Publications by authors named "Jorge Torres"

135 Publications

Emergent Hybrid Treatment of a Ruptured Scalp Arteriovenous Fistula with Eyelid involvement: Technical Note.

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Center for Research and Training in Neurosurgery (CIEN), Rosario University School of Medicine, Samaritan University Hospital, Bogotá, Colombia.

Background:  Scalp arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are a rare vascular disease usually presenting as a progressively increasing pulsating mass in the scalp. These lesions can be associated with mild to severe complications, including congestive heart failure. If ruptures, this pathology constitutes a life-threatening medical emergency because of its potential to cause severe bleeding and acute anemia.

Methods:  We describe the case of a young woman with a ruptured Yokouchi type C scalp AVF with eyelid involvement.

Results:  The patient presented with hypovolemic shock and acute anemia due to severe bleeding from the lesion. Emergent treatment through a combined endovascular and open surgical approach was required to stop bleeding and stabilize the patient.

Conclusions:  Emergent and effective treatment is required to stop bleeding when a scalp AVF ruptures. A combination of endovascular embolization and microsurgical excision of the shunt is a treatment option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1723848DOI Listing
April 2021

Helicoverpa armigera Harm 1 Haplotype Predominates in the Heliothinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Complex Infesting Tomato Crops in Brazil.

Neotrop Entomol 2021 Apr 5;50(2):258-268. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Lab de Entomologia, Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, Brazil.

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a natural host for the Helicoverpa-Chloridea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Heliothinae) pest complex. The species Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) was responsible for significant yield losses in several crops after its detection in Brazil. The morphology of its larval stage resembles common Heliothinae species, making pest control decisions difficult. The overall lack of studies on the Heliothinae associated with tomatoes in Brazil and the establishment of H. armigera in the country plus their recent outbreaks supported our investigation about the relative importance of the insects from the Helicoverpa-Chloridea complex in this vegetable crop. A nationwide survey was carried out across fresh-market and processing tomato fields. Molecular analyses targeting a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) gene and their sequence analyses indicated the presence of a pest complex, comprising the introduced species H. armigera and the indigenous species, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and Chloridea virescens (Fabricius). The Harm 1 haplotype of H. armigera was identified as the predominant Heliothinae pest infesting fresh-market tomatoes. The New World species Chloridea subflexa (Guenée) as well as the exotic Solanaceae-specific species Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée) were not found in our survey. Additional larvae surveys in processing tomato fields during 2013/2014 in Central Brazil also indicated H. armigera as the most abundant Heliothinae species (95%) together with H. zea (4.75%) and C. virescens (0.25%). The occurrence of distinct Helicoverpa species (which are potentially capable of interbreeding) indicates that novel crop management strategies will be necessary in order to minimize damages caused by this pest complex in tomatoes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13744-020-00845-zDOI Listing
April 2021

The myosin regulatory light chain Myl5 localizes to mitotic spindle poles and is required for proper cell division.

Cytoskeleton (Hoboken) 2021 Feb 8;78(2):23-35. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Myosins are ATP-dependent actin-based molecular motors critical for diverse cellular processes like intracellular trafficking, cell motility, and cell invasion. During cell division, myosin MYO10 is important for proper mitotic spindle assembly, the anchoring of the spindle to the cortex, and positioning of the spindle to the cell mid-plane. However, myosins are regulated by myosin regulatory light chains (RLCs), and whether RLCs are important for cell division has remained unexplored. Here, we have determined that the previously uncharacterized myosin RLC Myl5 associates with the mitotic spindle and is required for cell division. We show that Myl5 localizes to the leading edge and filopodia during interphase and to mitotic spindle poles and spindle microtubules during early mitosis. Importantly, depletion of Myl5 led to defects in mitotic spindle assembly, chromosome congression, and chromosome segregation and to a slower transition through mitosis. Furthermore, Myl5 bound to MYO10 in vitro and co-localized with MYO10 at the spindle poles. These results suggest that Myl5 is important for cell division and that it may be performing its function through MYO10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cm.21654DOI Listing
February 2021

Influence of the disordered domain structure of MeCP2 on its structural stability and dsDNA interaction.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 3;175:58-66. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Institute of Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI), Joint Units IQFR-CSIC-BIFI, and GBsC-CSIC-BIFI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50018, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), 50009 Zaragoza, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), 28029 Madrid, Spain; Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y Celular, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain; Fundación ARAID, Gobierno de Aragón, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain. Electronic address:

Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a transcriptional regulator and a chromatin-associated structural protein. MeCP2 deregulation results in two neurodevelopmental disorders: MeCP2 dysfunction is associated with Rett syndrome, while excess of activity is associated with MeCP2 duplication syndrome. MeCP2 is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) constituted by six structural domains with variable, small percentage of well-defined secondary structure. Two domains, methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) and transcription repressor domain (TRD), are the elements responsible for dsDNA binding ability and recruitment of the gene transcription/silencing machinery, respectively. Previously we studied the influence of the completely disordered, MBD-flanking domains (N-terminal domain, NTD, and intervening domain, ID) on the structural and functional features of the MBD (Claveria-Gimeno, R. et al. Sci Rep. 2017, 7, 41,635). Here we report the biophysical study of the influence of the remaining domains (transcriptional repressor domain, TRD, and C-terminal domains, CTDα and CTDβ) on the structural stability of MBD and the dsDNA binding capabilities of MBD and ID. The influence of distant disordered domains on MBD properties makes it necessary to consider the NTD-MBD-ID variant as the minimal protein construct for studying dsDNA/chromatin binding properties, while the full-length protein should be considered for transcriptional regulation studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.206DOI Listing
April 2021

[Type I Brugada electrocardiographic pattern associated with Influenza B and fever. Report of a case].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Sep;148(9):1368-1370

Unidad Coronaria, Hospital Militar de Santiago, Santiago, Chile.

We report a 44-year-old male who was admitted for Influenza B and fever, presenting a type I Brugada pattern on the electrocardiogram. He evolved without cardiovascular symptoms. The pharmacological test with intravenous Procainamide reproduced type I Brugada pattern and the programmed electrical stimulation was negative for ventricular arrhythmias. He was discharged without incidents. Clinical aspects of Brugada syndrome and the importance of fever are discussed in the current context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872020000901368DOI Listing
September 2020

Neutrophil infiltration regulates clock-gene expression to organize daily hepatic metabolism.

Elife 2020 12 8;9. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos (CNIC), Madrid, Spain.

Liver metabolism follows diurnal fluctuations through the modulation of molecular clock genes. Disruption of this molecular clock can result in metabolic disease but its potential regulation by immune cells remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrated that in steady state, neutrophils infiltrated the mouse liver following a circadian pattern and regulated hepatocyte clock-genes by neutrophil elastase (NE) secretion. NE signals through c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibiting fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and activating expression in the hepatocyte. Interestingly, mice with neutropenia, defective neutrophil infiltration or lacking elastase were protected against steatosis correlating with lower JNK activation, reduced and increased FGF21 expression, together with decreased lipogenesis in the liver. Lastly, using a cohort of human samples we found a direct correlation between JNK activation, NE levels and expression in the liver. This study demonstrates that neutrophils contribute to the maintenance of daily hepatic homeostasis through the regulation of the NE/JNK/ axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.59258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723411PMC
December 2020

Phospho-regulation of mitotic spindle assembly.

Cytoskeleton (Hoboken) 2020 Dec 16;77(12):558-578. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

The assembly of the bipolar mitotic spindle requires the careful orchestration of a myriad of enzyme activities like protein posttranslational modifications. Among these, phosphorylation has arisen as the principle mode for spatially and temporally activating the proteins involved in early mitotic spindle assembly processes. Here, we review key kinases, phosphatases, and phosphorylation events that regulate critical aspects of these processes. We highlight key phosphorylation substrates that are important for ensuring the fidelity of centriole duplication, centrosome maturation, and the establishment of the bipolar spindle. We also highlight techniques used to understand kinase-substrate relationships and to study phosphorylation events. We conclude with perspectives on the field of posttranslational modifications in early mitotic spindle assembly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cm.21649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898546PMC
December 2020

Molecular Context-Dependent Effects Induced by Rett Syndrome-Associated Mutations in MeCP2.

Biomolecules 2020 11 10;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Institute of Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI), Joint Units IQFR-CSIC-BIFI, and GBsC-CSIC-BIFI, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain.

Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a transcriptional regulator and a chromatin-binding protein involved in neuronal development and maturation. Loss-of-function mutations in MeCP2 result in Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder that is the main cause of mental retardation in females. MeCP2 is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) constituted by six domains. Two domains are the main responsible elements for DNA binding (methyl-CpG binding domain, MBD) and recruitment of gene transcription/silencing machinery (transcription repressor domain, TRD). These two domains concentrate most of the RTT-associated mutations. R106W and R133C are associated with severe and mild RTT phenotype, respectively. We have performed a comprehensive characterization of the structural and functional impact of these substitutions at molecular level. Because we have previously shown that the MBD-flanking disordered domains (N-terminal domain, NTD, and intervening domain, ID) exert a considerable influence on the structural and functional features of the MBD (Claveria-Gimeno, R. et al. Sci Rep. , , 41635), here we report the biophysical study of the influence of the protein scaffold on the structural and functional effect induced by these two RTT-associated mutations. These results represent an example of how a given mutation may show different effects (sometimes opposing effects) depending on the molecular context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10111533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696773PMC
November 2020

Dispersal of boll weevil toward and within the cotton plant and implications for insecticide exposure.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Mar 6;77(3):1339-1347. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Departamento de Agronomia, Entomologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Background: Immature stages of boll weevil complete development endophytically leaving only the adult stage accessible for chemical control. We tested the hypothesis that boll weevil colonization of the cotton plants significantly affects their exposure to sprayed insecticides. We determined the adult dispersal toward and within cotton plants, lethal time (LT), and residual control by recommended insecticides (malathion, carbosulfan, thiamethoxam, fipronil, beta-cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin) through dried residue exposure and residual control regarding the leaf position in the upper and the lower thirds of the treated plant canopy.

Results: Newly emerged adults from fallen buds reached the cotton plants by walking (80%) and most of the time settling on cotton bolls in the lower part of the plants (78%). Irrespective of sex and mating status, adults released on the upper part of the plant remained longer on the same release site than the lower part, with some individuals remaining up to 50 h on the same flower bud. The shortest LT was found with thiamethoxam (106 h). Fipronil and malathion, respectively, provided the longest (>144 h) and shortest (24 h) residual control times and caused boll weevil mortality above 80%.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that weevils accessing the cotton plants exhibited within-plant distribution that minimizes their contact with insecticide residue on plant foliage. Furthermore, short residual control with malathion, the most used insecticide against boll weevil, and the low susceptibility exhibited by the tested population to pyrethroids highlight the current challenges faced for boll weevil control in Brazilian cotton fields. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6148DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of Surface Modifications to Single and Multilayer Graphene Temperature Coefficient of Resistance.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Oct 16;12(43):48890-48898. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, United States.

Interfacial effects on single-layer graphene (SLG) or multilayer graphene (MLG) properties greatly affect device performance. Thus, the effect of the interface on the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) on SLG and MLG due to surface-deposited core-shell metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) and various substrates was experimentally investigated. Observed substrates included glass, SiO, and SiN. We show that these modifications can be used to strongly influence SLG interface effects, thus increasing the TCR up to a 0.456% per K resistance change when in contact with the SiO substrate at the bottom surface and MNPs on the top surface. However, these surface interactions are muted in MLG due to the screening effect of nonsuperficial layers, only achieving a -0.0998% per K resistance change in contact with the bottom SiN substrate and the top MNPs. We also demonstrate contrary thermal sensitivity responses between SLG and MLG after the addition of MNP to the surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c09621DOI Listing
October 2020

Phase Separation in Cell Division.

Mol Cell 2020 10 28;80(1):9-20. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

Cell division requires the assembly and organization of a microtubule spindle for the proper separation of chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis. Phase separation is an emerging paradigm for understanding spatial and temporal regulation of a variety of cellular processes, including cell division. Phase-separated condensates have been recently discovered at many structures during cell division as a possible mechanism for properly localizing, organizing, and activating proteins involved in cell division. Here, we review how these condensates play roles in regulating microtubule density and organization and spindle assembly and function and in activating some of the key players in cell division. We conclude with perspectives on areas of future research for this exciting and rapidly advancing field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2020.08.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541545PMC
October 2020

Regulation of Iron Homeostasis through Parkin-Mediated Lactoferrin Ubiquitylation.

Biochemistry 2020 08 6;59(32):2916-2921. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Somatic mutations that perturb Parkin ubiquitin ligase activity and the misregulation of iron homeostasis have both been linked to Parkinson's disease. Lactotransferrin (LTF) is a member of the family of transferrin iron binding proteins that regulate iron homeostasis, and increased levels of LTF and its receptor have been observed in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease. Here, we report that Parkin binds to LTF and ubiquitylates LTF to influence iron homeostasis. Parkin-dependent ubiquitylation of LTF occurred most often on lysines (K) 182 and 649. Substitution of K182 or K649 with alanine (K182A or K649A, respectively) led to a decrease in the level of LTF ubiquitylation, and substitution at both sites led to a major decrease in the level of LTF ubiquitylation. Importantly, Parkin-mediated ubiquitylation of LTF was critical for regulating intracellular iron levels as overexpression of LTF ubiquitylation site point mutants (K649A or K182A/K649A) led to an increase in intracellular iron levels measured by ICP-MS/MS. Consistently, RNAi-mediated depletion of Parkin led to an increase in intracellular iron levels in contrast to overexpression of Parkin that led to a decrease in intracellular iron levels. Together, these results indicate that Parkin binds to and ubiquitylates LTF to regulate intracellular iron levels. These results expand our understanding of the cellular processes that are perturbed when Parkin activity is disrupted and more broadly the mechanisms that contribute to Parkinson's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.0c00504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803182PMC
August 2020

Determination of an Economic Injury Level for Old World Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Processing Tomato in Brazil.

J Econ Entomol 2020 08;113(4):1881-1887

Departamento de Agronomia-Entomologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, Recife, PE, Brazil.

Tomato plants host various herbivores, including the Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), recently introduced into South and Central America. It is a harmful pest for tomato crops, damaging mainly the flowers and fruits. The assessment of losses and the establishment of economic injury level (EIL) and economic threshold (ET) are core steps toward establishing a control program. We determined losses caused by H. armigera on processing tomato and estimated EIL/ET values. Trials were run during two growing seasons using tomato plants caged in the field. The field cage experiment consisted of six densities of H. armigera second instar larvae (0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 larvae per row meter) at two infestations periods spaced 15 d apart with the first infestation done 90 d after transplanting. The larvae were placed individually on the third upper fully developed leaf. The number of healthy and damaged fruits, size, and weight of the fruits were measured. Yield losses as a function of infestation of 1-24 larvae per row meter ranged from 4 to 34% and resulted in a yield reduction of 1.22-12.77 kg per row meter. The EIL ranged from 1.41 to 1.72 and from 2.11 to 2.58 larvae per row meter of plants in 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons, respectively. Helicoverpa armigera causes significant reduction of tomato yield. These EIL values will enable better control decision-making in processing tomato.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toaa082DOI Listing
August 2020

Why Are Viscosity and Nonlinearity Bound to Make an Impact in Clinical Elastographic Diagnosis?

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Apr 22;20(8). Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Biomechanics Group (TEC-12), Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria, ibs.GRANADA, 18012 Granada, Spain.

The adoption of multiscale approaches by the biomechanical community has caused a major improvement in quality in the mechanical characterization of soft tissues. The recent developments in elastography techniques are enabling in vivo and non-invasive quantification of tissues' mechanical properties. Elastic changes in a tissue are associated with a broad spectrum of pathologies, which stems from the tissue microstructure, histology and biochemistry. This knowledge is combined with research evidence to provide a powerful diagnostic range of highly prevalent pathologies, from birth and labor disorders (prematurity, induction failures, etc.), to solid tumors (e.g., prostate, cervix, breast, melanoma) and liver fibrosis, just to name a few. This review aims to elucidate the potential of viscous and nonlinear elastic parameters as conceivable diagnostic mechanical biomarkers. First, by providing an insight into the classic role of soft tissue microstructure in linear elasticity; secondly, by understanding how viscosity and nonlinearity could enhance the current diagnosis in elastography; and finally, by compounding preliminary investigations of those elastography parameters within different technologies. In conclusion, evidence of the diagnostic capability of elastic parameters beyond linear stiffness is gaining momentum as a result of the technological and imaging developments in the field of biomechanics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20082379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7219338PMC
April 2020

The L-α-Lysophosphatidylinositol/G Protein-Coupled Receptor 55 System Induces the Development of Nonalcoholic Steatosis and Steatohepatitis.

Hepatology 2021 Feb 13;73(2):606-624. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Physiology, Research Centre of Molecular Medicine and Chronic Diseases, University of Santiago de Compostela-Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Background And Aims: G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 55 is a putative cannabinoid receptor, and l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is its only known endogenous ligand. Although GPR55 has been linked to energy homeostasis in different organs, its specific role in lipid metabolism in the liver and its contribution to the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unknown.

Approach And Results: We measured (1) GPR55 expression in the liver of patients with NAFLD compared with individuals without obesity and without liver disease, as well as animal models with steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and (2) the effects of LPI and genetic disruption of GPR55 in mice, human hepatocytes, and human hepatic stellate cells. Notably, we found that circulating LPI and liver expression of GPR55 were up-regulated in patients with NASH. LPI induced adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) and increased lipid content in human hepatocytes and in the liver of treated mice by inducing de novo lipogenesis and decreasing β-oxidation. The inhibition of GPR55 and ACCα blocked the effects of LPI, and the in vivo knockdown of GPR55 was sufficient to improve liver damage in mice fed a high-fat diet and in mice fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet. Finally, LPI promoted the initiation of hepatic stellate cell activation by stimulating GPR55 and activation of ACC.

Conclusions: The LPI/GPR55 system plays a role in the development of NAFLD and NASH by activating ACC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894478PMC
February 2021

Viscoelastic Biomarkers of Ex Vivo Liver Samples via Torsional Wave Elastography.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Feb 19;10(2). Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Structural Mechanics, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.

The clinical ultrasound community demands mechanisms to obtain the viscoelastic biomarkers of soft tissue in order to quantify the tissue condition and to be able to track its consistency. Torsional Wave Elastography (TWE) is an emerging technique proposed for interrogating soft tissue mechanical viscoelastic constants. Torsional waves are a particular configuration of shear waves, which propagate asymmetrically in-depth and are radially transmitted by a disc and received by a ring. This configuration is shown to be particularly efficient in minimizing spurious components and is sensitive to mechanical constants, especially in cylinder-shaped organs. The objective of this work was to validate (TWE) technique against Shear Wave Elasticity Imaging (SWEI) technique through the determination of shear wave velocity, shear moduli, and viscosity of ex vivo chicken liver samples and tissue mimicking hydrogel phantoms. The results of shear moduli for ex vivo liver tissue vary 1.69-4.0kPa using TWE technique and 1.32-4.48kPa using SWEI technique for a range of frequencies from 200 to 800Hz. Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic parameters reported values of μ = 1.51kPa and η = 0.54Pa·s using TWE and μ = 1.02kPa and η = 0.63Pa·s using SWEI. Preliminary results show that the proposed technique successfully allows reconstructing shear wave velocity, shear moduli, and viscosity mechanical biomarkers from the propagated torsional wave, establishing a proof of principle and warranting further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10020111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7168906PMC
February 2020

Mealybug species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) on soursop and sugar apple (Annonaceae) in North-East Brazil, with description of a new species of Pseudococcus Westwood.

Zootaxa 2019 May 15;4604(3):zootaxa.4604.3.8. Epub 2019 May 15.

Departamento de Agronomia-Entomologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Dom Manoel de Medeiros, Recife, PE 52171-900, Brazil..

Several species of Annonaceae are economically important fruit-tree crops in North-East Brazil, including Pernambuco state. However, in several regions within the state, the fruits are commonly infested by mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae). There is a lack of information about the mealybug species damaging this produce, so a survey of mealybug species associated with commercial sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) and soursop (A. muricata L.) was conducted in the main production areas. The species Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Planococcus minor (Maskell), Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel Miller were found on both Annona species. Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Ferrisia dayslirii Kaydan Gullan and Ferrisia malvastra (MacDaniel) were found only on soursop; and Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan Gullan, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus annonae sp. n. Pacheco da Silva Kaydan and Pseudococcus sp. were found only on sugar apple. The species F. cristinae, F. dasylirii, F. malvastra and Ph. solenopsis are recorded infesting these hosts for the first time. The most abundant mealybug species found were F. virgata, Pl. minor, Ps. jackbeardsleyi and M. hirsutus, often forming heavy infestations and damaging the fruits. A new species, Pseudococcus annonae sp. n. Pacheco da Silva Kaydan, is described and illustrated, and an identification key to the mealybug genera occurring on annonaceous species in the Neotropical region is also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4604.3.8DOI Listing
May 2019

Teleneurology clinics for polyneuropathy: a pilot study.

J Neurol 2020 Feb 3;267(2):479-490. Epub 2019 Nov 3.

Department of Medicine, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Introduction: Polyneuropathy (PN) is a common condition with significant morbidity. We developed tele-polyneuropathy (tele-PN) clinics to improve access to neurology and increase guideline-concordant PN care. This article describes the mixed-methods evaluation of pilot tele-PN clinics at three community sites within the Greater Los Angeles VA Healthcare System.

Methods: For the first 25 patients (48 scheduled visits), we recorded the duration of the tele-PN visit and exam; the performance on three guideline-concordant care indicators (PN screening labs, opiate reduction, physical therapy for falls); and patient-satisfaction scores. We elicited comments about the tele-PN clinic from patients and the clinical team. We combined descriptive statistics with qualitative themes to determine the feasibility and acceptability of the tele-PN clinics.

Results: The average tele-PN encounter and exam times were 28.5 and 9.1 min, respectively. PN screening lab completion increased from 80 to 100%. Opiate freedom improved from 68 to 88%. Physical therapy for patients with recent falls increased from 58 to 100%. The tele-PN clinic was preferred for follow-up over in-person clinics in 86% of cases. Convenience was paramount to the clinic's success, saving an average of 231 min per patient in round-trip travel. The medical team's caring and collaborative spirit received high praise. While the clinic's efficiency was equal or superior to in-person care, the limited treatment options for PN and the small clinical exam space are areas for improvement.

Conclusion: In this pilot, we were able to efficiently see and examine patients remotely, promote guideline-concordant PN care, and provide a high-satisfaction encounter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09553-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989615PMC
February 2020

Fostering inclusion and diversity through research, teaching, mentoring, and outreach.

Authors:
Jorge Z Torres

Mol Biol Cell 2019 11;30(23):2870-2872

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, and Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095.

I am deeply humbled and honored to receive the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) Prize for Excellence in Inclusivity. Thank you to the ASCB for recognizing the contributions of faculty to inclusion and diversity in STEM and the importance of this for the advancement of science. Thank you to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) for your generous support of inclusivity. The prize money will be used to fund outreach activities aimed at increasing inclusion in science and to create research opportunities for students from underrepresented groups in the sciences. In this essay, I share bits of my life's story that I hope will resonate with a broad audience, especially students from underrepresented groups in STEM, and that drive my passion for inclusion and diversity. I provide points of consideration for students to enhance their preparation for science careers and for faculty to improve the current landscape of inclusion and diversity in STEM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E19-07-0379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6822586PMC
November 2019

Selective insecticides secure natural enemies action in cotton pest management.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Nov 16;184:109669. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Departamento de Agronomia/Entomologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Dom Manoel de Medeiros S/N, Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE, 52171-900, Brazil.

Cotton hosts a variety of arthropod pests requiring intensive control mostly with insecticides, which in turn may impact beneficial insects and the environment. Therefore, insect control in cotton fields preconizes the use of selective insecticides that offer pest control but conserve natural enemies. In this work, we measured the impact of recommended insecticides on the abundance of predatory insects and predation upon sentinel preys in the field. Further, the survival of four key selected predatory insects of cotton ecosystem, representing chewing and sucking feeding habits and different pest species attacked [Chrysoperla externa Hagen, Eriopis connexa (Germar), Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) and Orius insidiosus (Say)], were assessed when exposed to the dried residues of the tested insecticides. Mortality of sentinel prey caused by natural enemies was higher in areas treated with selective insecticides relative to the non-selective ones, and most of time similar to the untreated areas. Furthermore, areas treated with non-selective insecticides experienced prolonged impact between sprays depending on the insecticide applied. Seasonal abundance of predatory insects was 2× greater in fields under selective and untreated fields compared to those under non-selective recommendation. Survival of predators exposed to the dried residues of the selective insecticides pymetrozine, chlorantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, and cyantraniliprole were greater than when exposed to the non-selective lambda-cyhalothrin, malathion, dimethoate, and thiamethoxam. Among the non-selective insecticides, malathion and dimethoate exhibited shorter residual time compared to the thiamethoxam and lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam. Therefore, the recommendation of selective insecticides provides benefits for cotton pest management by maintaining the action of the natural enemies present in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109669DOI Listing
November 2019

Nordic walking for women with breast cancer: A systematic review.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2019 Nov 6;28(6):e13130. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Well-Move Research Group, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Sports, Univeristy of Vigo, Campus A Xunqueira s/n E-36005, Pontevedra, Spain.

Nordic walking (NW) seems to be an interesting rehabilitation strategy for women with breast cancer (BC). No review article that has synthesised and summarised the existing scientific evidence about the effect of NW on BC survivors has been published so far. A systematic review was conducted aimed at identifying the characteristics and methodological quality of the studies that have analysed the effects of NW on women with BC. The critical appraisal of the randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was retrieved from the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). The methodological quality of the uncontrolled studies was evaluated by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Before-After Studies with No Control Group. Nine investigations (four RCTs and five quasi-experimental studies) were included in the final analysis. The RCTs showed a fair methodological quality, while the quasi-experimental studies obtained a score ranging from "fair" to "poor". Judging from the findings of the analysed studies, NW had a significant and positive impact on a number of BC symptoms, including lymphedema, physical fitness, disability and morbid perceptions. No adverse effects were reported. However, due to the methodological limitations observed, further research is needed to confirm such findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecc.13130DOI Listing
November 2019

Sublethal Effects of Insect Growth Regulators on Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

J Econ Entomol 2019 09;112(5):2222-2228

Departamento de Agronomia-Entomologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, Dois Irmãos, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Immature stages of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), develop protected inside cotton fruiting structures. Therefore, the adult beetles have become the main target of insecticide applications. The use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) is recommended against immatures, even though they may also affect the survival and reproductive traits of adult insects. The present study evaluated the impact of a juvenile hormone analog (pyriproxyfen), an ecdysteroid agonist (methoxyfenozide), and a chitin biosynthesis inhibitor (lufenuron) on adult cotton boll weevils, a key cotton pest. Mated and virgin beetles were treated by feeding them contaminated squares and cotton leaf discs that were previously immersed into pyriproxyfen, methoxyfenozide, and lufenuron solutions at field-rate concentrations. After exposure, treated couples were caged onto cotton plants, and survival, fecundity, and egg viability were evaluated. The IGRs neither affected the survival nor fecundity of adult boll weevils. On the other hand, egg viability was significantly reduced by lufenuron, regardless of whether the females were treated premating or postmating or whether their pairs were either treated or untreated. However, egg viability increased as the females aged since the initial exposure date to lufenuron, indicating a potential transovarial effect of this insecticide. Our results indicate that pyriproxyfen and methoxyfenozide do not affect adult boll weevils, whereas lufenuron temporarily reduces the egg viability of this key cotton pest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toz164DOI Listing
September 2019

Menin Associates With the Mitotic Spindle and Is Important for Cell Division.

Endocrinology 2019 08;160(8):1926-1936

Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Menin is the protein mutated in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome and their corresponding sporadic tumor counterparts. We have found that menin functions in promoting proper cell division. Here, we show that menin localizes to the mitotic spindle poles and the mitotic spindle during early mitosis and to the intercellular bridge microtubules during cytokinesis in HeLa cells. In our study, menin depletion led to defects in spindle assembly and chromosome congression during early mitosis, lagging chromosomes during anaphase, defective cytokinesis, multinucleated interphase cells, and cell death. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of the menin-MLL1 interaction also led to similar cell division defects. These results indicate that menin and the menin-MLL1 interaction are important for proper cell division. These results highlight a function for menin in cell division and aid our understanding of how mutation and misregulation of menin promotes tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2019-00274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6656424PMC
August 2019

Osteoporosis: The other interventions.

Reumatol Clin 2019 Jul - Aug;15(4):185-187

Hospital Aranda de la Parra. Morales Vargas Centro de Investigación, Hidalgo 320-704. León, 37000, GTO, México. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reuma.2019.05.002DOI Listing
April 2020

Dissecting the mechanisms of cell division.

J Biol Chem 2019 07 7;294(30):11382-11390. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095

Cell division is a highly regulated and carefully orchestrated process. Understanding the mechanisms that promote proper cell division is an important step toward unraveling important questions in cell biology and human health. Early studies seeking to dissect the mechanisms of cell division used classical genetics approaches to identify genes involved in mitosis and deployed biochemical approaches to isolate and identify proteins critical for cell division. These studies underscored that post-translational modifications and cyclin-kinase complexes play roles at the heart of the cell division program. Modern approaches for examining the mechanisms of cell division, including the use of high-throughput methods to study the effects of RNAi, cDNA, and chemical libraries, have evolved to encompass a larger biological and chemical space. Here, we outline some of the classical studies that established a foundation for the field and provide an overview of recent approaches that have advanced the study of cell division.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.AW119.008149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6663871PMC
July 2019

Leukemia Cell Cycle Chemical Profiling Identifies the G2-Phase Leukemia Specific Inhibitor Leusin-1.

ACS Chem Biol 2019 05 8;14(5):994-1001. Epub 2019 May 8.

Targeting the leukemia proliferation cycle has been a successful approach to developing antileukemic therapies. However, drug screening efforts to identify novel antileukemic agents have been hampered by the lack of a suitable high-throughput screening platform for suspension cells that does not rely on flow-cytometry analyses. We report the development of a novel leukemia cell-based high-throughput chemical screening platform for the discovery of cell cycle phase specific inhibitors that utilizes chemical cell cycle profiling. We have used this approach to analyze the cell cycle response of acute lymphoblastic leukemia CCRF-CEM cells to each of 181420 druglike compounds. This approach yielded cell cycle phase specific inhibitors of leukemia cell proliferation. Further analyses of the top G2-phase and M-phase inhibitors identified the leukemia specific inhibitor 1 (Leusin-1). Leusin-1 arrests cells in G2 phase and triggers an apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, Leusin-1 was more active in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells than other types of leukemias, non-blood cancers, or normal cells and represents a lead molecule for developing antileukemic drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.9b00173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6884739PMC
May 2019

Semimetallic Graphene for Infrared Sensing.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 May 16;11(21):19565-19571. Epub 2019 May 16.

R&D Division , WISE Control Inc. , 199, Sanggal-dong , Giheung-gu, Youngin-si , Gyeonggi-do 17097 , Republic of Korea.

Both photothermal and photovoltaic infrared (IR) detectors employ sensing materials that have an optical band gap. Different from these conventional materials, graphene has a conical band structure that imposes zero band gap. In this study, using the semimetallic multilayer graphene, IR detection at room temperature is realized. The relatively high Seebeck coefficient, ranging from 40 to 60 μV/K, compared to that of the metal, and the large optical absorption in the mid-IR region, in the wavelength range of 7-17 μm, enable graphene to detect IR without an absorber, which is essential for most IR detectors because the band gap of the sensing materials is much larger than the energy of IR and the incident IR can be absorbed directly by the sensing material. Thus, the incident IR can be absorbed directly by the sensing material in our device. The developed detector with a SiN membrane shows high responsivity and detectivity, which are 140 V/W and 5 × 10 cm·Hz/W at 5 Hz, respectively. In addition, the IR sensor shows a response time of 600 μs. In the room-temperature operation of the IR sensor array without cooling, our sensors detect IR emitted from a human body and track the movement. The availability of large-area graphene in current technology opens new applications for metallic two-dimensional materials and a possibility for scale-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b00977DOI Listing
May 2019

p38γ is essential for cell cycle progression and liver tumorigenesis.

Nature 2019 04 10;568(7753):557-560. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid, Spain.

The cell cycle is a tightly regulated process that is controlled by the conserved cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-cyclin protein complex. However, control of the G0-to-G1 transition is not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that p38 MAPK gamma (p38γ) acts as a CDK-like kinase and thus cooperates with CDKs, regulating entry into the cell cycle. p38γ shares high sequence homology, inhibition sensitivity and substrate specificity with CDK family members. In mouse hepatocytes, p38γ induces proliferation after partial hepatectomy by promoting the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma tumour suppressor protein at known CDK target residues. Lack of p38γ or treatment with the p38γ inhibitor pirfenidone protects against the chemically induced formation of liver tumours. Furthermore, biopsies of human hepatocellular carcinoma show high expression of p38γ, suggesting that p38γ could be a therapeutic target in the treatment of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1112-8DOI Listing
April 2019

Adiponectin accounts for gender differences in hepatocellular carcinoma incidence.

J Exp Med 2019 05 3;216(5):1108-1119. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid, Spain

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer type and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death. This cancer appears with higher incidence in men and during obesity; however, the specific mechanisms underlying this correlation are unknown. Adipose tissue, a key organ in metabolic syndrome, shows evident gender disparities in the production of adipokines. Levels of the important adipokine adiponectin decrease in men during puberty, as well as in the obese state. Here, we show that this decrease in adiponectin levels is responsible for the increased liver cancer risk in males. We found that testosterone activates the protein JNK in mouse and human adipocytes. JNK-mediated inhibition of adiponectin secretion increases liver cancer cell proliferation, since adiponectin protects against liver cancer development through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38α. This study provides insight into adipose tissue to liver crosstalk and its gender relation during cancer development, having the potential to guide strategies for new cancer therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20181288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6504215PMC
May 2019

Susceptibility of Cotton Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Spinosyns.

J Econ Entomol 2019 08;112(4):1688-1694

Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e Ambientais, Universidade Federal da Grande, Dourados, Dourados, MS, Brazil.

The control of boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boh., relies primarily on synthetic insecticides. Although insecticides are registered to spray cotton fields against boll weevils, only a few offer satisfactory control and most have broad-spectrum action. Alternatively, spinosyns have been recommended against lepidopteran pest species in cotton and are considered comparatively of reduced risk to nontargets. The susceptibility of nine populations of boll weevil to spinosad and spinetoram was determined through dried residue on squares and cotton leaves. Furthermore, control efficacy of spinosad and spinetoram compared with the standard organophosphate malathion was determined for caged adults at two different positions within the plant canopy or treated cotton leaves after different spray intervals. Boll weevil susceptibility varied across the nine populations and tested spinosyns. The lethal concentrations (LC50s and LC90s) varied from 8.62 to 32.25 and 49.86 to 281.70 mg a.i./l for spinosad and from 2.17 to 15.36 and 8.58 to 69.36 mg a.i./l for spinetoram. The location of boll weevil within the plant canopy affected the insecticide efficacy with higher mortality when caged on upper parts rather than on lower parts of cotton plants (>85% vs <45% of control) across all three insecticides. In addition, dried residues of spinosyns resulted in adult mortality >80% until the end of the evaluation period (8 d), while the standard malathion caused only 10% at this last evaluation time. Thus, we can conclude that both spinosyns promoted prolonged adult mortality using recommended field rates compared with the standard malathion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toz066DOI Listing
August 2019