Publications by authors named "José A Rodrigues"

72 Publications

Epidemiologic Associations Vary Between Tetracycline and Fluoroquinolone Resistant Infections.

Front Public Health 2021 28;9:672473. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.

is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis and antibiotic resistant are a serious threat to public health. Herein, we sought to evaluate trends in infections, quantify resistance frequencies, and identify epidemiological factors associated with infection. isolates ( = 214) were collected from patients via an active surveillance system at four metropolitan hospitals in Michigan between 2011 and 2014. The minimum inhibitory concentration for nine antibiotics was determined using microbroth dilution, while demographic and clinical data were used for the univariate and multivariate analyses. Over the 4-year period, a significant increase in the recovery of was observed ( ≤ 0.0001). Differences in infection rates were observed by hospital and several factors were linked to more severe disease. Patients residing in urban areas, for instance, were significantly more likely to be hospitalized than rural residents as were patients over 40 years of age and those self-identifying as non-White, highlighting potential disparities in disease outcomes. Among the 214 isolates, 135 (63.1%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Resistance was observed for all nine antibiotics tested yielding 11 distinct resistance phenotypes. Tetracycline resistance predominated ( = 120; 56.1%) followed by resistance to ciprofloxacin ( = 49; 22.9%), which increased from 15.6% in 2011 to 25.0% in 2014. Resistance to two antibiotic classes was observed in 38 (17.8%) isolates, while multidrug resistance, or resistance to three or more classes, was observed in four (1.9%). Notably, patients with ciprofloxacin resistant infections were more likely to report traveling in the past month (Odds Ratio (OR): 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37, 6.68) and international travel (OR: 9.8; 95% CI: 3.69, 26.09). Relative to patients with only tetracycline resistant infections, those with ciprofloxacin resistance were more likely to travel internationally, be hospitalized and have an infection during the fall or summer. Together, these findings show increasing rates of infection and resistance and highlight specific factors that impact both outcomes. Enhancing understanding of factors linked to resistance and more severe infections is critical for disease prevention, particularly since many clinical laboratories have switched to the use of culture-independent tests for the detection of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.672473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273344PMC
June 2021

Double-Layer Flexible Neural Probe With Closely Spaced Electrodes for High-Density Brain Recordings.

Front Neurosci 2021 15;15:663174. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.

Flexible polymer neural probes are an attractive emerging approach for invasive brain recordings, given that they can minimize the risks of brain damage or glial scaring. However, densely packed electrode sites, which can facilitate neuronal data analysis, are not widely available in flexible probes. Here, we present a new flexible polyimide neural probe, based on standard and low-cost lithography processes, which has 32 closely spaced 10 μm diameter gold electrode sites at two different depths from the probe surface arranged in a matrix, with inter-site distances of only 5 μm. The double-layer design and fabrication approach implemented also provides additional stiffening just sufficient to prevent probe buckling during brain insertion. This approach avoids typical laborious augmentation strategies used to increase flexible probes' mechanical rigidity while allowing a small brain insertion footprint. Chemical composition analysis and metrology of structural, mechanical, and electrical properties demonstrated the viability of this fabrication approach. Finally, functional assessment tests in the mouse cortex were performed as well as histological assessment of the insertion footprint, validating the biological applicability of this flexible neural probe for acquiring high quality neuronal recordings with high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and reduced acute trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.663174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8239195PMC
June 2021

Response of Solanum lycopersicum L. to diclofenac - Impacts on the plant's antioxidant mechanisms.

Environ Pollut 2020 Mar 9;258:113762. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

GreenUPorto - Sustainable Agrifood Production Research Centre, Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007, Porto, Portugal.

One emerging problem that recently has become a vastly acknowledged topic of concern is the environmental contamination by pharmaceuticals. Diclofenac (DCF) is one of the most common pharmaceuticals found, due to its high utilization and low removal rate in wastewater treatment processes. In this work, Solanum lycopersicum L. was used as a model to unravel how DCF contamination can affect crops, focusing on the internal mechanisms triggered by this exposure. For this purpose, plants were exposed to two different DCF concentrations (0.5 mg L and 5 mg L). Results obtained here point towards a loss of shoot performance when plants were exposed to very high concentrations of DCF, but no delay or loss of yield in the flowering and fruit stages were ascribed to DCF contamination. Our data shows that a state of oxidative stress due to high reactive oxygen species accumulation was associated with this contamination, with very high DCF levels leading to a rise of lipid peroxidation, possibly accentuated by the inhibition of ROS-scavenging enzymes and unable to be counteracted by the visible upregulation of proline and the thiol-based redox network. Overall, these results allow to infer that in the current environmental context, no noticeable negative effects should be associated with the presence of DCF in soils where this crop is cultivated. However, the oxidative stress and lower biomass associated with the highest concentration are alarming, since DCF levels in the environment are continuously increasing and further measures are necessary to assess this problematic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113762DOI Listing
March 2020

Improvement of Sugarcane Stillage (Vinasse) Anaerobic Digestion with Cheese Whey as its Co-substrate: Achieving High Methane Productivity and Yield.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2019 Nov 3;189(3):987-1006. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Mauá School of Engineering (EEM), Mauá Institute of Technology (IMT), Praça Mauá 1, São Caetano do Sul, SP, 09580-900, Brazil.

This study investigated methane production in an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) by co-digesting sugarcane vinasse and cheese whey. The assessment was based on the influence of feed strategy, interaction between cycle time and influent concentration, applied volumetric organic load (OLR), and temperature over system stability and performance. The system showed flexibility with regard to the feed strategy, but the reduction of cycle time and influent concentration, at the same OLR, resulted in lower methane productivity. Increasing organic load, up to the value of 15.27 gCOD L day, favored the process, increasing methane yield and productivity. Temperature reduction from 30 to 25 °C resulted in worse performance, although increasing it to 35 °C provided similar results to 30 °C. The best results were achieved at an OLR of 15.27 gCOD L day, cycle time of 8 h, fed-batch operation, and temperature of 30 °C. The system achieved soluble COD removal efficiency of 89%, methane productivity of 208.5 molCH m day and yield of 15.76 mmolCH gCOD. The kinetic model fit indicated methanogenesis preference for the hydrogenotrophic route. At the industrial scale estimative, considering a scenario with a sugarcane ethanol plant with ethanol production of 150,896 m year, it was estimated energy production of 25,544 MWh month.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-019-03056-4DOI Listing
November 2019

Unravelling the phytonutrients and antioxidant properties of European Vicia faba L. seeds.

Food Res Int 2019 02 10;116:888-896. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

REQUIMTE, LAQV, ICBAS, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

For the first time, seven European varieties of Vicia faba L. seeds were investigated for (1) their phytonutrients profile by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS, (2) total phenolic content (TPC), and (3) antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP assays). A wide range of compounds were identified, namely alkaloids, organic acids, terpenoids, jasmonates, and phenolics; these two latter being the most abundant. TPC ranged between 2.62 and 4.3 mg (gallic acid equivalent) g dry weight, for V. faba major variety Belshi and V. faba minor variety Bauska, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity showed poor correlation (r = 0.550, P = .041) with TPC, suggesting the presence of other antioxidant sources than phenolics. Still, FRAP was positively correlated with TPC (r = 0.709, P < .01) and DPPH (r = 0.819, P < .01). These results elucidated the phytonutrients and antioxidant properties of V. faba L. seeds as functional food sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.09.025DOI Listing
February 2019

Viability of Using Glycerin as a Co-substrate in Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Stillage (Vinasse): Effect of Diversified Operational Strategies.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2019 Jul 24;188(3):720-740. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Mauá School of Engineering, Mauá Institute of Technology (EEM/IMT), Praça Mauá 1, São Caetano do Sul, SP, 09580-900, Brazil.

Vinasse, from sugar and ethanol production, stands out as one of the most problematic agroindustry wastes due to its high chemical oxygen demand, large production volume, and recalcitrant compounds. Therefore, the viability of using glycerin as a co-substrate in vinasse anaerobic digestion was tested, to increase process efficiency and biogas productivity. The effect of feeding strategy, influent concentration, cycle length, and temperature were assessed to optimize methane production. Glycerin (1.53% v/v) proved to be a good co-substrate since it increased the overall methane production in co-digestion assays. CH productivity enhanced exponentially as influent concentration increased, but when temperature was increased to 35 °C, biogas production was impaired. The highest methane productivity and yield were achieved using fed-batch mode, at 30 °C and at an organic loading rate of 10.1 kg COD m day: 139.32 mol CH m day, 13.86 mol CH kg COD, and 15.30 mol CH kg COD. Methane was predominantly produced through the hydrogenotrophic route. In order to treat all the vinasse produced by a mid-size sugar and ethanol plant, nine reactors with 7263.4 m each would be needed. The energy generated by burning the biogas in boilers would reach approximately 92,000 MW h per season and could save up to US$ 240,000.00 per month in diesel oil demand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-019-02950-1DOI Listing
July 2019

Methane Production by Co-Digesting Vinasse and Whey in an AnSBBR: Effect of Mixture Ratio and Feed Strategy.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2019 Jan 7;187(1):28-46. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Mauá School of Engineering, Mauá Institute of Technology (EEM/IMT), Praça Mauá 1, São Caetano do Sul, SP, 09.580-900, Brazil.

The most common approach to deal with vinasse (sugarcane stillage) is fertigation, but this technique compromises soil structure and surrounding water bodies. A possible solution is to transport vinasse to local cheese whey producers and perform the co-digestion of these wastewaters together, reducing their organic load and generating bioenergy. Therefore, this study investigated the application of an AnSBBR (anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor) operated in batch and fed-batch mode, co-digesting vinasse and whey at 30 °C. The effect of influent composition and feeding strategy was assessed. In all conditions, the system achieved high organic matter removal (approximately 83%). Increasing the percentage of vinasse from 0 to 100% in the influent resulted in a decrease in methane productivity (76.3 to 51.1 molCH m day) and yield (12.7 to 9.1 molCH kgCOD), but fed-batch mode operation improved reactor performance (73.0 molCH m day and 11.5 molCH kgCOD). From the kinetic metabolic model, it was possible to infer that, at the best condition, methane is produced in a similar way from the acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic routes. A scheme of four parallel reactors with a volume of 16,950 m each was proposed in the scale-up estimation, with an energy recovery estimated in 28,745 MWh per month.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-018-2802-7DOI Listing
January 2019

Hepatotoxicity induced by paclitaxel interaction with turmeric in association with a microcystin from a contaminated dietary supplement.

Toxicon 2018 Aug 29;150:207-211. Epub 2018 May 29.

Observatory of Herb-Drug Interactions/Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Portugal; CQ - Centre of Chemistry - Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Rua Larga, University of Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

A 67-year-old Caucasian male with lung cancer was presented to the Emergency Department with asthenia, anorexia, jaundice and choluria. The patient's lung cancer was being treated medically by a combination of paclitaxel/carboplatin with bi-monthly frequency. The patient was also self-medicating with several natural products, including Chlorella (520 mg/day), Silybum marianum (total of 13.5 mg silymarin/day), zinc sulphate (5.5 mg), selenium (50 μg) and 15 g/day of Curcuma longa. In first chemotherapy cycle no toxicity was observed even he was taking other medications as budesonide and sitagliptin. The toxic events started only after the introduction of the dietary products. Chlorella had contamination with cyanobacteria (Oscillatoriales) and 1.08 μg of cyanotoxin Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) per gram of biomass was found. Patient was consuming ca 0.01 μg MC-LR/kg/day. This case report describes the first known case of paclitaxel toxicity probably related to pharmacokinetic interaction with Turmeric and a contaminated Chlorella supplement resulting in an acute toxic hepatitis and the impact on oncologic patient health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.05.022DOI Listing
August 2018

4-hydrazinobenzoic acid as a derivatizing agent for aldehyde analysis by HPLC-UV and CE-DAD.

Talanta 2018 Sep 30;187:113-119. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Aldehydes are relevant analytes in a wide range of samples, in particular, food and beverages but also body fluids. Hydrazines can undergo nucleophilic addition with aldehydes or ketones giving origin to hydrazones (a group of stable imines) that can be suitably used in the identification of aldehydes. Herein, 4-hydrazinobenzoic acid (HBA) was, for the first time, used as the derivatizing agent in analytical methodologies using liquid chromatography aiming the determination of low-molecular aldehydes. The derivatization reaction was simultaneously performed along with the extraction process, using gas-diffusion microextraction (GDME), which resulted in a clean extract containing the HBA-aldehyde derivates. The corresponding formed imines were determined by both high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) with UV spectrophotometric detection (HPLC-UV) and capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD). HBA showed to be a rather advantageous derivatization reagent due to its stability, relatively high solubility in water and other solvents, high selectivity and sensibility, reduced impurities, simple preparation steps and applicability to different separation and/or different detection techniques. Limits of detections (LODs) of the optimized methodologies (in terms of time and pH among other experimental variables) were all below 0.5 mg L, using both instrumental techniques. Furthermore, for the first time, the HBA-aldehyde derivatives were analyzed by LC with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), demonstrating the possibility of identification by MS of each compound. The developed methodologies were also successfully applied in the analysis of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in several alcoholic beverages. This was also the first time GDME was combined with CE, showing that it can be a valuable sample preparation tool for electrophoresis, in particular by eliminating the interference of ions and inorganic constituents present in the samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2018.04.091DOI Listing
September 2018

Profiling of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of European varieties and cultivars of Vicia faba L. pods.

Phytochemistry 2018 Aug 21;152:223-229. Epub 2018 May 21.

REQUIMTE, LAQV, ICBAS, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313, Porto, Portugal.

Vicia faba L. pods are a by-product generated from the industrial processing of beans for human and animal consumption. As phenolic compounds may play important roles in health, the present work envisaged the phenolic characterization of seven European varieties and cultivars of V. faba (major and minor) pods and the assessment of their antioxidant activity. The V. faba methanolic extracts were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS for identification of polyphenolic compounds. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts were evaluated by colorimetric methods (Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH scavenging capacity assay, and FRAP assay). Main compounds identified by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS were derivatives of caffeic acid, coumaric acid and kaempferol. The broad bean Jögeva variety presented the highest content of free and esterified phenolics (26.3 and 26.7 mg 100 g dry weight, respectively), followed by the horse bean varieties Bauska and Lielplatones. These results were corroborated by the analysis of total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging capacity and FRAP. This study confirmed the rich phenolic content of V. faba pods suggesting to be an interesting novel source for animal nutrition, promoting product quality and consumers' health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.05.011DOI Listing
August 2018

Adhesive/silane application effects on bond strength durability to a lithium disilicate ceramic.

J Esthet Restor Dent 2018 07 15;30(4):346-351. Epub 2018 May 15.

Department of Operative Dentistry, Guarulhos University. Praça Tereza Cristina, 229 Guarulhos, SP 07023-070, Brazil.

Objective: To test the effects of different adhesive protocols and silane application on the adhesive durability to a Lithium Disilicate reinforced glass ceramic.

Methods: Forty disks of 13 mm diameter (E.max Press) were used. After etching with 9.5% HF for 20 seconds, disks were randomly assigned into 4 groups according to the adhesive/silane protocol: silane application only (SIL); silane application followed by adhesive (SILXP-XP Bond); silane-containing adhesive (SBU-ScotchBond Universal); silane application followed by silane-containing adhesive (SILSBU). Four resin composite cylinders of 1-mm diameter and 3-mm height were made on each ceramic disk and tested in shear. Specimens were stored in water for 24 hours or 12 months prior to testing. Results were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test.

Results: After 24 hours, the highest SBS values were observed for SILXP and SILSBU. However, after 12 months, SILXP and SILSBU presented a significant reduction in SBS, while the highest SBS were observed for SIL. For SBU, no significant reduction in SBS was observed, however, it showed the lowest SBS after 12 months.

Conclusions: Regardless of the presence of silane in the composition of SBU, previous silane application is still recommended prior to cementation of Lithium Disilicate.

Clinical Significance: The application of silane as a separate step is recommended prior to cementation of Lithium Disilicate reinforced glass-ceramic, independent of the presence of silane within the universal adhesive solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jerd.12387DOI Listing
July 2018

Qualitative carbonyl profile in coffee beans through GDME-HPLC-DAD-MS/MS for coffee preliminary characterization.

Food Res Int 2018 05 1;107:536-543. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

REQUIMTE/LAQV - Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

In this work, an analytical methodology for volatile carbonyl compounds characterization in green and roasted coffee beans was developed. The methodology relied on a recent and simple sample preparation technique, gas diffusion microextraction for extraction of the samples' volatiles, followed HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis. The experimental conditions in terms of extraction temperature and extraction time were studied. A profile for carbonyl compounds was obtained for both arabica and robusta coffee species (green and roasted samples). Twenty-seven carbonyl compounds were identified and further discussed, in light of reported literature, with different coffee characteristics: coffee ageing, organoleptic impact, presence of defective beans, authenticity, human's health implication, post-harvest coffee processing and roasting. The applied methodology showed to be a powerful analytical tool to be used for coffee characterization as it measures marker compounds of different coffee characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.02.072DOI Listing
May 2018

The Analytical Challenge in the Determination of Cathinones, Key-Players in the Worldwide Phenomenon of Novel Psychoactive Substances.

Crit Rev Anal Chem 2018 Sep 21;48(5):372-390. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

a LAQV/REQUIMTE, Department of Chemical Sciences , Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto , Porto , Portugal.

Since the turn of the century, the synthesis, availability, and use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been increasingly reported worldwide, being considered a complex global phenomenon. As most NPS are not detected in routine drug screening, extra efforts have been made to develop new analytical methods for the detection of these compounds, with several approaches being successfully applied and reported in the literature. The increased traffic of NPS is often related to the limited capacity for detecting and monitoring these compounds, which makes it essential to explore in detail both conventional and more recent approaches to prospect novel sensing strategies and develop in-the-field sensors that are able to detect NPS in a time-efficient manner, within a wide range of concentrations, and in a variety of sample matrices, such as biological samples, wastewater, powders, crystals, and post-mortem specimens. In this context, this review aims to provide an overview of the state of the art in the identification and analytical detection of cathinones, a considerable group within NPS, as well as a critical discussion of the most frequently described sample preparation techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408347.2018.1439724DOI Listing
September 2018

Agronomic Evaluation of Sorghum Hybrids for Silage Production Cultivated in Semiarid Conditions.

Front Plant Sci 2017 22;8:1088. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo, EmbrapaSete Lagoas, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to study the agronomic traits of different (L.) Moench hybrids for silage productionin semiarid conditions. It was a 1-year evaluation conducted in a randomized block design with 24 treatments and three replicates. The treatments were sorghum hybrids developed by the breeding program of "Embrapa Milho e Sorgo" (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation). The fresh matter yield (FMY) in the first cut varied from 22,643.56 to 44,033.15 kg/ha, with an average of 32,607.37 kg/ha, leading to the formation of two groups. Similar results were observed for the dry matter yield (DMY), in which the highest group yielded from 9,471.32 to 14,540.23 kg/ha dry matter (DM). For plant regrowth, there was an increase in the number of stems and a decrease in the amount of panicles. Two groups were formed for the accumulated dry matter yield (ADMY), averaging 14,217.91 kg/ha; the highest group showed mean values of 18,003.00 to 14,221.94 kg/ha. The evaluated sorghum hybrids exhibited satisfactory accumulated forage yields due to their high yield in regrowth, which indicates that they are suitable for use in animal production systems in semi-arid regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5479915PMC
June 2017

Voltammetric determination of trace amounts of diacetyl at a mercury meniscus modified silver solid amalgam electrode following gas-diffusion microextraction.

Talanta 2017 Jul 29;169:203-208. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

REQUIMTE/LAQV - Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal.

A new approach was developed for the determination of trace amounts of diacetyl in food products using gas-diffusion microextraction (GDME) and subsequent detection by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at a mercury meniscus modified silver solid amalgam electrode (m-AgSAE). Diacetyl is a vicinal diketone responsible for the buttery aroma in many fermented foods and beverages. Its determination is important not only for evaluation of the final product quality (note of mention: health related concerns were associated with continuous diacetyl exposure) but also to monitor fermentation. GDME, a technique combining gas-diffusion and microextraction, particularly aimed to volatile and semi-volatile analytes, seemed the best way to selective extract diacetyl. A solution of 0.05% o-phenylenediamine (OPDA) prepared in a Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 5.0) was chosen as the extracting solution. This solution simultaneously extracts, pre-concentrates and derivatizes diacetyl to 2,3-dimethylquinoxaline (DMQ), enhancing the extraction selectivity and making the analyte electroactive. After finding the optimum conditions for the extraction process (10min at 60°C with 1.0mL of OPDA at pH 5.0), the DPV measurements at the m-AgSAE were conducted with a scan rate of 7mVs, a modulation amplitude of 50mV and a modulation time of 100ms. Under these conditions, the resulting DMQ could be easily measured at a potential of -0.6V vs. Ag|AgCl (3molL KCl). The amalgam electrode keeps the advantages of classic mercury electrodes, like high sensitivity, while being environmentally friendly. The GDME/m-AgSAE produced suitable method features for the determination of low amounts of diacetyl (as DMQ) in alcoholic beverages, and in fact, to the best of our knowledge, the limit of quantification of 0.18µgL is one of the lowest reported in literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2017.03.077DOI Listing
July 2017

Determination of ammonia nitrogen in solid and liquid high-complex matrices using one-step gas-diffusion microextraction and fluorimetric detection.

Talanta 2017 May 3;167:747-753. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

REQUIMTE/LAQV - Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre no. 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal.

This paper introduces a new method for a one-step determination of ammonia nitrogen (NH) in high complex solid and liquid samples from the agricultural and livestock sectors. To this end, we developed a simultaneous extraction and fluorimetric labeling of NH, using gas diffusion microextraction (GDME), followed by the fluorescence measurement under 96-well microplate format. The GDME ensured a selective diffusion of NH through a commercial hydrophobic membrane, and confined the acceptor solution, which included the fluorimetric labeling reagent o-phthalaldehyde (OPA). The OPA-NH labeling reaction was optimized resorting to a full factorial experimental design, which showed that the reducing agent (NaSO) concentration was critical to achieve the highest sensitivity. A similar optimization approach for GDME showed that time and temperature significantly influenced the sensitivity of the assay, and also that the modifications in these two factors could be used to adjust the sensitivity according to the concentrations present in the samples. In our final conditions, it was possible to quantify NH in the range between 0.38 and 6.27mgL using a 10min extraction at 25°C in different samples (e.g., corn and grass silages, feces, urine). The developed method showed a high repeatability and reproducibility (intraday and interday relative standard deviations values of 4.5% and 9.5%, respectively) and an adequate limit of detection (0.22mgL). This new methodology also highlighted the simplicity and versatility of GDME for the determination of volatile components of high-complex matrices, which will certainly drive future developments in the analysis of environmental and biological samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2017.01.091DOI Listing
May 2017

Bond Strength of Abraded and Non-Abraded Bleached Enamel to Resin After Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Irradiation.

Photomed Laser Surg 2017 Oct 16;35(10):530-536. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

1 Dental Research and Graduate Studies Division, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Guarulhos University , Guarulhos, Brazil .

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of a composite resin to abraded or non-abraded bleached enamel after Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation and to observe the fracture patterns of the tested interfaces.

Materials And Methods: Two hundred twenty-eight bovine incisors were sectioned, resulting in 228 enamel blocks (7 × 4 × 4 mm) that were divided into 12 groups (n = 19) according to the factors "adhesion" after bleaching (immediate adhesion; after 14 days; and a control group with adhesion on unbleached teeth); enamel "abrasion" (with or without abrasion simulating cavity preparation); and "laser" (with or without Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation). Bleached enamel groups were treated with 20% carbamide peroxide, 8 h/day for 21 days. Abrasion was performed with silicon carbide sandpaper. Specimens were restored with adhesive system and a composite resin (Adper Single Bond 2 and Z250; 3M ESPE). After 7 days, specimens were prepared by cutting into 1 mm beans to μTBS test performed in a universal testing machine. Fracture mode analysis was performed by using a stereoscopic loupe. The μTBS data were statistically analyzed by three-way analysis of variance with 95% confidence level and compared by running a Tukey post hoc test (α = 0.05).

Results: There was no statistically significant difference between triple interaction and double interactions among factors. There was no significant difference between the factors "adhesion," "abrasion," and "laser." Laser irradiation produced significantly lower bond strength values in irradiated groups compared with the non-irradiated ones. All groups had a high percentage of adhesive failures.

Conclusions: Abrasion provided no benefit to bond strength of composite resins to bleached enamel. Er,Cr:YSGG (20 Hz, 0.5 W, 3.97 J/cm) treatment reduced the bond strength of composite resins to enamel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/pho.2016.4229DOI Listing
October 2017

Chronic treatment with fluoxetine modulates vascular adrenergic responses by inhibition of pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms.

Eur J Pharmacol 2017 Apr 17;800:70-80. Epub 2017 Feb 17.

Department of Pharmacology, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), has other effects in addition to blocking serotonin reuptake, including changes in the vasomotor tone. Whereas many studies focused on the acute effects of fluoxetine in the vasculature, its chronic effects are still limited. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic fluoxetine treatment modulates adrenergic vascular responses by interfering with post- and pre-synaptic mechanisms. Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (water) or chronic fluoxetine (10mg/kg/day) for 21 days. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate were measured. Vascular reactivity was evaluated in perfused mesenteric arterial beds (MAB) and in mesenteric resistance arteries. Protein expression by western blot analysis or immunohistochemistry, β-arrestin recruitment by BRET and calcium influx by FLIPR assay. Fluoxetine treatment decreased phenylephrine (PE)-induced, but not electrical-field stimulation (EFS)-induced vasoconstriction. Fluoxetine-treated rats exhibited increased KCl-induced vasoconstriction, which was abolished by prazosin. Desipramine, an inhibitor of norepinephrine (NA) reuptake, increased EFS-induced vasoconstrictor response in vehicle-treated, but not in fluoxetine-treated rats. Chronic treatment did not alter vascular expression of α adrenoceptor, phosphorylation of PKCα or ERK 1/2 and RhoA. On the other hand, vascular contractions to calcium (Ca) as well as Ca influx in mesenteric arteries were increased, while intracellular Ca storage was decreased by the chronic treatment with fluoxetine. In vitro, fluoxetine decreased vascular contractions to PE, EFS and Ca, but did not change β-arrestin activity. In conclusion, chronic treatment with fluoxetine decreases sympathetic-mediated vascular responses by mechanisms that involve inhibition of NA release/reuptake and decreased Ca stores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.02.029DOI Listing
April 2017

Gas-diffusion microextraction coupled with spectrophotometry for the determination of formaldehyde in cork agglomerates.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2017 Apr 11;409(11):2885-2892. Epub 2017 Feb 11.

REQUIMTE/LAQV - Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007, Porto, Portugal.

In this work, a simple methodology was developed for the extraction and determination of free formaldehyde content in cork agglomerate samples. For the first time, gas-diffusion microextraction was used for the extraction of volatile formaldehyde directly from samples, with simultaneous derivatization with acetylacetone (Hantzsch reaction). The absorbance of the coloured solution was read in a spectrophotometer at 412 nm. Different extraction parameters were studied and optimized (extraction temperature, sample mass, volume of acceptor solution, extraction time and concentration of derivatization reagent) by means of an asymmetric screening. The developed methodology proved to be a reliable tool for the determination of formaldehyde in cork agglomerates with the following suitable method features: low LOD (0.14 mg kg) and LOQ (0.47 mg kg), r  = 0.9994, and intraday and interday precision of 3.5 and 4.9%, respectively. The developed methodology was applied to the determination of formaldehyde in different cork agglomerate samples, and contents between 1.9 and 9.4 mg kg were found. Furthermore, formaldehyde was also determined by the standard method EN 717-3 for comparison purposes; no significant differences between the results of both methods were observed. Graphical abstract Representation of the GDME system and its main components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-017-0233-xDOI Listing
April 2017

An Insight on Salting-out Assisted Liquid-Liquid Extraction for Phytoanalysis.

Phytochem Anal 2017 Jul 26;28(4):297-304. Epub 2017 Jan 26.

REQUIMTE/LAQV - Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Introduction: Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) is a technique that, although simple and not requiring any complex equipment, is very powerful and versatile. It has obtained growing interest in bioanalysis particularly when combined with chromatographic techniques.

Objectives: Herein, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) were used as a case-study to show the application of SALLE in phytochemical analysis.

Material And Methods: SALLE combined with HPLC-UV-MS/MS and GC-MS.

Results: By HPLC-UV-MS/MS analysis of the organic extract it was possible to identify various phenolic compounds, including quercetin derivatives, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid. The main compounds identified by GC-MS were estragole, fenchone, anisaldehyde, anethole, benzaldehyde, camphor and apiole.

Conclusion: HPLC and GC analysis of the extracts showed that it is possible to isolate, in only one step, a wide range of compounds with distinct properties, allowing a detailed phytochemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.2676DOI Listing
July 2017

Clinical and microbiological characteristics associated with mortality in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a multicenter cohort study.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 Oct;28(10):1216-22

aDivison of Gastroenterology, Fernando Fonseca Hospital, Amadora bDivision of Gastroenterology, Garcia Orta Hospital, Almada cDivison of Gastroenterology, Egas Moniz Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal dDivision of Gastroenterology (Liver Unit), University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Objectives: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a prevalent and high mortality complication of cirrhosis. We aimed to describe these patients' clinical and microbiological characteristics and evaluate their impact on outcomes.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study including 139 consecutive patients with positive culture SBP from three Portuguese centers diagnosed between 2009 and 2014. Multivariate logistic regression was used to study associations with 30-day mortality.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 62 years and 81% of patients were men. The mean model for end-stage liver disease score was 19. Hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, and variceal bleeding developed in 47, 30, and 21% of patients, respectively. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in the ascitic fluid of 42% of patients. Resistance to quinolones and multiresistance were found in 33 and 17% of patients, respectively. C-reactive protein level (adjusted odds ratio, 1.16 per 1 mg/l increment) and development of hepatorenal syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, 2.86) were associated independently with 30-day mortality (model's area under the curve, 0.78).

Conclusion: In this cohort, SBP portended high early mortality. Gram-positive bacteria, bacteria resistant to quinolones, and multiresistant bacteria were identified in considerable proportions of patients. In the setting of the high early mortality and changing microbiological profile, SBP management strategies need to be improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000000700DOI Listing
October 2016

Isolation of Cells Specialized in Anticancer Alkaloid Metabolism by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting.

Plant Physiol 2016 08 29;171(4):2371-8. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

CIBIO/InBIO-Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto, 4485-661 Vairão, Portugal (S.B., T.M.-C., J.G.G., M.S.); Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal (I.C., A.L.G., P.D.);Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal (I.C., M.S.);Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, 2780-156 Oeiras, Portugal (R.G., T.L., C.A., C.B., N.P.M.);REQUIMTE/Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal (P.A., P.V.); andREQUIMTE/LAQV, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal (I.M.V., J.A.R.)

Plant specialized metabolism often presents a complex cell-specific compartmentation essential to accomplish the biosynthesis of valuable plant natural products. Hence, the disclosure and potential manipulation of such pathways may depend on the capacity to isolate and characterize specific cell types. Catharanthus roseus is the source of several medicinal terpenoid indole alkaloids, including the low-level anticancer vinblastine and vincristine, for which the late biosynthetic steps occur in specialized mesophyll cells called idioblasts. Here, the optical, fluorescence, and alkaloid-accumulating properties of C. roseus leaf idioblasts are characterized, and a methodology for the isolation of idioblast protoplasts by fluorescence-activated cell sorting is established, taking advantage of the distinctive autofluorescence of these cells. This achievement represents a crucial step for the development of differential omic strategies leading to the identification of candidate genes putatively involved in the biosynthesis, pathway regulation, and transmembrane transport leading to the anticancer alkaloids from C. roseus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.16.01028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4972299PMC
August 2016

In Vitro Behavior of Osteoblasts on Zirconia After Different Intensities of Erbium, Chromium-Doped: Yttrium, Scandium, Gallium, and Garnet-Laser Irradiation.

J Craniofac Surg 2016 May;27(3):784-8

*Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology†Department of Restorative Dentistry, Dental Research Division, University of Guarulhos, Guarulhos‡Master of Science Program in Clinical Dentistry, Positivo University, Curitiba§Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis||Biotecnos-Technology and Science, Santa Maria¶Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Dental Research Division, University of Guarulhos, Guarulhos#Private Practice**Department of Dental Materials, University of São Paulo, São Paulo††Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Dental Research Division, University of Guarulhos, Guarulhos, Brazil.

Objective: This study investigated the osteoblastic behavior to yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) surface after different intensities of erbium, chromium-doped:yttrium, scandium, gallium, and garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation treatment.

Materials And Methods: Y-TZP blocks were randomized divided into 4 groups to Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation: group G1 = control (no laser irradiation); group G2 = 1.5 W; group G3 = 3.0 W; group G4 = 5.0 W, with air-water irrigation. The irradiated surface roughness (Sa and Ra) topography was evaluated. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells were cultured and seeded onto the treated surfaces at a plate density of 1 × 10 cells/mL. At the third and seventh days cell proliferation was measured by the colorimetric assay methods. The specimens were prepared to scanning electron microscope to observe adhesion and morphology of cells.

Results: MTT assay showed adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells in all groups. Compared with group G1 (control), the group G2 had a proliferation 1.4% higher (P > 0.05), the group G3 had a proliferation 3.1% higher (P < 0.05) and group G4 had a proliferation 4.5% higher (P < 0.01). After 7 days there was no difference among the groups (ANOVA, Newman-Keuls).

Conclusions: Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation may have contributed to the greater and earlier cell spreading that was observed with the Y-TZP without alterations on surface topography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000002429DOI Listing
May 2016

Aesthetic Surgical Crown Lengthening Procedure.

Case Rep Dent 2015 2;2015:437412. Epub 2015 Nov 2.

Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

The aim of this case report was to describe the surgical sequence of crown lengthening to apically reposition the dentogingival complex, in addition to an esthetic restorative procedure. Many different causes can be responsible for short clinical crown. In these cases, the correct execution of a restorative or prosthetic rehabilitation requires an increasing of the crown length. According to the 2003 American Academy of Periodontology (Practice Profile Survey), crown lengthening is the most habitual surgical periodontal treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/437412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4644817PMC
November 2015

The Increase in Signaling by Kisspeptin Neurons in the Preoptic Area and Associated Changes in Clock Gene Expression That Trigger the LH Surge in Female Rats Are Dependent on the Facilitatory Action of a Noradrenaline Input.

Endocrinology 2016 Jan 10;157(1):323-35. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

Departamento de Fisiologia (B.K., A.B.R., E.T.U., L.L.K.E., J.A.R.), Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, and Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia, e Patologia Básica (C.M.L., R.O.C., J.A.A.-F.), Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14049-900 São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences (T.M.P.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and Magee-Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213; Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica (T.S.R.C., M.O.P.), Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil; and Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas (E.T.U.), Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86051-990 Londrina, PR, Brazil.

In rodents, kisspeptin neurons in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) of the preoptic area are considered to provide a major stimulatory input to the GnRH neuronal network that is responsible for triggering the preovulatory LH surge. Noradrenaline (NA) is one of the main modulators of GnRH release, and NA fibers are found in close apposition to kisspeptin neurons in the RP3V. Our objective was to interrogate the role of NA signaling in the kisspeptin control of GnRH secretion during the estradiol induced LH surge in ovariectomized rats, using prazosin, an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist. In control rats, the estradiol-induced LH surge at 17 hours was associated with a significant increase in GnRH and kisspeptin content in the median eminence with the increase in kisspeptin preceding that of GnRH and LH. Prazosin, administered 5 and 3 hours prior to the predicted time of the LH surge truncated the LH surge and abolished the rise in GnRH and kisspeptin in the median eminence. In the preoptic area, prazosin blocked the increases in Kiss1 gene expression and kisspeptin content in association with a disruption in the expression of the clock genes, Per1 and Bmal1. Together these findings demonstrate for the first time that NA modulates kisspeptin synthesis in the RP3V through the activation of α1-adrenergic receptors prior to the initiation of the LH surge and indicate a potential role of α1-adrenergic signaling in the circadian-controlled pathway timing of the preovulatory LH surge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2015-1323DOI Listing
January 2016

Influence of osteoporosis on the osteocyte density of human mandibular bone samples: a controlled histological human study.

Clin Oral Implants Res 2016 Mar 8;27(3):325-8. Epub 2014 Dec 8.

Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

Objectives: Osteocytes have emerged as key regulators of skeletal and mineral homeostasis. The number of these cells could be influenced by the presence of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Hence, the aim this study was to evaluate the osteocyte density in patients with osteopenia, and in patients with osteoporosis treated with bisphosphonates.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-nine patients were selected for this study and divided into three groups: (A) nine healthy patients (control), (B) 15 patients with osteopenia, and (C) 15 patients with osteoporosis. During the surgical insertion of dental implants in the lower jaw, bone samples were retrieved and processed for histological analysis of osteocyte density, measured as number of osteocytes/bone tissue area (μm(2) ).

Results: Patients with osteopenia showed statistically higher values of osteocyte density than patients with osteoporosis (P < 0.05) No significant differences were detected between osteopenia and osteoporosis subjects vs. healthy patients (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Bone metabolism diseases (osteoporosis and osteopenia) do not seem to influence the osteocyte density; this could be due to the administration of bisphosphonates in patients with osteoporosis. This information could play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and treatment of patients in a postmenopausal stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/clr.12538DOI Listing
March 2016

Biological width around one- and two-piece implants retrieved from human jaws.

Biomed Res Int 2014 23;2014:850120. Epub 2014 Jun 23.

Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Dental Research Division, University of Guarulhos, Praca Tereza Cristina 229, 07023-070 Guarulhos, SP, Brazil.

Several histologic studies regarding peri-implant soft tissues and biological width around dental implants have been done in animals. However, these findings in human peri-implant soft tissues are very scarce. Therefore, the aim of this case series was to compare the biological width around unloaded one- and two-piece implants retrieved from human jaws. Eight partially edentulous patients received 2 test implants in the posterior mandible: one-piece (solid implants that comprise implant and abutment in one piece) and two-piece (external hexagon with a healing abutment) implants. After 4 months of healing, the implants and surrounding tissue were removed for histologic analysis. The retrieved implants showed healthy peri-implant bone and exhibited early stages of maturation. Marginal bone loss, gaps, and fibrous tissue were not present around retrieved specimens. The biologic width dimension ranged between 2.55 ± 0.16 and 3.26 ± 0.15 to one- and two-piece implants, respectively (P < 0.05). This difference was influenced by the connective tissue attachment, while sulcus depth and epithelial junction presented the same dimension for both groups (P > 0.05). Within the limits of this study, it could be shown that two-piece implants resulted in the thickening of the connective tissue attachment, resulting in the increase of the biological width, when compared to one-piece implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/850120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4094864PMC
March 2015

Effect of lateral static load on immediately restored implants: histologic and radiographic evaluation in dogs.

Clin Oral Implants Res 2015 Apr 20;26(4):e51-e56. Epub 2014 Jan 20.

Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Dental Research Division, University of Guarulhos, Guarulhos, Brazil.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lateral static load in immediately restored implants in the canine mandible.

Material And Methods: In 7 mongrel dogs, all premolars and the first molars were extracted bilaterally in the mandible. Two months after the extractions, 6 implants with sandblasted acid-etched surfaces were placed in each animal, 3 on each side. Randomly, two implants per side were immediately restored with an orthodontic expansion device that promoted lateral excessive static load (test group) or load (control) while the third implant of each side, remained submerged (unloaded group). These loaded devices were cleaned daily with chlorhexidine 0.12%, during the 4 months of study, when the animals were sacrificed and biopsies removed for histometric study. Intra-oral periapicals were made using positioners at the beginning and at the end of the study.

Results: Five implants from test group were lost in 3 dogs. Radiographically, there was a marginal bone loss of 3.68 ± 0.74 mm for the test group, 1.63 ± 0.2 mm for the control group and 0.45 ± 0.5 mm for the unloaded group. Histometrically, the percentage of bone-to-implant contact (BIC%) was 35.52 ± 7.32%, for the test group, 63.16 ± 5.16% for the control group and 42.33 ± 2.14% for the unloaded group.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the excessive lateral static load negatively affected the behavior of peri-implant bone around immediate restored implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/clr.12331DOI Listing
April 2015

Xanthohumol modulates inflammation, oxidative stress, and angiogenesis in type 1 diabetic rat skin wound healing.

J Nat Prod 2013 Nov 7;76(11):2047-53. Epub 2013 Nov 7.

Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto , 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is responsible for metabolic dysfunction, accompanied by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelium dysfunction, and is often associated with impaired wound healing. Phenol-rich food improves vascular function, contributing to diabetes prevention. This study has evaluated the effect of phenol-rich beverage consumption in diabetic rats on wound healing, through angiogenesis, inflammation, and oxidative stress modulation. A wound-healing assay was performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats drinking water, 5% ethanol, and stout beer with and without 10 mg/L xanthohumol (1), for a five-week period. Wounded skin microvessel density was reduced to normal values upon consumption of 1 in diabetic rats, being accompanied by decreased serum VEGF-A and inflammatory markers (IL-1β, NO, N-acetylglucosaminidase). Systemic glutathione and kidney and liver H2O2, 3-nitrotyrosine, and protein carbonylation also decreased to healthy levels after treatment with 1, implying an improvement in oxidative stress status. These findings suggest that consumption of xanthohumol (1) by diabetic animals consistently decreases inflammation and oxidative stress, allowing neovascularization control and improving diabetic wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np4002898DOI Listing
November 2013

Peripheral antinociception and anti-edematogenic effect of a sulfated polysaccharide from Acanthophora muscoides.

Pharmacol Rep 2013 ;65(3):600-13

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil.

Background: Sulfated polysaccharides from red marine algae have presented a variety of potentially therapeutic biological effects, however, their antinocicpetive and anti-inflammatory properties are not well understood.

Methods: Male Swiss mice were pretreated with a sulfated polysaccharidic fraction obtained from the marine alga Acanthophora muscoides (AmII) (1, 3 or 9 mg/kg, iv) 30 min prior to either receiving an injection of 0.8% acetic acid or 1% formalin or prior to a thermal stimulus. AmII (1, 3 or 9 mg/kg, sc) was evaluated on carrageenan-, dextran- bradykinin-, histamine- and serotonin-induced rat paw edema models. AmII (500 μg, sc) was also injected into the paw. Additionally, mice were treated with the total sulfated polysaccharides from A. muscoides (Am-TSP) (20 mg/kg, ip) for 14 days.

Results: AmII reduced the number of acetic acid-induced writhes and licking time in the second phase of the formalin test, but it did not alter the response latency in the hot plate test, suggesting that its antinociceptive action occurs through a peripheral mechanism. AmII did not reduce carrageenan-induced paw edema and MPO activity. However, it reduced dextran-, histamine- and serotonin-induced paw edemas, but not bradykinin-induced edema, suggesting that histamine is the major target of AmII anti-edematogenic activity. AmII injected into the paw did not evoke local edema. Furthermore, Am-TSP induced no consistent signs of systemic damage, as revealed by body mass, organs wet weight and by biochemical, hematological and histopathological analyses.

Conclusion: AmII has important antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties and represents an important therapeutic agent warranting future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1734-1140(13)71037-5DOI Listing
April 2014
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