Publications by authors named "Josè M Lorenzo"

223 Publications

Encapsulation of Bioactive Phytochemicals in Plant-Based Matrices and Application as Additives in Meat and Meat Products.

Molecules 2021 Jun 29;26(13). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Rúa Galicia No. 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

The development of plant-based functional food ingredients has become a major focus of the modern food industry as a response to changes in consumer attitudes. In particular, many consumers are switching to a plant-based diet because of their concerns about animal-derived foods on the environment, human health, and animal welfare. There has therefore been great interest in identifying, isolating, and characterizing functional ingredients from botanical sources, especially waste streams from food and agricultural production. However, many of these functional ingredients cannot simply be incorporated into foods because of their poor solubility, stability, or activity characteristics. In this article, we begin by reviewing conventional and emerging methods of extracting plant-based bioactive agents from natural resources including ultrasound-, microwave-, pulsed electric field- and supercritical fluid-based methods. We then provide a brief overview of different methods to characterize these plant-derived ingredients, including conventional, chromatographic, spectroscopic, and mass spectrometry methods. Finally, we discuss the design of plant-based delivery systems to encapsulate, protect, and deliver these functional ingredients, including micelles, liposomes, emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, and microgels. The potential benefits of these plant-based delivery systems are highlighted by discussing their use for incorporating functional ingredients into traditional meat products. However, the same technologies could also be employed to introduce functional ingredients into plant-based meat analogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8272106PMC
June 2021

Influence of the Production System (Intensive vs. Extensive) at Farm Level on Proximate Composition and Volatile Compounds of Portuguese Lamb Meat.

Foods 2021 Jun 22;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Avd. Galicia No 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

Today's society demands healthy meat with a special emphasis on integrated animal husbandry combined with the concern for animal welfare. In this sense, the raising of lambs in an extensive system has been one of the most common practices, which results in meats with high nutritional value. However, both the production system and the diet play a fundamental role in the chemical composition of the meat, which has a direct impact on the content of volatile compounds. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of two production systems (intensive and extensive) on the chemical composition and volatile profile of lamb meat. Twenty-eight lambs of the Bordaleira-de-Entre-Douro-e-Minho (BEDM) sheep breed were raised for meat production under the intensive or extensive system and were fed with concentrate and pasture, respectively. All animals were carried out in the muscle . Results evidenced that all the composition parameters were affected by the production system. Extensively-reared lambs produced meat with the highest fat and protein contents, while these animals had the lowest percentages of moisture and ash. Similarly, the total content of volatile compounds was affected ( < 0.05) by the production system and were higher in the meat of lambs reared extensively. Furthermore, the content of total acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, furans and sulfur compounds as well as most of the individual compounds were also affected ( < 0.05) by the production system, whereas total hydrocarbons and ketones were not affected ( > 0.05). As a general conclusion, the production system had very high influence not only in proximate composition but also in the volatile compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10071450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307059PMC
June 2021

Marine Alkaloids: Compounds with In Vivo Activity and Chemical Synthesis.

Mar Drugs 2021 Jun 28;19(7). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, rúa Galicia No. 4, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

Marine alkaloids comprise a class of compounds with several nitrogenated structures that can be explored as potential natural bioactive compounds. The scientific interest in these compounds has been increasing in the last decades, and many studies have been published elucidating their chemical structure and biological effects in vitro. Following this trend, the number of in vivo studies reporting the health-related properties of marine alkaloids has been increasing and providing more information about the effects in complex organisms. Experiments with animals, especially mice and zebrafish, are revealing the potential health benefits against cancer development, cardiovascular diseases, seizures, Alzheimer's disease, mental health disorders, inflammatory diseases, osteoporosis, cystic fibrosis, oxidative stress, human parasites, and microbial infections in vivo. Although major efforts are still necessary to increase the knowledge, especially about the translation value of the information obtained from in vivo experiments to clinical trials, marine alkaloids are promising candidates for further experiments in drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19070374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306672PMC
June 2021

Measurement of Antioxidant Capacity of Meat and Meat Products: Methods and Applications.

Molecules 2021 Jun 25;26(13). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Rúa Galicia Nº 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

At present, a wide variety of analytical methods is available to measure antioxidant capacity. However, this great diversity is not reflected in the analysis of meat and meat products, as there are a limited number of studies on determining this parameter in this complex food matrix. Despite this, and due to the interest in antioxidants that prevent oxidation reactions, the identification of antioxidants in meat and meat products is of special importance to the meat industry. For this reason, this review compiled the main antioxidant capacity assays employed in meat and meat products, to date, describing their foundations, and showing both their advantages and limitations. This review also looked at the different applications of antioxidant properties in meat and meat products. In this sense, the suitability of using these methodologies has been demonstrated in different investigations related to these foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271956PMC
June 2021

Fruit and Agro-Industrial Waste Extracts as Potential Antimicrobials in Meat Products: A Brief Review.

Foods 2021 Jun 25;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, Pirassununga 13635-90, São Paulo, Brazil.

The use of antimicrobials in meat products is essential for maintaining microbiological stability. The reformulation by substituting synthetic additives for natural ones is an alternative to provide cleaner label products. Therefore, this work performed a literature search about extracts from fruits and agro-industrial waste with antimicrobial activity that can be applied in meat products. Jabuticaba waste extracts are excellent sources of anthocyanins with antimicrobial and pigmentation potential, capable of being applied in meat products such as fresh sausage, without compromising sensory attributes. Residue from grapes is rich in antimicrobial phytochemicals, mainly catechins, epicatechins, gallic acid and procyanidins. Extracts from different grape by-products and cultivars showed inhibition of , , , O157: H7 and other bacterial strains. Antimicrobial effects against , , and O157: H7 were identified in extracts. In addition, its application in hamburgers reduced ( < 0.05) aerobic mesophilic bacteria, and sp. counts, and at a concentration of 2.5%, improved the microbiological stability of salami without causing sensory and texture changes. These data reinforce the possibility of substituting synthetic preservatives for natural versions, a growing trend that requires researching effective concentrations to maintain the sensory and technological properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10071469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306866PMC
June 2021

Proteomic Advances in Milk and Dairy Products.

Molecules 2021 Jun 23;26(13). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Adva. Galicia n° 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

Proteomics is a new area of study that in recent decades has provided great advances in the field of medicine. However, its enormous potential for the study of proteomes makes it also applicable to other areas of science. Milk is a highly heterogeneous and complex fluid, where there are numerous genetic variants and isoforms with post-translational modifications (PTMs). Due to the vast number of proteins and peptides existing in its matrix, proteomics is presented as a powerful tool for the characterization of milk samples and their products. The technology developed to date for the separation and characterization of the milk proteome, such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) technology and especially mass spectrometry (MS) have allowed an exhaustive characterization of the proteins and peptides present in milk and dairy products with enormous applications in the industry for the control of fundamental parameters, such as microbiological safety, the guarantee of authenticity, or the control of the transformations carried out, aimed to increase the quality of the final product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270265PMC
June 2021

Bioactive Compounds from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus and Their Uses for Microorganism Control.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Jun 7;7(6). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900, SC, Brazil.

Mangroves are ecosystems with unique characteristics due to the high salinity and amount of organic matter that house a rich biodiversity. Fungi have aroused much interest as they are an important natural source for the discovery of new bioactive compounds, with potential biotechnological and pharmacological interest. This review aims to highlight endophytic fungi isolated from mangrove plant species and the isolated bioactive compounds and their bioactivity against protozoa, bacteria and pathogenic viruses. Knowledge about this type of ecosystem is of great relevance for its preservation and as a source of new molecules for the control of pathogens that may be of importance for human, animal and environmental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7060455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8228968PMC
June 2021

Recent Research Advances in Meat Products.

Foods 2021 Jun 7;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, rúa Galicia No. 4, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

Recent trends in meat products have their origin in the new needs of consumers that are related to nutrition, health concerns, well-being and natural products [...].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230034PMC
June 2021

A Systematic Review of Biosynthesized Metallic Nanoparticles as a Promising Anti-Cancer-Strategy.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 5;13(11). Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Plant Cell and Tissue Culture Lab, Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.

Cancer is one of the foremost causes of death worldwide. Cancer develops because of mutation in genes that regulate normal cell cycle and cell division, thereby resulting in uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells. Various drugs have been used to treat cancer thus far; however, conventional chemotherapeutic drugs have lower bioavailability, rapid renal clearance, unequal delivery, and severe side effects. In the recent years, nanotechnology has flourished rapidly and has a multitude of applications in the biomedical field. Bio-mediated nanoparticles (NPs) are cost effective, safe, and biocompatible and have got substantial attention from researchers around the globe. Due to their safe profile and fewer side effects, these nanoscale materials offer a promising cure for cancer. Currently, various metallic NPs have been designed to cure or diagnose cancer; among these, silver (Ag), gold (Au), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are the leading anti-cancer NPs. The anticancer potential of these NPs is attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cellular compartments that eventually leads to activation of autophagic, apoptotic and necrotic death pathways. In this review, we summarized the recent advancements in the biosynthesis of Ag, Au, Zn and Cu NPs with emphasis on their mechanism of action. Moreover, nanotoxicity, as well as the future prospects and opportunities of nano-therapeutics, are also highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201057PMC
June 2021

Dark-cutting beef: A brief review and an integromics meta-analysis at the proteome level to decipher the underlying pathways.

Meat Sci 2021 Nov 17;181:108611. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Université Clermont Auvergne, INRAE, VetAgro Sup, UMR Herbivores, F-63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France.

Comprehensive characterization of the post-mortem muscle proteome defines a fundamental goal in meat proteomics. During the last decade, proteomics tools have been applied in the field of foodomics to help decipher factors underpinning meat quality variations and to enlighten us, through data-driven methods, on the underlying mechanisms leading to meat quality defects such as dark-cutting meat known also as dark, firm and dry (DFD) meat. In cattle, several proteomics studies have focused on the extent to which changes in the post-mortem muscle proteome relate to dark-cutting beef development. The present data-mining study firstly reviews proteomics studies which investigated dark-cutting beef, and secondly, gathers the protein biomarkers that differ between dark-cutting versus beef with normal-pH in a unique repertoire. A list of 130 proteins from eight eligible studies was curated and mined through bioinformatics for Gene Ontology annotations, molecular pathways enrichments, secretome analysis and biological pathways comparisons to normal beef color from a previous meta-analysis. The major biological pathways underpinning dark-cutting beef at the proteome level have been described and deeply discussed in this integromics study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108611DOI Listing
November 2021

Dissecting dietary melanoidins: formation mechanisms, gut interactions and functional properties.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 17:1-18. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Pharmacognosy Department, College of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Dietary melanoidins are late stage Maillard reaction products (MRPs), browning colorants and predominantly high molecular weight (HMW) chemicals. They originate through polycondensation reactions of reducing sugars and proteins or amino acids upon thermal processing. Their presence in several daily food and beverages (i.e. coffee, beer, honey, bakery products, chocolate, grilled meat) contribute to food sensory characters (i.e. color, aroma, and flavor). Additionally, melanoidins exhibit many biological attributes (i.e. antioxidant, anti-obesity, antibacterial activity and impact on gut microbiota as prebiotics). However, dissecting melanoidins specific biological and functional characteristics in relation to their metabolism and gut interaction with link to their chemical structures has yet to be reported in literature. For a better understanding of melanoidins benefits and flavor properties in processed foods, this review represents a state of the art comprehensive insight of its formation mechanism and chemistry in relation to their functionalities and health effects. Further, a compile of the factors affecting melanoidins production to optimize for the best flavor attributes while minimizing hazardous compounds is presented. This study presents the first analysis of melanoidins gut interaction in context to its different action mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1937509DOI Listing
June 2021

Changes in the chemical and sensory profile of ripened Italian salami following the addition of different microbial starters.

Meat Sci 2021 Oct 29;180:108584. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department for Sustainable Food Process, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy.

In this work, Italian salami were produced using microbial starters (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus sakei, and Staphylococcus xylosus) and compared to a control sample (without starter). Metabolomics in combination with microbiological and sensory analyses were used to investigate the overall quality. Samples were analyzed immediately after stuffing, following 7, 30, and 45 days of ripening. Each microbial starter imposed distinctive metabolomic signatures at the end of ripening. The accumulated discriminant compounds were mainly related to lipid oxidation (including hydroxy- and epoxy derivatives of fatty acids) following the inoculation with L. sakei. However, the inoculation with P. pentosaceus resulted in the accumulation of γ-glutamyl peptides, compounds driving a kokumi-related taste. Noteworthy, our findings supported the involvement of the chemical compounds profiled in the definition of final taste and aroma. This information paves the way towards the definition of more objective and tailored starters-related flavours enhancement approaches in the sector of cured meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108584DOI Listing
October 2021

Review on characteristics of trained sensory panels in food science.

J Texture Stud 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Sensory analysis has been, is, and will be one of the most important methods in judging food quality. As such, it is an evaluation tool involving human subjects with specific skills to conduct assigned series of tests. This review outlines main characteristics of 179 trained panels published in 16 selected scientific journals in the last 12 months, as well as training methods used for panelists, and type of sensory studies employed. The results reveal that two thirds of the panels have between eight and twelve members, with gender data provided in half of the papers. Overall duration of their initial training is presented only in around 20% of reviewed publications. When provided, duration was below 2 hr per session involving up to 10 sessions. One third of papers confirmed to have conducted training of the panel for methods employed, while almost half used experienced human subjects with no further data. Around 12% of all manuscripts have validated training of their sensory panel, while 20% of papers covered at least one criterion for assessment of their panels' performance. The majority of papers (80%) used descriptive methods, mainly with intensity scales. It is of note that 15% of papers used hedonic tests typical for consumer studies. Almost half of the scholars conducted their research in triplicates (41.3%) while almost one quarter (24%) provided no data on this subject. Type of food analyzed has no effects on the quality of data provided regarding panels, training, sensory methods, and replications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12616DOI Listing
June 2021

Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Promising Nanomaterial for Encapsulation of Pomegranate ( L.) Peel Extract as a Natural Source of Antioxidants.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 29;11(6). Epub 2021 May 29.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Rúa Galicia N°4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

The encapsulation of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) in chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) is an advantageous strategy to protect sensitive constituents of the extract. This study was aimed to develop PPE-loaded CSNPs and characterize their physical, structural morphology, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Spherical NPs were successfully synthesized with a mean diameter of 174-898 nm, a zeta potential (ZP) of +3-+36 mV, an encapsulation efficiency (EE) of 26-70%, and a loading capacity (LC) of 14-21% depending on their loaded extract concentrations. Based on these results, CSNPs with chitosan:PPE ratio of 1:0.50 () exhibited good physical stability (ZP = 27 mV), the highest loading (LC = 20%) and desirable encapsulation efficiency (EE = 51%), and thus, selected as optimally loaded NPs. The FTIR analysis of PPE-CSNPs demonstrated no spectral changes indicating no possible chemical interaction between the PPE and CSNPs, which confirms that the PPE was physically entrapped within NPs. Moreover, FTIR spectra of pure PPE showed specific absorption bands (at 3293-3450 cm) attributed to the incidence of phenolic compounds, such as tannic acid, ellagic acid and gallic acid. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant analysis of selected CSNPs revealed that the encapsulated NPs had significantly lower TPC and antioxidant activity than those of pure PPE, indicating that CSNPs successfully preserved PPE from rapid release during the measurements. Antibacterial tests indicated that pure PPE and PPE-loaded CSNPs effectively retarded the growth of Gram-positive with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.27 and 1.1 mg/mL, respectively. Whereas Gram-negative due to its protective cell membrane, was not retarded by pure PPE and PPE-CSNPs at the MIC values tested in this study. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis confirmed the incidence of various phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and furfurals, with possible antioxidant or antimicrobial properties. Overall, CSNPs can be regarded as suitable nanomaterials for the protection and controlled delivery of natural antioxidants/antimicrobials, such as PPE in food packaging applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11061439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8228277PMC
May 2021

Antimicrobial Polyamide-Alginate Casing Incorporated with Nisin and ε-Polylysine Nanoparticles Combined with Plant Extract for Inactivation of Selected Bacteria in Nitrite-Free Frankfurter-Type Sausage.

Foods 2021 May 4;10(5). Epub 2021 May 4.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, Avda. Galicia n 4, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

The effects of combining a polyamide-alginate casing incorporated with nisin (100 ppm and 200 ppm) and ε-polylysine (500 ppm and 1000 ppm) nanoparticles and a mixed plant extract as ingredient in sausage formulation (500 ppm; composed of olive leaves (OLE), green tea (GTE) and stinging nettle extracts (SNE) in equal rates) were studied to improve the shelf life and safety of frankfurter-type sausage. The film characteristics and microbiological properties of sausage samples were evaluated. Sausage samples were packaged in polyethylene bags (vacuum condition) and analysed during 45 days of storage at 4 °C. Control sausages were also treated with 120 ppm sodium nitrite. Polyamide-alginate films containing 100 ppm nisin and 500 ε-PL nanoparticles had the highest ultimate tensile strength compared to other films. However, 100 ppm nisin and 500 ε-PL nanoparticles decreased water vapour permeability of films. The results also revealed that nisin nanoparticles had significantly ( < 0.05) low inhibitory effects against , , molds and yeasts and total viable counts compared to control and ε-PL nanoparticles. Furthermore, 1000 ppm ε-PL nanoparticles displayed the highest antimicrobial activity. Based on the obtained results, the films containing ε-PL nanoparticle could be considered as a promising packaging for frankfurter-type sausages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10051003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147807PMC
May 2021

A comprehensive review of the role of microorganisms on texture change, flavor and biogenic amines formation in fermented meat with their action mechanisms and safety.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 20:1-18. Epub 2021 May 20.

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Meat fermentation ensures its preservation, improved safety and quality. This prominently used traditional process has survived for ages, creating physical, biochemical, and microbial changes, and to significantly affect the functionality, organoleptic property, and nutrition of the fermented products. In some process, the growth of various pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms is inhibited. The production of fermented meat relies on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as microbial metabolic activities. In this review, fermented meat types and their health benefits were firstly introduced. This was followed by a description of fermentation conditions vis-à-vis starters, bacterial, yeast and mold cultures, and their role in meat. The review focuses on how microorganisms affect texture change, flavor formation, and biogenic amines (BA) accumulation in fermented meat. In addition, the production conditions and the major biochemical changes in fermented meat products were also introduced to present the best factors influencing the quality of fermented meat. Microorganisms and microbial enzymes in fermented meats were discussed as they could affect organoleptic characteristics of fermented meats. Moreover, safety concerns and prospects for further research of fermented meat were also discussed with emphasis on novel probiotic and starter cultures development; bioinformatics, omics technologies and data modeling to maximize the benefit from fermentation process in meat production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1929059DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of NaCl Replacement by other Salts on the Quality of Bísaro Pork Sausages (PGI Chouriça de Vinhais).

Foods 2021 Apr 28;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Rua Galicia Nº 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

Concerned about the trend to reduce salt consumption, the meat industry has been increasing the strategies to produce and commercialize products where the reduction or even the replacement of NaCl is an important goal. The aim of this study was to test the effect of partial NaCl replacement by KCl and Sub4Salt on the quality of pork sausages. Three different formulations (NaCl + KCl, NaCl + Sub4Salt, and KCl + Sub4Salt) were considered and compared to the control (2% NaCl). Physicochemical properties, chemical composition, and microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated. The replacement of NaCl did not affect pH, water activity (a) or its chemical composition after eight or 16 days ripening time, while a significant sodium reduction was achieved. The oxidation index expressed in TBARS was also not affected by the NaCl substitution and varied between 0.01 to 0.04 of malonaldehyde (MDA) per kg of sample. Similarly, the NaCl replacement did not change the microbiological quality of the sausages, and the production of healthier meat sausages had also no significant effect on their sensory characteristics. Therefore, according to the results obtained, it is viable and a good strategy for the meat industry to produce "reduced sodium content" sausages without affecting their traditional quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10050961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146096PMC
April 2021

Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye Using Activated Carbon of Lemon Wood and Activated Carbon/FeO Magnetic Nanocomposite from Aqueous Solutions: A Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Study.

Molecules 2021 Apr 13;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Rúa Galicia No. 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, 32900 San Cibrao das Viñas, Ourense, Spain.

Activated carbon prepared from lemon () wood (ACL) and ACL/FeO magnetic nanocomposite were effectively used to remove the cationic dye of crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solutions. The results showed that FeO nanoparticles were successfully placed in the structure of ACL and the produced nanocomposites showed superior magnetic properties. It was found that pH was the most effective parameter in the CV dye adsorption and pH of 9 gave the maximum adsorption efficiency of 93.5% and 98.3% for ACL and ACL/FeO, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Langmuir models were selected to investigate the CV dye adsorption equilibrium behavior for ACL and ACL/FeO, respectively. A maximum adsorption capacity of 23.6 and 35.3 mg/g was obtained for ACL and ACL/FeO, respectively indicating superior adsorption capacity of FeO nanoparticles. The kinetic data of the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order (PSO) kinetic model, indicating that chemical mechanisms may have an effect on the CV dye adsorption. The negative values obtained for Gibb's free energy parameter (-20 < ΔG < 0 kJ/mol) showed that the adsorption process using both types of the adsorbents was physical. Moreover, the CV dye adsorption enthalpy (ΔH) values of -45.4 for ACL and -56.9 kJ/mol for ACL/FeO were obtained indicating that the adsorption process was exothermic. Overall, ACL and ACL/FeO magnetic nanocomposites provide a novel and effective type of adsorbents to remove CV dye from the aqueous solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068907PMC
April 2021

A Review on Health-Promoting, Biological, and Functional Aspects of Bioactive Peptides in Food Applications.

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 23;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Rúa Galicia No. 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

Food-derived bioactive peptides are being used as important functional ingredients for health-promoting foods and nutraceuticals in recent times in order to prevent and manage several diseases thanks to their biological activities. Bioactive peptides are specific protein fractions, which show broad applications in cosmetics, food additives, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory ingredients. These peptides can preserve consumer health by retarding chronic diseases owing to modulation or improvement of the physiological functions of human body. They can also affect functional characteristics of different foods such as dairy products, fermented beverages, and plant and marine proteins. This manuscript reviews different aspects of bioactive peptides concerning their biological (antihypertensive, antioxidative, antiobesity, and hypocholesterolemic) and functional (water holding capacity, solubility, emulsifying, and foaming) properties. Moreover, the properties of several bioactive peptides extracted from different foods as potential ingredients to formulate health promoting foods are described. Thus, multifunctional properties of bioactive peptides provide the possibility to formulate or develop novel healthy food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11050631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145060PMC
April 2021

Edible Mushrooms as Functional Ingredients for Development of Healthier and More Sustainable Muscle Foods: A Flexitarian Approach.

Molecules 2021 Apr 23;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Adva. Galicia n° 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

Consumers are increasingly interested in nutritious, safe and healthy muscle food products with reduced salt and fat that benefit their well-being. Hence, food processors are constantly in search of natural bioactive ingredients that offer health benefits beyond their nutritive values without affecting the quality of the products. Mushrooms are considered as next-generation healthy food components. Owing to their low content of fat, high-quality proteins, dietary fibre and the presence of nutraceuticals, they are ideally preferred in formulation of low-caloric functional foods. There is a growing trend to fortify muscle food with edible mushrooms to harness their goodness in terms of nutritive, bioactive and therapeutic values. The incorporation of mushrooms in muscle foods assumes significance, as it is favourably accepted by consumers because of its fibrous structure that mimics the texture with meat analogues offering unique taste and umami flavour. This review outlines the current knowledge in the literature about the nutritional richness, functional bioactive compounds and medicinal values of mushrooms offering various health benefits. Furthermore, the effects of functional ingredients of mushrooms in improving the quality and sensory attributes of nutritionally superior and next-generation healthier muscle food products are also highlighted in this paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122938PMC
April 2021

Omega-3-Rich Oils from Marine Side Streams and Their Potential Application in Food.

Mar Drugs 2021 Apr 21;19(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, rúa Galicia No. 4, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

Rapid population growth and increasing food demand have impacts on the environment due to the generation of residues, which could be managed using sustainable solutions such as the circular economy strategy (waste generated during food processing must be kept within the food chain). Reusing discarded fish remains is part of this management strategy, since they contain high-value ingredients and bioactive compounds that can be used for the development of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Fish side streams such as the head, liver, or skin or the cephalothorax, carapace, and tail from shellfish are important sources of oils rich in omega-3. In order to resolve the disadvantages associated with conventional methods, novel extraction techniques are being optimized to improve the quality and the oxidative stability of these high-value oils. Positive effects on cardiovascular and vision health, diabetes, cancer, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, and immune system improvement are among their recognized properties. Their incorporation into different model systems could contribute to the development of functional foods, with market benefits for consumers. These products improve the nutritional needs of specific population groups in a scenario where noncommunicable diseases and pandemic crises are responsible for several deaths worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19050233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143521PMC
April 2021

Effect of Essential Oil on Biochemicals, Antioxidant Characteristics, and Shelf Life of Strawberry Fruit during Storage.

Metabolites 2021 Apr 21;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, rúa Galicia No. 4, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

Strawberry fruits are highly susceptible to cold burning, resulting in low storage periods at low temperatures. Plant extracts or essential oils (EOs) can potentially be used as preservatives in fruits throughout the refrigerated period. In the present study, the biochemicals, antioxidant characteristics, and shelf life of treated strawberries with essential oil (ACEOs) were evaluated during keeping time. The treatments were produced as follows: T1, control; T2, 250 ppm ACEOs; T3, 500 ppm ACEOs; and T4, 750 ppm ACEOs. Total soluble solids (TSS), weight loss, titratable acidity (TA), antioxidant activity (DPPH assay), total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid and anthocyanin contents (TFC), and enzymes activity (peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase) were evaluated during the refrigerated period (5 °C with relative humidity of 85-90% for 20 days). The results revealed that weight loss and TA were reduced in all treatments during storage, being that the rates were lower in samples treated with ACEOs. TPC, TFC, TSS, antioxidant, and enzymes activity were higher in treated fruits than control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11050256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143293PMC
April 2021

Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Activity in Canned Eels: Effect of Processing and Filling Medium.

Foods 2021 Apr 7;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Área de Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias de Ourense, Universidad de Vigo, 32004 Ourense, Spain.

The effect of canning and the use of different filling media (sunflower oil, olive oil, and spiced olive oil) on oxidation parameters (acidity, peroxide value (PV), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) index), antioxidant capacity, and total phenol and vitamin E contents in eels was studied. A preliminary frying treatment caused a decrease in titratable acidity and an increase in TBARS, antioxidant capacity, and vitamin E in the eel muscle. During sterilization, TBARS also increased significantly. The magnitude of the changes depended on the filling medium. Storage also had a significant effect on oxidation parameters in eel muscle and in filling media. After one year of storage, the sunflower oil and canned eels packed in this oil presented higher antioxidant capacity and vitamin E content than olive oil, spiced olive oil, or canned eels packed in these oils. However, the total phenol contents were higher when olive oil or spiced olive oil were used as filling media. Despite the losses, the results show that the canning process and subsequent storage preserved a great part of the antioxidant capacity and vitamin E content of the filling medium, which is of interest to the consumer. Both sunflower oil and olive oil as filling media are of great nutritional interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067596PMC
April 2021

Quantitative proteomic analysis of beef tenderness of Piemontese young bulls by SWATH-MS.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 27;356:129711. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Rúa Galicia N° 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, Ourense 32900, Spain. Electronic address:

Quantitative proteomic approach is a suitable way to tackle the beef tenderness. Ten aged-beef samples from Longissimus thoracis of Piemontese breed classified as tender (n = 5) and tough (n = 5) meat were evaluated using SWATH-MS and bioinformatic tools for the identification of the proteins and pathways most influencing tenderness variability. Between the two textural groups, proteomic changes were mainly caused by 43 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) arranged in reference patterns as displayed by the heat map analysis. Most of these DAPs were associated with energy metabolism. From the functional proteomic analysis, two clusters of proteins, including ACO2, MDH1, MDH2 and CS in one cluster and FBP2, PFKL, LDHA, TPI1 and GAPDH/S in the other cluster, suggest gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and citrate cycle as key pathways for Piemontese breed beef tenderness. These findings contribute to a deeper insight into molecular pathways related to beef tenderness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129711DOI Listing
September 2021

The Perspective of Croatian Old Apple Cultivars in Extensive Farming for the Production of Functional Foods.

Foods 2021 Mar 26;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

The Republic of Croatia has a long tradition of fruit growing due to its geographical location, climatic conditions, and high quality of fruit crops, especially apple fruits. Apples can be used for the formulation of functional foods either in processed form (e.g., juice), or as a by-product (e.g., apple pomace). However, there is a growing demand for functional foods derived from ancient and traditional plant sources as they are recognized as a very valuable source of health-promoting bioactive ingredients. Similarly, old apple cultivars ( Borkh.) are characterized by good morphological and pomological properties, less need for chemicals during cultivation and the higher share of biologically active compounds (BACs) with better sensory acceptability compared to commercial cultivars. However, their nutritional and biological potential is underestimated, as is their ability to be processed into functional food. The importance in preserving old apple cultivars can also be seen in their significance for improving the nutritional composition of other apple cultivars through innovative cultivation strategies, and therefore old local apple cultivars could be of great importance in future breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065821PMC
March 2021

Physicochemical, Thermal and Rheological Properties of Pectin Extracted from Sugar Beet Pulp Using Subcritical Water Extraction Process.

Molecules 2021 Mar 5;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Rúa Galicia No. 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

The objective of this study was to characterize the properties of pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp using subcritical water (SWE) as compared to conventional extraction (CE). The research involved advanced modeling using response surface methodology and optimization of operational parameters. The optimal conditions for maximum yield of pectin for SWE and CE methods were determined by the central composite design. The optimum conditions of CE were the temperature of 90 °C, time of 240 min, pH of 1, and pectin recovery yield of 20.8%. The optimal SWE conditions were liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio of 30% () at temperature of 130 °C for 20 min, which resulted in a comparable yield of 20.7%. The effect of obtained pectins on viscoamylograph pasting and DSC thermal parameters of corn starch was evaluated. The contents of galacturonic acid, degree of methylation, acetylation, and ferulic acid content were higher in the pectin extracted by SWE, while the molecular weight was lower. Similar chemical groups were characterized by FTIR in both SWE and CE pectins. Color attributes of both pectins were similar. Solutions of pectins at lower concentrations displayed nearly Newtonian behavior. The addition of both pectins to corn starch decreased pasting and DSC gelatinization parameters, but increased ΔH. The results offered a promising scalable approach to convert the beet waste to pectin as a value-added product using SWE with improved pectin properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961787PMC
March 2021

Active Polypropylene-Based Films Incorporating Combined Antioxidants and Antimicrobials: Preparation and Characterization.

Foods 2021 Mar 29;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Rúa Galicia N° 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

Development of polypropylene (PP) films incorporating antioxidant-antimicrobial agents can inhibit microbial growth and reduce undesirable deteriorating reactions and can preserve the quality of food. This study was aimed to use a combination of sorbic acid (SA), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) to provide a synergistic effect at their reduced concentrations. A Combination of the additives was more effective in enhancing mechanical properties compared to their single state in film composition. The PP-2%SA-3%BHA film (T) had the highest tensile strength (17.9 MPa) and the lowest elongation at break (7.1%) than other films. The fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) proposed physical mixing of active additives within PP-matrix. Scanning electron microscopy showed uniform dispersion of the additives in PP-2%SA-1%BHT-1%BHA film (T) compared to others. BHT containing films decreased the storage and loss moduli leading to weakening of film viscoelastic behaviour and reducing film melting point. The prepared active films showed higher antioxidant activity than control PP-film following an order of T > T > T corresponding to DPPH radical scavenging values of 89.1, 83.4 and 79.1%, respectively. All active films inhibited gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria growth. The results of this study indicated that the prepared active films possess desirable mechanical, thermal, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties enabling their use in food packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066096PMC
March 2021

Effect of NaCl Partial Replacement by Chloride Salts on Physicochemical Characteristics, Volatile Compounds and Sensorial Properties of Dry-Cured Deer Cecina.

Foods 2021 Mar 21;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Rúa Galicia N° 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of NaCl replacement in the physicochemical quality and volatile and sensorial profile of dry-cured deer cecina. Two salt mixtures were used as NaCl substitute: mixture I (30% NaCl-70% KCl) and mixture II (30% NaCl-50% KCl-15% CaCl-5% MgCl). Regarding the physicochemical parameters, only ash content, pH and L* values were affected by NaCl replacement. However, lipid oxidation was affected by NaCl replacement. The greatest thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were observed in the control batch (3.28 mg MDA/kg). The partial replacement of NaCl by salt mixtures affected ( < 0.001) Ca, K, Mg, and Na content. The total amounts of free fatty acids and free amino acids were not affected ( > 0.05) by NaCl replacement. Concerning the volatile compounds, control samples presented the highest concentrations of furans ( < 0.01), while samples produced with mixture II had the lowest ( < 0.001) amounts of esters and acids. Our results indicated that all sensory attributes of the attribute map were affected (generalized procrustes analysis (GPA) explained 100% of the total variability among treatments). Considering the results obtained from the sensorial analysis, only mixture II reduced the overall acceptance and preference of consumers. Control attained significantly ( < 0.05) greater scores of acceptance and preference than mixture II despite the higher TBARS content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10030669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004072PMC
March 2021

Nanoencapsulation of Promising Bioactive Compounds to Improve Their Absorption, Stability, Functionality and the Appearance of the Final Food Products.

Molecules 2021 Mar 11;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, rúa Galicia n° 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, 32900 San Cibrao das Viñas, Ourense, Spain.

The design of functional foods has grown recently as an answer to rising consumers' concerns and demands for natural, nutritional and healthy food products. Nanoencapsulation is a technique based on enclosing a bioactive compound (BAC) in liquid, solid or gaseous states within a matrix or inert material for preserving the coated substance (food or flavor molecules/ingredients). Nanoencapsulation can improve stability of BACs, improving the regulation of their release at physiologically active sites. Regarding materials for food and nutraceutical applications, the most used are carbohydrate-, protein- or lipid-based alternatives such as chitosan, peptide-chitosan and β-lactoglobulin nanoparticles (NPs) or emulsion biopolymer complexes. On the other hand, the main BACs used in foods for health promoting, including antioxidants, antimicrobials, vitamins, probiotics and prebiotics and others (minerals, enzymes and flavoring compounds). Nanotechnology can also play notable role in the development of programmable food, an original futuristic concept promising the consumers to obtain high quality food of desired nutritive and sensory characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999092PMC
March 2021

Effect of Breed and Finishing Diet on Growth Parameters and Carcass Quality Characteristics of Navarre Autochthonous Foals.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 12;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, rúa Galicia nº 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain.

This research was conducted to study the effect of breed, Jaca Navarra (JN) vs. Burguete (BU), and finishing diet, conventional concentrate-diet 1 vs. silage and organic feed diet 2-on growth parameters and carcass characteristics from forty-six foals. Parameters as live weight (LW), average daily gain (ADG), body condition score (BCS), and fat depots were monitoring. In addition, the carcass parameters assessed were: carcass weight (CW), conformation, degree of fatness, morphology, and pH. Moreover, hindquarters of the left-half carcasses were sectioned in the main commercial primal cuts of leg. Results showed a clear "breed effect" in favor of BU foals, recording the highest productive values and carcass traits compared with JN foals. On the other hand, finishing diet contributed to improving the productive and carcass features of JN foals. In particular, diet 1 showed to affect positively the features analyzed compared with diet 2. Nevertheless, the meat primal cuts resulted in being unaffected by the breed and diet effects (except for knuckle), obtaining similar values among the groups of animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11020488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917651PMC
February 2021
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