Publications by authors named "Jory R Baldridge"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of novel synthetic TLR7/8 agonists as vaccine adjuvants.

Vaccine 2016 08 9;34(36):4304-12. Epub 2016 Jul 9.

GSK Vaccines, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA.

Small-molecule adjuvants that boost and direct adaptive immunity provide a powerful means to increase the effectiveness of vaccines. Through rational design several novel imidazoquinoline and oxoadenine TLR7/8 agonists, each with unique molecular modifications, were synthesized and assessed for their ability to augment adaptive immunity. All agonists bound human TLR7 and TLR8 and induced maturation of both human mDCs and pDCs. All agonists prompted production of type I interferon and/or proinflammatory cytokines, albeit with varying potencies. In most in vitro assays, the oxoadenine class of agonists proved more potent than the imidazoquinolines. Therefore, an optimized oxoadenine TLR7/8 agonist that demonstrated maximal activity in the in vitro assays was further assessed in a vaccine study with the CRM197 antigen in a porcine model. Antigen-specific antibody production was greatly enhanced in a dose dependent manner, with antibody titers increased 800-fold compared to titers from pigs vaccinated with the non-adjuvanted vaccine. Moreover, pigs vaccinated with antigen containing the highest dose of adjuvant promoted a 13-fold increase in the percentage of antigen-specific CD3(+)/CD8(+) T cells over pigs vaccinated with antigen alone. Together this work demonstrates the promise of these novel TLR7/8 agonists as effective human vaccine adjuvants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.06.080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4968040PMC
August 2016

TLR4 agonists as immunomodulatory agents.

J Endotoxin Res 2006 ;12(5):313-9

GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals North America, Seattle, WA, USA.

Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) is a potent vaccine adjuvant derived from Salmonella minnesota that was recently licensed in Europe as a component of an improved vaccine for hepatitis B (Fendrix). MPL, like lipopolysaccharide from which it is derived, signals via the TLR4/MD-2 complex. We have produced a series of synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonists that are based upon the structure of the major hexa-acylated congener contained within MPL. These TLR4 agonists, termed the aminoalkyl glucosaminide phosphates (AGPs), stimulate the production of various cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro and up-regulate cell surface markers on monocytes, NK cells and B cells. In addition, AGPs provide non-specific resistance to challenge with viral and bacterial pathogens when administered to the upper airways of mice. Structure-activity relationship studies have shown that the activation of innate immune effectors by AGPs depends primarily on the length of the secondary acyl chains and the nature of the functional group attached to the aglycon component. Moreover, AGPs can act as potent adjuvants for mucosal administration of vaccine antigens, enhancing both antigen-specific antibody and cell-mediated immune responses. Thus, by combining the adjuvant and non-specific resistance induction properties of AGPs it may be possible to generate mucosal vaccines that provide innate protection immediately following administration together with long-term acquired immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/096805106X118753DOI Listing
December 2006

Synthetic toll-like receptor 4 agonists stimulate innate resistance to infectious challenge.

Infect Immun 2005 May;73(5):3044-52

Corixa Corporation, 1900 9th Avenue, Suite 1100, Seattle, WA 98101, USA.

A compound family of synthetic lipid A mimetics (termed the aminoalkyl glucosaminide phosphates [AGPs]) was evaluated in murine infectious disease models of protection against challenge with Listeria monocytogenes and influenza virus. For the Listeria model, intravenous administration of AGPs was followed by intravenous bacterial challenge 24 h later. Spleens were harvested 2 days postchallenge for the enumeration of CFU. For the influenza virus model, mice were challenged with virus via the intranasal/intrapulmonary route 48 h after intranasal/intrapulmonary administration of AGPs. The severity of disease was assessed daily for 3 weeks following challenge. Several types of AGPs provided strong protection against influenza virus or Listeria challenge in wild-type mice, but they were inactive in the C3H/HeJ mouse, demonstrating the dependence of the AGPs on toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling for the protective effect. Structure-activity relationship studies showed that the activation of innate immune effectors by AGPs depends primarily on the lengths of the secondary acyl chains within the three acyl-oxy-acyl residues and also on the nature of the functional group attached to the aglycon component. We conclude that the administration of synthetic TLR4 agonists provides rapid pharmacologic induction of innate resistance to infectious challenge by two different pathogen classes, that this effect is mediated via TLR4, and that structural differences between AGPs can have dramatic effects on agonist activity in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.73.5.3044-3052.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1087352PMC
May 2005

Taking a Toll on human disease: Toll-like receptor 4 agonists as vaccine adjuvants and monotherapeutic agents.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2004 Jul;4(7):1129-38

Corixa Corporation, 553 Old Corvallis Road, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA.

Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are being developed for use as vaccine adjuvants and as stand-alone immunomodulators because of their ability to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Among the most thoroughly studied TLR agonists are the lipid A molecules that target the TLR4 complex. One promising candidate, monophosphoryl lipid A, which is a derivative of lipid A from Salmonella minnesota, has proven to be safe and effective as a vaccine adjuvant in > 120,000 human doses. A new class of synthetic lipid A mimetics, the aminoalkyl glucosaminide 4-phosphates (AGPs), have been engineered specifically to target human TLR4 and are showing promise as vaccine adjuvants and as monotherapeutic agents capable of eliciting nonspecific protection against a wide range of infectious pathogens. In this review, the authors provide an update of the preclinical and clinical experiences with the TLR4 agonists, MPL (Corixa Corporation) adjuvant and the AGPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14712598.4.7.1129DOI Listing
July 2004

Structure-activity relationship of synthetic toll-like receptor 4 agonists.

J Biol Chem 2004 Feb 21;279(6):4440-9. Epub 2003 Oct 21.

Corixa Corporation, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA.

Important questions remain regarding the impact of variations in the structure of the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide on activation of cells via the Toll-like receptor 4 complex. We have studied a series of synthetic lipid A mimetic compounds known as aminoalkyl glucosaminide phosphates in which the length of the secondary acyl chain has been systematically varied. Using transcriptional profiling of human monocytes and responses of Toll-like receptor 4 complex cell transfectants, we demonstrate a clear dependence of length on secondary acyl chain on Toll-like receptor 4 activation. Compounds with secondary acyl chains less than eight carbons in length have dramatically reduced activity, and substitutions of the left-sided secondary acyl chain had the most important effect on the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist activity of these molecules. The structure-function relationships of these compounds assessed via the induction of chemokines and cytokines following in vivo administration closely mirrored those seen with cell-based studies. This novel set of synthetic lipid A mimetics will be useful for Toll-like receptor 4-based investigations and may have clinical utility as stand-alone immunomodulators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M310760200DOI Listing
February 2004

Enhancement of antigen-specific immunity via the TLR4 ligands MPL adjuvant and Ribi.529.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2003 Apr;2(2):219-29

Corixa Corporation, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA.

MPL (Corixa) adjuvant is a chemically modified derivative of lipopolysaccharide that displays greatly reduced toxicity while maintaining most of the immunostimulatory activity of lipopolysaccharide. MPL adjuvant has been used extensively in clinical trials as a component in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines targeting infectious disease, cancer and allergies. With over 33,000 doses administered to date, MPL adjuvant has emerged as a safe and effective vaccine adjuvant. Recently, scientists at Corixa Corporation have developed a library of synthetic lipid A mimetics (aminoalkyl glucosaminide 4-phosphates) with demonstrated immunostimulatory properties. Similar to MPL adjuvant, these synthetic compounds signal through Toll-like receptor 4 to stimulate the innate immune system. One of these compounds, Ribi.529 (RC-529), has emerged as a leading adjuvant with a similar efficacy and safety profile to MPL adjuvant in both preclinical and clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/14760584.2.2.219DOI Listing
April 2003

Immunostimulatory activity of aminoalkyl glucosaminide 4-phosphates (AGPs): induction of protective innate immune responses by RC-524 and RC-529.

J Endotoxin Res 2002 ;8(6):453-8

Corixa Corporation, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA.

Earlier we showed that the structural requirements for adjuvanticity among the aminoalkyl glucosaminide 4-phosphate (AGP) class of synthetic immunostimulants may be less strict than those for other endotoxic activities, including the induction of nitric oxide synthase in murine macrophages and cytokine production in human whole blood. The known role of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the activation of host defenses against infection prompted us to examine the ability of certain AGPs to enhance non-specific resistance in mice to Listeria monocytogenes and influenza infections as well as to stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mouse splenocytes, human PBMCs, and human U937 histiocytic lymphoma cells. Intranasal administration of RC-524 or RC-529 to mice 2 days prior to a lethal influenza challenge provided significant protection in each case. Similarly, the intravenous administration of these AGPs induced resistance to L. monocytogenes infection as measured by survival or reduction of bacteria in the spleen. Activation of the innate immune response by AGPs appears to involve activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) because RC-524 failed to elicit a protective effect in C3H/HeJ mice which have a defect in TLR4 signaling or induce significant cytokine levels in C3H/HeJ splenocytes. Both AGPs also stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine release in human cell cultures in a dose-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/096805102125001064DOI Listing
July 2003

Taking toll: lipid A mimetics as adjuvants and immunomodulators.

Trends Microbiol 2002 ;10(10 Suppl):S32-7

Corixa, Suite 200, 1124 Columbia Street, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.

Vaccine adjuvants based on the structure of lipid A, such as monophosphoryl lipid A (MLA), have proven to be safe and effective in inducing immune responses to heterologous proteins in animal and human vaccines. Recent work on the development of a recombinant vaccine for leishmaniasis has demonstrated that a clinical grade MLA formulation - MPL(R) adjuvant - is essential in the development of a protective response. Preliminary evidence suggests that MLA and a chemically distinct family of lipid A mimetics - the aminoalkyl glucosaminide 4-phosphates - act on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). As TLR4 agonists, they have potent immunomodulatory effects when used both as vaccine adjuvants and as stand-alone products. Novel approaches to vaccine development could benefit from taking full advantage of the effects of these compounds on innate and adaptive responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0966-842x(02)02426-5DOI Listing
November 2002