidance. As caregivers, we are guided by 3 distinct principles that will occasionally conflict during the pandemic: (1) we must ensure the best care for those stricken with COVID-19, (2) we must provide excellent care and advocacy for patients with cerebrovascular disease and their families, and (3) we must advocate for the safety of health care personnel managing patients with stroke, with particular attention to those most vulnerable, including trainees. This descriptive review by a diverse group of experts in stroke care aims to provide advice by specifically addressing the potential impact of this pandemic on (1) the quality of the stroke care delivered, (2) ethical considerations in stroke care, (3) safety and logistic issues for providers of patients with stroke, and (4) stroke research. Our recommendations on these issues represent our best opinions given the available information, but are subject to revision as the situation related to the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve. We expect that ongoing emergent research will offer additional insights that will provide evidence that could prompt the modification or removal of some of these recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7455350PMC
July 2020

Acute Stroke Care in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Jul 17;29(7):104881. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Loyola University Medical Center, United States of America.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic respiratory disease with serious public health risk and has taken the world off-guard with its rapid spread. As the COVID-19 pandemic intensifies, overwhelming the healthcare system and the medical community, current practice for the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) will require modification, and guidelines should be relaxed while maintaining high standard quality of care. The aim of these suggestions is to avoid contributing to the rapid spread of COVID-19 as well as to conserve what are likely to be very limited resources (including personnel, intensive care/hospital beds as well as physicians) while maintaining high quality care for patients with AIS. We present our recommendations for the management of acute stroke during the COVID-19 pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7164903PMC
July 2020

Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: 2019 Update to the 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

Stroke 2019 12 30;50(12):e344-e418. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Background and Purpose- The purpose of these guidelines is to provide an up-to-date comprehensive set of recommendations in a single document for clinicians caring for adult patients with acute arterial ischemic stroke. The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators. These guidelines supersede the 2013 Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) Guidelines and are an update of the 2018 AIS Guidelines. Methods- Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association (AHA) Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical expertise. Members were not allowed to participate in discussions or to vote on topics relevant to their relations with industry. An update of the 2013 AIS Guidelines was originally published in January 2018. This guideline was approved by the AHA Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee and the AHA Executive Committee. In April 2018, a revision to these guidelines, deleting some recommendations, was published online by the AHA. The writing group was asked review the original document and revise if appropriate. In June 2018, the writing group submitted a document with minor changes and with inclusion of important newly published randomized controlled trials with >100 participants and clinical outcomes at least 90 days after AIS. The document was sent to 14 peer reviewers. The writing group evaluated the peer reviewers' comments and revised when appropriate. The current final document was approved by all members of the writing group except when relationships with industry precluded members from voting and by the governing bodies of the AHA. These guidelines use the American College of Cardiology/AHA 2015 Class of Recommendations and Level of Evidence and the new AHA guidelines format. Results- These guidelines detail prehospital care, urgent and emergency evaluation and treatment with intravenous and intra-arterial therapies, and in-hospital management, including secondary prevention measures that are appropriately instituted within the first 2 weeks. The guidelines support the overarching concept of stroke systems of care in both the prehospital and hospital settings. Conclusions- These guidelines provide general recommendations based on the currently available evidence to guide clinicians caring for adult patients with acute arterial ischemic stroke. In many instances, however, only limited data exist demonstrating the urgent need for continued research on treatment of acute ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STR.0000000000000211DOI Listing
December 2019

Palatal tremor and hypertrophic olivary degeneration as sequelae of basilar artery occlusion.

Neurol Clin Pract 2019 Aug;9(4):e30-e32

Department of Neurology, University of Chicago; and Department of Neurology, Loyola University, Maywood, IL.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6745752PMC
August 2019

Correction to: Management of Blood Pressure after Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2019 May 25;19(6):36. Epub 2019 May 25.

Department of Neurology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-019-0963-6DOI Listing
May 2019

The Neurological Examination.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2019 Aug;17(Suppl 2):S3-S16

Department of Neurology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opz066DOI Listing
August 2019

ResearchGate; Quo Vadis?

World Neurosurg 2019 08 10;128:131-133. Epub 2019 May 10.

Department of Neurology, Loyola University Medical Center/Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.05.016DOI Listing
August 2019

Management of Blood Pressure After Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2019 04 29;19(6):29. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Department of Neurology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The present manuscript examines the significance of blood pressure elevation in patients with acute ischemic stroke, the physiologic principles worthy of consideration during its treatment, and the recent empirical evidence that should guide management protocols. It also provides a sound and practical approach to treatment along the time continuum, with particular relevance to reperfusion strategies.

Recent Findings: The existing evidence shows that both insufficient and excessive blood pressures are detrimental to the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke. This "U-shaped" relation, however, relates to measurements at the time of presentation, and clinical studies lack detail and specificity relative to differential measurements along the time continuum, particularly prior to and following reperfusion. Extrapolating from recent series, it is possible to construct treatment protocols balanced for effectiveness and safety. The management of blood pressure after acute ischemic stroke is an important, complex, and challenging aspect of care, requiring a thorough understanding of cerebrovascular physiology. Along the time continuum, the therapeutic priorities start with the preservation of penumbral tissue prior to reperfusion and then follow with the limitation of the damaging effects of excessive blood pressure readings after reperfusion, optimizing the chances of improved outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-019-0941-zDOI Listing
April 2019

Recent advances in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

F1000Res 2019 18;8. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Neurology, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine , Maywood, IL, 60153, USA.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a stroke subtype associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on important research on ICH over the past three years. Topics covered include risk factors, imaging predictors of hematoma expansion, scoring schema to predict hematoma expansion, hemostatic therapies, acute blood pressure lowering, intraventricular administration of alteplase for intraventricular hemorrhage, and the current status of surgical therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.16357.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6426087PMC
June 2020

Intracranial arteriopathies and RCVS: A discriminatory clinical tool.

Neurology 2019 02 11;92(7):309-310. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

From the Department of Radiology (M.T.A.), University of British Columbia; Department of Medical Imaging (M.T.A.), Richmond Hospital, Vancouver, Canada; and Department of Neurology (J.B.), Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000006907DOI Listing
February 2019

Stroke due to Paradoxical Embolization Related to Fibroid Uterus Enlargement Compressing the Right Common Iliac Vein.

Case Rep Neurol 2018 Sep-Dec;10(3):328-331. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Neurology, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois, USA.

Stroke in young women is commonly cryptogenic or associated with an underlying hypercoagulable state (e.g., hormonal contraception). Paradoxical embolization has been postulated as a potential risk factor for stroke in young adults. Many sources of venous thrombosis leading to paradoxical embolization have been described. There have been few reported cases of uterine enlargement leading to iliac vein compression and paradoxical embolization. We present the case of a young adult woman who had a left middle cerebral artery infarction related to patent foramen ovale and right common iliac vein compression from an enlarged fibroid uterus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000494126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323390PMC
November 2018

Circulating Biomarker Levels in Patients With Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease With Respect to Neurovascular Diseases.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2018 Dec 14;24(9_suppl):314S-322S. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Pathology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA.

The prevalence of neurocognitive deficits remains high in patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD5D). Major contributors to such deficits include stroke, cervical carotid artery disease (CCAD), and intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD). The risk of developing these dysfunctional vascular processes is facilitated by the chronic inflammation associated with renal failure. Plasma levels of 10 circulating biomarkers in patients with CKD5D (n = 78-90) were quantified using the sandwich enzyme linked immune sorbent assay method. Biomarkers for this study included kidney injury molecule-1, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, interleukin-18, endothelin 1, calcifediol, parathyroid hormone, platelet-derived growth factor, microparticles-expressing tissue factor, and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)). Of the 90 patients with CKD5D, 30 had CCAD, 24 had ICAD, and 22 had stroke. Lp(a) level was significantly elevated in patients with CKD5D with comorbid ICAD compared to those without (125.70 ± 10.03 ng/mL vs 97.16 ± 5.97 ng/mL; = .0065). NT-proBNP level was also significantly elevated in patients with CKD5D with comorbid stroke diagnosis compared to those without stroke history, once patients with a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) were excluded (14.84 ± 2.80 ng/mL vs 9.06 ± 1.27 ng/mL; = .0283). Profiling levels of Lp(a) and NT-ProBNP could thus be useful in the risk stratification of ICAD and stroke, respectively, in the CKD5D population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1076029618811090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6714841PMC
December 2018

Biomarker Profiling of Neurovascular Diseases in Patients with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2018 Dec 22;24(9_suppl):248S-254S. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Pathology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA.

Patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD5D) have a higher risk of developing neurocognitive deficits. Stroke, cervical carotid artery disease (CCAD), and intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) are causes of such deficits in CKD5D. Chronic inflammation from renal failure elevates risk for these diseases through oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction. The adverse impact on the carotid and intracranial vasculatures contributes to the multifactorial pathophysiology of stroke. Eleven plasma biomarker levels in patients with CKD5D (n = 97) and healthy controls (n = 17-50) were measured using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Of the 97 patients with CKD5D, 24 had CCAD, 19 had ICAD, and 23 had acute stroke. Elevations in NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3) levels in patients with CKD5D (+)CCAD (1.80 ± 0.11 ng/mL) compared to patients with (-)CCAD (1.55 ± 0.08 ng/mL) were statistically significant ( = .0299). Differences in D-dimer levels were also found to be statistically significant ( = .0258) between CKD5D (+)stroke (1.83 ± 0.42 μg/mL) and (-)stroke (0.89 ± 0.13 μg/mL) groups. The ages of the (+) neurovascular disease groups were found to be significantly elevated compared to the (-) neurovascular disease groups ( = .0002 carotid AD; < .0001 ICAD; = .0157 stroke). D-dimer levels were positively correlated with age in CKD5D ( = .0375). With the possible exception of NALP3 for CCAD, profiling levels of specific biomarkers for risk stratification of neurovascular diseases in the CKD5D population warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1076029618807565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6714821PMC
December 2018
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