Publications by authors named "Jorge Sierra"

236 Publications

Spanish Society of Hematology and Hemotherapy expert consensus opinion for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in onco-hematological patients.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Oct 20:1-13. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Hematology Department, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, different vaccines in front of SARS-CoV-2 have been approved and administered in different vulnerable populations. As patients with cancer were excluded from pivotal trials of vaccination, little is known on their immunogenic response to these vaccines, particularly in patients with severely impaired immune system. In response to that uncertainty, the Spanish Society of Hematology and Hemotherapy launched an initiative aimed to provide recommendations for vaccination of the main hematological conditions. This document is based on the available information on COVID-19 outcomes, prior knowledge on vaccination in hematological patients, recent published data on serological response in oncohematological patients and expert opinions. New information about SARS-CoV-2 vaccination will be gathered in the near future, providing new scientific grounds to delineate the most adequate management of vaccination in patients with hematological diseases. The current limited data on SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in hematological patients represents a major limitation of this expert consensus opinion. In fact, the speed in which this field evolves may reduce their validity in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1992619DOI Listing
October 2021

The impact of GVHD on outcomes after adult single cord blood transplantation in European and Japanese populations.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Eurocord, Hospital Saint Louis, AP-HP, IUH University Paris VII, Paris, France.

The impact of GVHD and graft-versus-leukemia effect in unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is controversial. In the Eurocord/ALWP EBMT and JSTCT/JDCHCT collaborative study, we evaluated the impact of GVHD on UCBT outcomes in Japanese and European registries. A total of 3,690 adult patients with acute leukemia who received their first single UCBT were included. A multivariate analysis of overall survival (OS) revealed a positive impact of grade II acute GVHD compared with grade 0-I GVHD, in the Japanese cohort (hazard ratio (HR), 0.81; P = 0.001), and an adverse impact in the European cohort (HR, 1.37; P = 0.007). A negative impact of grade III-IV acute GVHD on OS was observed regardless of registries. In the analysis of relapse, a positive impact of grade II acutes GVHD compared with grade 0-I GVHD was observed only in the Japanese cohort, regardless of disease risk. The positive impact of limited chronic GVHD on OS was observed only in the Japanese cohort. In conclusion, a positive impact of mild GVHD after a single UCBT was observed only in the Japanese cohort. This could explain the ethnic difference in UCBT outcomes and might contribute to the preference usage of UCBT in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01479-4DOI Listing
October 2021

CEBPA bZip mutations: just a single shot.

Blood 2021 Sep;138(13):1091-1092

Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011263DOI Listing
September 2021

Prognostic impact of DNMT3A mutation in acute myeloid leukemia with mutated NPM1.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Hospital Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

The negative prognostic impact of FLT3-ITD in patients with acute myeloid leukemia with mutated NPM1 (AML-NPM1) is restricted to patients with a higher FLT3-ITD allelic ratio (≥0.5; FLT3high) and considered negligible in wild-type (FLT3wt)/low ITD ratio (FLT3low) patients. Since the co-mutation of DNMT3A (DNMT3Amut) has been suggested to negatively influence the prognosis of AML-NPM1, we analyzed DNMT3Amut impact in FLT3-ITD subsets (absent, low and high ratio). A total of 164 patients diagnosed with AML-NPM1 who received intensive chemotherapy according to two consecutive protocols (AML-03 and AML-12) were selected: 76 harboring FLT3-ITD (46%), 79 DNMT3Amut (48%), and 39 (24%) showing both mutations. Overall, DNMT3A mutational status did not show prognostic impact with comparable OS (mut vs. wt 62±6% vs. 56±6%; p=0.2), RR (22±11% vs. 31±11%; p=0.2) and LFS (65±6 vs. 54±6, p=0.1). Prognostic stratification established by FLT3-ITD (FLT3wt= FLT3low> FLT3high) was independent of DNMT3A mutational status. Measurable residual disease (MRD) based on NPM1 quantitative-PCR kinetics was available in 94 patients. DNMT3Amut was associated with a higher number of mutated NPM1 transcripts following induction (p=0.012) and first consolidation (C1; p<0.001). All DNMT3Amut patients were MRD positive following C1 (p<0.001) and exhibit significant MRD persistence after second and third consolidations (MRD positive vs. negative p=0.027 and p=0.001). Finally, DNMT3Amut patients presented a trend to greater risk of molecular relapse (p=0.054). When molecular failure was proven, patients underwent an allogeneic transplant. In conclusion, DNMT3Amut did not modify overall prognosis exerted by FLT3-ITD in AML-NPM1 despite delayed MRD clearance, possibly due to MRD-driven pre-emptive intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020004136DOI Listing
September 2021

Predictors of return to work after autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Amyloidosis and Myeloma Unit, Department of Hematology, Hospital Clínic of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Return to work (RTW) is a marker of functional recovery in cancer patients, with quality of life, financial and social implications. We investigated frequency and factors associated with RTW in a cohort of patients younger than 66 years, with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM), uniformly treated with a bortezomib-based induction followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Socio-economic and working status data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. One hundred and eighty-six patients entered the study. Of whom, 145 (78%) where employed at diagnosis, which was more frequent in younger (median 55 vs. 60 years, p < 0.001), men (59.3% vs. 34.2%, p = 0.004), and with college studies (44.8% vs. 24.4%, p = 0.008). Forty-three (30%) of the 145 patients who had a job at diagnosis, RTW after ASCT in a median of 5 (range 1-27) months. Factors independently associated with RTW were having three or more children (HR 2.87, 95% CI 1.33-6.18), college studies (HR 2.78, 95% CI 1.21-6.41), and a family income >40 × 10€/year (HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.12-4.78). In conclusion, the frequency of RTW herein reported in MM patients seems lower than reported in other malignancies. The risk factors observed may guide the design RTW programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01429-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Molecular landscape and prognostic impact of FLT3-ITD insertion site in acute myeloid leukemia: RATIFY study results.

Leukemia 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) internal tandem duplications of the FLT3 gene (FLT3-ITD) are associated with poor prognosis. Retrospectively, we investigated the prognostic and predictive impact of FLT3-ITD insertion site (IS) in 452 patients randomized within the RATIFY trial, which evaluated midostaurin additionally to intensive chemotherapy. Next-generation sequencing identified 908 ITDs, with 643 IS in the juxtamembrane domain (JMD) and 265 IS in the tyrosine kinase domain-1 (TKD1). According to IS, patients were categorized as JMDsole (n = 251, 55%), JMD and TKD1 (JMD/TKD1; n = 117, 26%), and TKD1sole (n = 84, 19%). While clinical variables did not differ among the 3 groups, NPM1 mutation was correlated with JMDsole (P = 0.028). Overall survival (OS) differed significantly, with estimated 4-year OS probabilities of 0.44, 0.50, and 0.30 for JMDsole, JMD/TKD1, and TKD1sole, respectively (P = 0.032). Multivariate (cause-specific) Cox models for OS and cumulative incidence of relapse using allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in first complete remission as a time-dependent variable identified TKD1sole as unfavorable and HCT as favorable factors. In addition, Midostaurin exerted a significant benefit only for JMDsole. Our results confirm the distinct molecular heterogeneity of FLT3-ITD and the negative prognostic impact of TKD1 IS in AML that was not overcome by midostaurin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01323-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Standardizing Definitions of Hematopoietic Recovery, Graft Rejection, Graft Failure, Poor Graft Function, and Donor Chimerism in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Report on Behalf of the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08;27(8):642-649

West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is potentially curative for certain hematologic malignancies and nonmalignant diseases. The field of allo-HCT has witnessed significant advances, including broadening indications for transplantation, availability of alternative donor sources, less toxic preparative regimens, new cell manipulation techniques, and novel GVHD prevention methods, all of which have expanded the applicability of the procedure. These advances have led to clinical practice conundrums when applying traditional definitions of hematopoietic recovery, graft rejection, graft failure, poor graft function, and donor chimerism, because these may vary based on donor type, cell source, cell dose, primary disease, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, and conditioning intensity, among other variables. To address these contemporary challenges, we surveyed a panel of allo-HCT experts in an attempt to standardize these definitions. We analyzed survey responses from adult and pediatric transplantation physicians separately. Consensus was achieved for definitions of neutrophil and platelet recovery, graft rejection, graft failure, poor graft function, and donor chimerism, but not for delayed engraftment. Here we highlight the complexities associated with the management of mixed donor chimerism in malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases, which remains an area for future research. We recognize that there are multiple other specific, and at times complex, clinical scenarios for which clinical management must be individualized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.007DOI Listing
August 2021

Venetoclax in relapsed/refractory blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with central nervous system involvement: a case report and review of the literature.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Jun 26;15(1):326. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Haematology Department. Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Mas Casanovas 90, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: We describe a patient with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with central nervous system involvement and the outcome of venetoclax use in this setting.

Case Presentation: A 54-year-old Caucasian male was referred to the Haematology Unit with an enlarged inguinal lymph node which was diagnostic of a blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. The staging revealed disseminated disease (skin, visceral, lymph nodes, and bone marrow). He received chemotherapy with an acute myeloid leukaemia-like regime. Afterwards, he underwent allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, though it was not successful, showing a relapse 14 months later with hepatic and central nervous system dissemination. Intrathecal chemotherapy was administered, and venetoclax (anti-bcl2 agent) was started in an off-label indication based on most recent literature. The disease halted its course for 3 months. In the end, the patient's disease progressed and so he succumbed due to infectious complications.

Conclusions: Venetoclax monotherapy seems not enough to control the disease progression under CNS involvement and other treatments should be investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-021-02939-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235836PMC
June 2021

Severe infections and infection-related mortality in a large series of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 10 31;56(10):2432-2444. Epub 2021 May 31.

Hematology Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, IIB-Sant Pau and Jose Carreras Leukemia Research Institutes, Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Severe infections and their attributable mortality are major complications in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We herein report 236 adult patients who received haploSCT with PTCy. The median follow-up for survivors was 37 months. The overall incidence of bloodstream infections by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria at 37 months was 51% and 46%, respectively. The incidence of cytomegalovirus infection was 69%, while Epstein Barr virus infections occurred in 10% of patients and hemorrhagic cystitis in 35% of cases. Invasive fungal infections occurred in 11% at 17 months. The 3-year incidence of infection-related mortality was 19%. The median interval from transplant to IRM was 3 months (range 1-30), 53% of IRM occurred >100 days post-haploSCT. Risk factors for IRM included age >50 years, lymphoid malignancy, and developing grade III-IV acute GvHD. Bacterial infections were the most common causes of IRM (51%), mainly due to gram-negative bacilli BSI. In conclusion, severe infections are the most common causes of NRM after haploSCT with PTCy, with a reemergence of gram-negative bacilli as the most lethal pathogens. More studies focusing on the severe infections after haploSCT with PTCy and differences with other types of alloSCT in adults are clearly warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01328-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165955PMC
October 2021

Antineoplastic effect of a diphtheria toxin-based nanoparticle targeting acute myeloid leukemia cells overexpressing CXCR4.

J Control Release 2021 07 15;335:117-129. Epub 2021 May 15.

Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB-Sant Pau), Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; Josep Carreras Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain; CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Nanomedicine has opened an opportunity to improve current clinical practice by enhancing the selectivity in the delivery of antitumor drugs to specific cancer cells. These new strategies are able to bypass toxicity on normal cells increasing the effectiveness of current anticancer treatments. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) current chemotherapy treatments generate a relevant toxic impact in normal cells and severe side effects or even patient death. In this study, we have designed a self-assembling protein nanoparticle, T22-DITOX-H6, which incorporates a ligand (T22) targeting CXCR4-overexpressing (CXCR4) cells, and a potent cytotoxic diphtheria toxin domain. CXCR4 is overexpressed in AML leukemic cells and associates with poor prognosis, being, therefore, a relevant clinical target. We demonstrate here that T22-DITOX-H6 induces apoptosis in CXCR4 leukemic cells through CXCR4-dependent internalization. In addition, repeated T22-DITOX-H6 treatment (10 μg/dose per 10 doses, intravenously injected) in a disseminated AML mouse model (NSG mice intravenously injected with THP-1-Luci cells, n = 10 per group) potently blocks the dissemination of AML cells in bone marrow, spleen and liver of treated mice, without inducing toxicity in healthy tissues. In conclusion, our strategy of selectively ablating CXCR4 positive leukemic cells by administering the T22-DITOX-H6 nanoparticle could be a promising treatment, especially in patients undergoing AML relapse after chemotherapy, in which leukemic cells overexpress CXCR4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.05.014DOI Listing
July 2021

Memory stem T cells modified with a redesigned CD30-chimeric antigen receptor show an enhanced antitumor effect in Hodgkin lymphoma.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 29;10(4):e1268. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Hematology Service Hospital de la Santa Creu y Sant Pau Barcelona Spain.

Objectives: Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with mature T cells modified with a chimeric antigen receptor has demonstrated improved outcome for B-cell malignancies. However, its application for others such as Hodgkin lymphoma remains a clinical challenge. CD30 antigen, expressed in Hodgkin lymphoma cells, is absent in most healthy tissues, representing an ideal target of ACT for this disease. Despite that, efficacy of CD30-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells for Hodgkin lymphoma remains modest. Here, we have developed and tested a novel CD30-CAR T to improve efficacy of CD30-CAR therapy, using a targeting epitope within the non-cleavable part of CD30 receptor, and memory stem T cells (T) to improve engraftment, persistence and antitumor activity.

Methods: T cultures were generated and expanded and transduced at day 1 or 2 with a lentiviral vector encoding the CD30-CAR. Therapeutic experiments were performed using NSG mice injected with L540 (sc) or L428 (iv) and treated with CD30-CAR T cells when the tumor was established.

Results: CD30-CAR T cells generated and expanded , despite CD30 expression and fratricide killing of CD30 CAR T cells, were not impaired by soluble CD30 and completely eradicated Hodgkin lymphoma , showing high persistence and long-lasting immunity. In addition, highly enriched CD30-CAR T products confer a survival advantage , in contrast to more differentiated CAR T cells, with higher tumor infiltration and enhanced antitumor effect.

Conclusion: This study supports the use of a refined CD30-CAR T cells with highly enriched T products to improve clinical efficacy of CAR T for Hodgkin lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cti2.1268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082716PMC
April 2021

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin for First-Line Treatment of Patients with Cd-33 Positive Acute Myeloid Leukaemia in Spain.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2021 22;13:263-277. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Hospital Universitario de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: To assess the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) + standard of care (SOC) vs SOC alone for treatment of patients with AML from a Spanish Health Service perspective.

Methods: A cohort state-transition model, with 12 health-states, was used to estimate the lifetime accumulated cost and benefits in terms of quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) in AML patients with favourable, intermediate, and unknown cytogenetic profiles. Patient profile was defined based on the ALFA-0701 trial. Therapeutic regimens were defined by 5 haematologists. SOC was assumed to be idarubicin and cytarabine, the combination most used in Spain. QALYs were estimated by applying utilities for the time spent by the cohort in each health-state and utility decrements associated with adverse events (AE). Total cost (€,2020) included drug-acquisition, hematologic stem-cell transplantation, disease management, AE management and end-of-life costs. Unit costs were derived from local databases. All parameters were validated by haematologist. Costs and outcomes were discounted (3%/year).

Results: Higher cost/patient (€177,618 vs €151,434) and greater QALYs (5,70 vs 4,62) were obtained with GO+SOC vs SOC. The ICUR was €24,203/QALY gained.

Conclusion: This simulation suggests that GO + SOC could be a cost-effective option for treatment of patients with AML in first line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEOR.S302097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8075179PMC
April 2021

Health Economic Aspects of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell Therapies for Hematological Cancers: Present and Future.

Hemasphere 2021 Feb 28;5(2):e524. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Since 2018, 2 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies received approval from the European Medicine Agency, with list prices around 320 000 Euro (€) (EUR) per treatment. These high prices raise concerns for patient access and the sustainability of healthcare systems. We aimed to estimate the costs and budget impact associated with CAR T-cell therapies for current and future indications in hematological cancers from 2019 to 2029. We focused on the former France, Germany, Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom (EU-5) and the Netherlands. We conducted a review of list prices, health technology assessment reports, budget impact analysis dossiers, and published cost-effectiveness analyses. We forecasted the 10-year health expenditures on CAR T-cells for several hematological cancers in selected European Union countries. Nine cost-effectiveness studies were identified and list prices for CAR T-cell therapies ranged between 307 200 EUR and 350 000 EUR. Estimated additional costs for pre- and post-treatment were 50 359 EUR per patient, whereas the incremental costs of CAR T-cell therapy (when compared with care as usual) ranged between 276 086 EUR and 328 727 EUR. We estimated market entry of CAR T-cell therapies for chronic mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and acute myeloid leukemia in 2021, 2022, 2022, 2022, and 2025, respectively. Cumulative expenditure estimates for existing and future indications from 2019 to 2029 were on average 28.5 billion EUR, 32.8 billion EUR, and 28.9 billion EUR when considering CAR T-cell therapy costs only, CAR T-cell therapy costs including pre- and post-treatment, and incremental CAR T-cell therapy costs, respectively. CAR T-cell therapies seem to be promising treatment options for hematological cancers but the financial burden on healthcare systems in the former EU-5 and the Netherlands will contribute to a substantial rise in healthcare expenditure in the field of hematology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8051992PMC
February 2021

Combining Three Different Pretransplantation Scores Improves Predictive Value in Patients after Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation with Thiotepa, Busulfan, and Fludarabine Conditioning and Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 07 26;27(7):614.e1-614.e8. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Hematology Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, IIB-Sant Pau and Jose Carreras Leukemia Research Institute, Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

One hundred and sixty-one patients underwent haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haploSCT) with thiotepa, busulfan, and fludarabine conditioning followed by post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) (on days +3 and +4) and tacrolimus as graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Forty-two percent of patients had a high or very high revised Disease Risk Index (rDRI), 55% had an European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation risk score (EBMT-RS) ≥4, and 36% had an age-adjusted Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI-age) score ≥3. Each of these was considered an unfavorable score. Using the pretransplantation unfavorable scores that had an independent impact on each transplantation outcome studied in multivariate analysis allowed for better stratification of patient outcomes. Thus, the 3-year overall survival (OS) in patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 unfavorable scores was 86%, 56%, 36%, and 24%, respectively. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was negatively impacted by the EBMT-RS and the HCT-CI-age score (3-year NRM in patients with 0, 1, and 2 unfavorable scores was 12%, 33%, and 43%, respectively), whereas the EBMT-RS and the rDRI had an impact on the 3-year relapse incidence (8%, 18%, and 41% in patients with 0, 1, and 2 unfavorable scores, respectively). In conclusion, our study shows that combining 2 or 3 of these well-defined pretransplantation scores improves the ability to predict transplantation outcomes in the setting of haploSCT with PTCy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.021DOI Listing
July 2021

Specific Cytotoxic Effect of an Auristatin Nanoconjugate Towards CXCR4 Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Cells.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 5;16:1869-1888. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB-Sant Pau), Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, 08025, Spain.

Background And Purpose: Around 40-50% of diffuse large-B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients suffer from refractory disease or relapse after R-CHOP first-line treatment. Many ongoing clinical trials for DLBCL patients involve microtubule targeting agents (MTAs), however, their anticancer activity is limited by severe side effects. Therefore, we chose to improve the therapeutic window of the MTA monomethyl auristatin E developing a nanoconjugate, T22-AUR, that selectively targets the CXCR4 receptor, which is overexpressed in many DLBCL cells (CXCR4) and associated with poor prognosis.

Methods: The T22-AUR specificity towards CXCR4 receptor was performed by flow cytometry in different DLBCL cell lines and running biodistribution assays in a subcutaneous mouse model bearing CXCR4 DLBCL cells. Moreover, we determined T22-AUR cytotoxicity using cell viability assays, cell cycle analysis, DAPI staining and immunohistochemistry. Finally, the T22-AUR antineoplastic effect was evaluated in vivo in an extranodal CXCR4 DLBCL mouse model whereas the toxicity analysis was assessed by histopathology in non-infiltrated mouse organs and by in vitro cytotoxic assays in human PBMCs.

Results: We demonstrate that the T22-AUR nanoconjugate displays CXCR4-dependent targeting and internalization in CXCR4 DLBCL cells in vitro as well as in a subcutaneous DLBCL mouse model. Moreover, it shows high cytotoxic effect in CXCR4 DLBCL cells, including induction of G2/M mitotic arrest, DNA damage, mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis. Furthermore, the nanoconjugate shows a potent reduction in lymphoma mouse dissemination without histopathological alterations in non-DLBCL infiltrated organs. Importantly, T22-AUR also exhibits lack of toxicity in human PBMCs.

Conclusion: T22-AUR exerts in vitro and in vivo anticancer effect on CXCR4 DLBCL cells without off-target toxicity. Thus, T22-AUR promises to become an effective therapy for CXCR4 DLBCL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S289733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944372PMC
March 2021

Midostaurin reduces relapse in FLT3-mutant acute myeloid leukemia: the Alliance CALGB 10603/RATIFY trial.

Leukemia 2021 09 2;35(9):2539-2551. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland.

The prospective randomized, placebo-controlled CALGB 10603/RATIFY trial (Alliance) demonstrated a statistically significant overall survival benefit from the addition of midostaurin to standard frontline chemotherapy in a genotypically-defined subgroup of 717 patients with FLT3-mutant acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The risk of death was reduced by 22% on the midostaurin-containing arm. In this post hoc analysis, we analyzed the cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) on this study and also evaluated the impact of 12 4-week cycles of maintenance therapy. CIR analyses treated relapses and AML deaths as events, deaths from other causes as competing risks, and survivors in remission were censored. CIR was improved on the midostaurin arm (HR = 0.71 (95% CI, 0.54-0.93); p = 0.01), both overall and within European LeukemiaNet 2017 risk classification subsets when post-transplant events were considered in the analysis as events. However, when transplantation was considered as a competing risk, there was overall no significant difference between the risks of relapse on the two randomized arms. Patients still in remission after consolidation with high-dose cytarabine entered the maintenance phase, continuing with either midostaurin or placebo. Analyses were inconclusive in quantifying the impact of the maintenance phase on the overall outcome. In summary, midostaurin reduces the CIR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01179-4DOI Listing
September 2021

[Quality of working life for dentists in Antioquia 2011-2012].

Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) 2020 Nov;20(6):684-691

HA: Educación Área Sistematización de Datos. M. Sc. Salud Pública. Docente, Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública. Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

Objective: To analyze the Quality of Life at Work (QOL) of dentists in Antioquia, Colombia, based on objective and subjective components.

Materials And Methods: A sample of 323 dentists was used for a descriptive study using a structured survey. Data were processed using in SPSS 17.0 and Epidat 3.1 software.

Results: Significant trends (p<0.05) were found for the decrease of male, home-based and postgraduate professionals. Fewer and fewer professionals earn more than five times the legal monthly minimum wage, have access to private health services, and enjoy more than 15 vacation days per year. On the other hand, the number of dentists that cover their social security expenses and updating courses costs by themselves Increased, as well as the number of professionals that moved to different municipalities to work (p<0.05). Working conditions and the distance between dreams and reality have meaningful differences for the periods observed.

Discussion: Findings ratify the incidence of health and education reforms over the practice of dentistry, revealing significant supply and demand conflicts that exacerbate the deterioration of working conditions and push professionals to merely accommodate, more and more, distancing from the once dreamed profession.

Conclusion: The QOL for dentists in Antioquia has deteriorated due to negative tendencies on working conditions derived from the complexity and crisis of the working environment. In addition, professionals do not attempt to associate to face and transform this reality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/rsap.V20n6.52054DOI Listing
November 2020

Patterns of infection and infectious-related mortality in patients receiving post-transplant high dose cyclophosphamide as graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis: impact of HLA donor matching.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 04 26;56(4):818-827. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Hematology Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Sant Pau and Jose Carreras Leukemia Research Institutes, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has become a promising option after allo-SCT, but infections may be more common than in traditional protocols. We herein report 117 consecutive adults who received PTCy-based alloSCT in our hospital: HaploSCT (34%), MRD (19%), and VUD (47%), respectively. The 18-month incidence of severe bacterial, viral, and IFI was 56%, 69%, and 8.7%, without differences between donor type, except for CMV infection and viral hemorrhagic cystitis, which had a higher incidence in the haploSCT cohort (58% vs. 43% and 30% vs. 8% on day +90, p < 0.05). Late infections by conventional respiratory viruses were common in all groups [33/87 (38%)]. The 2-year survival was 72% and did not differ by donor type. IRM at day 30, day 100, and 18 months was 1.7%, 4.4%, and 12%, without differences by donor type (p = 0.7). The primary cause of IRM was bacterial infection (42%). Grade 2-4 acute GvHD was the only independent predictor of IRM. Donor type had no impact on IRM or on survival. In our study, severe infections were common in all donor types using PTCy, with higher rates of early post-engraftment CMV-I and viral HC in haploSCT recipients, although lethal infections were uncommon and similar in all donor types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01092-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587539PMC
April 2021

Midostaurin in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and FLT3-TKD mutations: a subanalysis from the RATIFY trial.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(19):4945-4954

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus der TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany; and.

The results from the RATIFY trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00651261; CALGB 10603) showed that midostaurin combined with standard chemotherapy significantly improved outcomes in patients with FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML), compared with placebo. In this post hoc subgroup analysis from the trial, we evaluated the impact of midostaurin in 163 patients with FLT3-tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutations. At a median follow-up of 60.7 months (95% CI, 55.0-70.8), the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was significantly higher in patients treated with midostaurin than in those treated with placebo (45.2% vs 30.1%; P = .044). A trend toward improved disease-free survival was also observed with midostaurin (67.3% vs 53.4%; P = .089), whereas overall survival (OS) was similar in the 2 groups. Patients with AML and NPM1mut/FLT3-TKDmut or core binding factor (CBF)-rearranged/FLT3-TKDmut genotypes had significantly prolonged OS with or without censoring at hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), compared with NPM1WT/CBF-negative AMLs. The multivariable model for OS and EFS adjusted for allogeneic HCT in first complete remission as a time-dependent covariable, revealed NPM1 mutations and CBF rearrangements as significant favorable factors. These data show that NPM1 mutations or CBF rearrangements identify favorable prognostic groups in patients with FLT3-TKD AMLs, independent of other factors, also in the context of midostaurin treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556122PMC
October 2020

Reduced-Intensity versus Myeloablative Conditioning in Cord Blood Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia (40-60 years) across Highly Mismatched HLA Barriers-On Behalf of Eurocord and the Cellular Therapy & Immunobiology Working Party (CTIWP) of EBMT.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 11 26;26(11):2098-2104. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Eurocord, Hopital Saint Louis-EA3518, Paris, France; Haematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

The use of myeloablative conditioning (MAC) in umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) has been associated with high nonrelapse mortality (NRM) in patients aged >40 years, especially those having a high HLA disparity, thus limiting wider applications. We hypothesized that the NRM advantage of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and higher graft-versus-leukemia effect associated with greater HLA disparities would expand its use for patients (aged 40 to 60 years) without compromising efficacy and compared outcomes between RIC and MAC regimens. In total, 288 patients aged 40 to 60 years, with de novo acute myeloid leukemia, receiving UCBT with at least 2 HLA mismatches with RIC (n = 166) or MAC (n = 122) regimens were included. As compared to RIC, the MAC cohort included relatively younger patients, having received more single UCBT, with lower total nucleated cell counts and more in vivo T cell depletion. Median time to neutrophil engraftment, infections (bacterial, viral, and fungal), and grade II to IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were similar in both groups. In the multivariate analysis, overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.98; P = .9), NRM (HR, 0.68; P = .2), and relapse (HR, 1.24; P = .5) were not different between RIC and MAC. Refractory disease was associated with worse survival. Outcomes of UBCT for patients aged 40 to 60 years having ≥2 HLA mismatches are comparable after the RIC or MAC regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.07.025DOI Listing
November 2020

Current status of acute myeloid leukaemia in Spain: Results from a Delphi study on its epidemiology, disease management and unmet clinical needs.

Med Clin (Barc) 2021 06 29;156(11):573-574. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2020.04.032DOI Listing
June 2021

Low Rate of Invasive Fungal Infections During Induction and Consolidation Chemotherapy for Adults with De Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Anti-mold Prophylaxis: Single-Center 2002-2018 Empirical/Pre-emptive Approach.

Mycopathologia 2020 Aug 20;185(4):639-652. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Division of Clinical Hematology, Department of Radiology, Hospital de la Sant Creu i Sant Pau, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Av. Mas Casanovas, 90, 08041, Barcelona, Spain.

Broad-spectrum antifungal prophylaxis is currently considered the standard of care for adults with de novo AML for the prevention of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), especially invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Because fluconazole has been used in our center as anti-yeast prophylaxis, we sought to analyze in detail the incidence of IFIs over a 17-year period, as well as their impact on outcome. A standardized protocol of patient management, including serum galactomannan screening and thoracic CT-guided diagnostic-driven antifungal therapy, was used in all patients. A total of 214 consecutive adults with de novo AML who were treated in 3 CETLAM (Grupo Cooperativo para el Estudio y Tratamiento de las Leucemias Agudas y Mielodisplasias) protocols from 2002 to 2018 were included. The 90-day incidence of any IFI (including possible cases) was 11% (95% CI 4-15%), most cases occurred during induction chemotherapy (8%, 95% CI 4-12%), and most cases were probable/proven IPA (8%, 95% CI 3-13%). Developing an IFI during induction and consolidation had no impact on 1-year survival. A case-control study with 23 cases of IPA and 69 controls identified induction/re-induction chemotherapy, chronic pulmonary disease and age > 60 years/poor baseline performance status as potential pretreatment risk factors. The current study proves that inpatient induction and consolidation chemotherapy for de novo AML can be given in areas with "a priori" high-burden of airborne molds with fluconazole prophylaxis, while the selective use of anti-mold prophylaxis in patients at very high risk may further reduce the incidence of IFI in this specific clinical scenario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-020-00461-wDOI Listing
August 2020

Acute myeloid leukemia with NPM1 mutation and favorable European LeukemiaNet category: outcome after preemptive intervention based on measurable residual disease.

Br J Haematol 2020 10 8;191(1):52-61. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Hematology Department, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

In the European LeukemiaNet favourable risk category, allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is not indicated in first complete remission for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with NPM1 mutations (ELNfav NPM1 AML), although a proportion of these patients will relapse. Given the prognostic importance of measurable residual disease (MRD), CETLAM-12 considered a pre-emptive intervention in patients with molecular failure (MF). We analyzed 110 ELNfav NPM1 AML patients achieving complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. Two-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), overall survival (OS) and leukaemia-free survival (LFS) were 17%, 81·5% and 82%, respectively. Forty-six patients required additional therapy for MF (n = 33) or haematological relapse (HemR; n = 13), resulting in a molecular LFS (molLFS) and a cumulative incidence of MF at two years of 61% and 38% respectively. Two-year OS for these 46 patients was 66%, with a different outcome between patients with MF (86%) and HemR (42%) (P = 0·002). Quantitative NPM1 detection at different timepoints was predictive of molLFS; an MRD ratio (NPM1mut/ABL1 × 100) cut-off of 0·05 after first consolidation identified two cohorts with a two-year molLFS of 77% and 40% for patients below and above 0·05, respectively. In conclusion, MRD-based pre-emptive intervention resulted in a favourable outcome for ELNfav NPM1 AML patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16857DOI Listing
October 2020

Impact of detectable measurable residual disease on umbilical cord blood transplantation.

Am J Hematol 2020 09 30;95(9):1057-1065. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

EBMT Paris Study Office/CEREST-TC, Paris, France.

The impact of measurable residual disease (MRD) on cord blood transplantation (CBT) outcomes has remained debated. To address this issue, we assessed the impact of measurable MRD at CBT on outcomes in large cohort of patients with acute leukemia. Inclusion criteria included adult patients with acute myeloid (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), CBT as first allo-HCT in first or second complete remission (CR) at transplantation, and known MRD status at the time of CBT. Data from 506 patients were included in the analysis. Among them, 317 patients had AML and 189 had ALL. Positive MRD was reported in 169 (33%) patients while the remaining 337 patients were MRD negative at CBT. At 2 years, relapse incidence was 18% in patients with MRD negativity vs 33% in those with MRD positivity at transplantation (P < .001). Two-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) were 57% and 60%, respectively, in MRD negative patients, vs 38% (P < .001) and 48% (P = .004), respectively, in those with MRD positivity. There was no interaction between the impact of MRD on OS and LFS and diagnosis (ie, ALL vs AML), single or double CBT, and reduced-intensity or myeloablative conditioning. On multivariate analysis, MRD positivity was associated with a higher risk of relapse (HR = 1.8, P = .003), comparable non-relapse mortality (P = .44), worse LFS (HR = 1.4, P = .008) and a trend towards worse OS (HR = 1.3, P = .065). In conclusion, these data suggest that novel strategies that are aiming to achieve MRD negativity at CBT are needed for leukemic patients with positive MRD pre-CBT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25879DOI Listing
September 2020

Selective delivery of T22-PE24-H6 to CXCR4 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells leads to wide therapeutic index in a disseminated mouse model.

Theranostics 2020 6;10(12):5169-5180. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB-Sant Pau), Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona Spain.

: Novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to reduce relapse rates and enhance survival in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. CXCR4-overexpressing cancer cells are good targets for therapy because of their association with dissemination and relapse in R-CHOP treated DLBCL patients. Immunotoxins that incorporate bacterial toxins are potentially effective in treating haematological neoplasias, but show a narrow therapeutic index due to the induction of severe side effects. Therefore, when considering the delivery of these toxins as cancer therapeutics, there is a need not only to increase their uptake in the target cancer cells, and their stability in blood, but also to reduce their systemic toxicity. We have developed a therapeutic nanostructured protein T22-PE24-H6 that incorporates exotoxin A from which selectively targets lymphoma cells because of its specific interaction with a highly overexpressed CXCR4 receptor (CXCR4) in DLBCL. : T22-PE24-H6 cytotoxicity and its dependence on the CXCR4 receptor were evaluated in DLBCL cell lines using cell viability assays. Different experiments (mitochondrial membrane potential, Western Blot, Annexin V and DAPI staining) were conducted to determine T22-PE24-H6 cell death mechanisms. imaging and therapeutic effect studies were performed in a disseminated DLBCL mouse model that mimics organ infiltration in DLBCL patients. Finally, immunohistochemistry and histopathology analyses were used to evaluate the antineoplastic effect and systemic toxicity. : T22-PE24-H6 induced selective cell death of CXCR4 DLBCL cells by activating the apoptotic pathway. In addition, repeated T22-PE24-H6 intravenous administration in a CXCR4 DLBCL-disseminated mouse model showed a significant reduction of lymphoma burden in organs clinically affected by DLBCL cells (lymph nodes and bone marrow). Finally, we did not observe systemic toxicity associated to the nanoparticle treatment in non-DLBCL-infiltrated organs. : We have demonstrated here a potent T22-PE24-H6 antineoplastic effect, especially in blocking dissemination in a CXCR4 DLBCL model without associated toxicity. Thereby, T22-PE24-H6 promises to become an effective alternative to treat CXCR4 disseminated refractory or relapsed DLBCL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.43231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196303PMC
July 2021

Association of Serum Ferritin Levels Before Start of Conditioning With Mortality After alloSCT - A Prospective, Non-interventional Study of the EBMT Transplant Complications Working Party.

Front Immunol 2020 15;11:586. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Elevated serum ferritin levels occur due to iron overload or during inflammation and macrophage activation. A correlation of high serum ferritin levels with increased mortality after alloSCT has been suggested by several retrospective analyses as well as by two smaller prospective studies. This prospective multicentric study aimed to study the association of ferritin serum levels before start of conditioning with alloSCT outcome. Patients with acute leukemia, lymphoma or MDS receiving a matched sibling alloSCT for the first time were considered for inclusion, regardless of conditioning. A comparison of outcomes between patients with high and low ferritin level was performed using univariate analysis and multivariate analysis using cause-specific Cox model. Twenty centers reported data on 298 alloSCT recipients. The ferritin cut off point was determined at 1500 μg/l (median of measured ferritin levels). In alloSCT recipients with ferritin levels above cut off measured before the start of conditioning, overall survival (HR = 2.5, CI = 1.5-4.1, = 0.0005) and progression-free survival (HR = 2.4, CI = 1.6-3.8, < 0.0001) were inferior. Excess mortality in the high ferritin group was due to both higher relapse incidence (HR = 2.2, CI = 1.2-3.8, = 0.007) and increased non-relapse mortality (NRM) (HR = 3.1, CI = 1.5-6.4, = 0.002). NRM was driven by significantly higher infection-related mortality in the high ferritin group (HR = 3.9, CI = 1.6-9.7, = 0.003). Acute and chronic GVHD incidence or severity were not associated to serum ferritin levels. We conclude that ferritin levels can serve as routine laboratory biomarker for mortality risk assessment before alloSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174614PMC
March 2021

Gene expression workflow to analyze residual leukemic cells in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

Int J Lab Hematol 2020 Aug 25;42(4):423-430. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Laboratory of Oncology/Hematology and Transplantation, Biomedical Research Institute, IIB Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, a better understanding of leukemic cell characteristics after treatment would help to design specific therapeutic approaches aimed at preventing clinical relapse. Gene arrays have become a powerful approach to perform gene expression profiling; nevertheless, to work with residual cells entails an intensive labor. The aim of this study was to set forth an effective gene expression approach to analyze residual leukemic cells.

Methods: Leukocytes from CLL patient's samples were sorted by flow cytometry using a 6-color panel. The quality and quantity of RNA isolated from different inputs of cells were compared by two silica column protocols: RNeasy Micro and RNeasy Mini. RNA amplifications were carried out according to two manufacturer's protocols: Ovation Pico SL and Ovation Pico WTA. A total of 3.5 μg of cDNA was labeled and hybridized to Human Gene 2.0 ST arrays.

Results: RNA extracted from low number of input cells by RNeasy Micro showed similar RNA integrity number to that obtained from RNeasy Mini; however, the RNA quantity was higher using the RNeasy Micro Kit. In addition, those RNA samples obtained with RNeasy Micro and amplified with Ovation Pico WTA showed good quality to proceed for a gene array study, independently of the number of input cells (range: 1 × 10 -5 × 10 cells).

Conclusions: We observed that this workflow is a feasible approach to obtain genomic material extracted from leukemic cells as little as 1 × 10 cells and it can be useful to carry out gene expression profile experiments to characterize residual leukemic cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13215DOI Listing
August 2020

An Auristatin nanoconjugate targeting CXCR4+ leukemic cells blocks acute myeloid leukemia dissemination.

J Hematol Oncol 2020 04 15;13(1):36. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB-Sant Pau), Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08041, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Current acute myeloid leukemia (AML) therapy fails to eliminate quiescent leukemic blasts in the bone marrow, leading to about 50% of patient relapse by increasing AML burden in the bone marrow, blood, and extramedullar sites. We developed a protein-based nanoparticle conjugated to the potent antimitotic agent Auristatin E that selectively targets AML blasts because of their CXCR4 receptor overexpression (CXCR4+) as compared to normal cells. The therapeutic rationale is based on the involvement of CXCR4 overexpression in leukemic blast homing and quiescence in the bone marrow, and the association of these leukemic stem cells with minimal residual disease, dissemination, chemotherapy resistance, and lower patient survival.

Methods: Monomethyl Auristatin E (MMAE) was conjugated with the CXCR4 targeted protein nanoparticle T22-GFP-H6 produced in E. coli. Nanoconjugate internalization and in vitro cell viability assays were performed in CXCR4+ AML cell lines to analyze the specific antineoplastic activity through the CXCR4 receptor. In addition, a disseminated AML animal model was used to evaluate the anticancer effect of T22-GFP-H6-Auristatin in immunosuppressed NSG mice (n = 10/group). U of Mann-Whitney test was used to consider if differences were significant between groups.

Results: T22-GFP-H6-Auristatin was capable to internalize and exert antineoplastic effects through the CXCR4 receptor in THP-1 and SKM-1 CXCR4+ AML cell lines. In addition, repeated administration of the T22-GFP-H6-Auristatin nanoconjugate (9 doses daily) achieves a potent antineoplastic activity by internalizing specifically in the leukemic cells (luminescent THP-1) to selectively eliminate them. This leads to reduced involvement of leukemic cells in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, liver, and spleen, while avoiding toxicity in normal tissues in a luminescent disseminated AML mouse model.

Conclusions: A novel nanoconjugate for targeted drug delivery of Auristatin reduces significantly the acute myeloid leukemic cell burden in the bone marrow and blood and blocks its dissemination to extramedullar organs in a CXCR4+ AML model. This selective drug delivery approach validates CXCR4+ AML cells as a target for clinical therapy, not only promising to improve the control of leukemic dissemination but also dramatically reducing the severe toxicity of classical AML therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-020-00863-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160905PMC
April 2020
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