Publications by authors named "Jorge Saraiva"

140 Publications

Conventional and emergent technologies for honey processing: A perspective on microbiological safety, bioactivity, and quality.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

LAQV-REQUIMTE, Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

Honey is a natural food of worldwide economic importance. Over the last decades, its potential for food, medical, cosmetical, and biotechnological applications has been widely explored. One of the major safety issues regarding such applications is its susceptibility to being contaminated with bacterial and fungi spores, including pathogenic ones, which may impose a hurdle to its consumption in a raw state. Another factor that makes this product particularly challenging relies on its high sugar content, which will lead to the formation of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) when heated (due to Maillard reactions). Moreover, honey's bioactivity is known to be affected when it goes through thermal processing due to its unstable and thermolabile components. Therefore, proper food processing methodologies are of utmost importance not only to ensure honey safety but also to provide a high-quality product with low content of HMF and preserved biological properties. As so, emerging food processing technologies have been employed to improve the safety and quality of raw honey, allowing, for example, to reduce/avoid the exposure time to high processing temperatures, with consequent impact on the formation of HMF. This review aims to gather the literature available regarding the use of conventional and emergent food processing technologies (both thermal and nonthermal food processing technologies) for honey decontamination, preservation/enhancement of honey biological activity, as well as the sensorial attributes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12848DOI Listing
October 2021

Short- and Medium-Term Impact of a Structured Medical Intervention in Adolescents with Overweight, Obesity, or Increased Waist Circumference.

Obes Facts 2021 Oct 5:1-11. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

University of Coimbra, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra, Portugal.

Introduction And Objectives: This study aimed to assess the impact of a structured medical intervention in adolescents with overweight or obesity at medical discharge and after 5 years and identify the factors responsible for the reappearance of anthropometric alterations.

Methods: A total of 42 adolescents with overweight, obesity, and/or increased waist circumference (WC) participated in a survey on eating habits, physical exercise, and sedentary habits. Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), and WC were evaluated quarterly during a structured medical intervention, with a maximum duration of 3 years (2007-2010) and 5 years after its conclusion (2015-2016). SPSS 19.0®was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Initially, 23.8% adolescents were overweight, 28.6% were obese, 83.3% had increased FM, and 95.2% had high WC. A significant improvement was noted until medical discharge with respect to BMI, FM, and WC (p < 0.001) owing to an increased number of meals; reduction in the consumption of hypercaloric foods/drinks (p < 0.001); increase in the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and soup (p < 0.001); increase in physical exercise and daily walks (p < 0.001); and reduction in sedentary habits (p < 0.001). At reassessment, after 5 years, the majority had normal BMI, FM, and WC (p < 0.001), although 45.2% had abandoned sports (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: A relation exists between the improvement or normalization of BMI, FM, and WC and the number of meals, healthy eating habits, physical exercise, and less sedentary habits. The intervention was associated with an improvement in the parameters during the short and medium terms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000519270DOI Listing
October 2021

EYS-Associated Sector Retinitis Pigmentosa.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Ophthalmology Unit, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra (CHUC), Coimbra, Portugal.

Purpose: Sector retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a rare form of rod-cone degeneration typically associated with mutations in the RHO gene. We describe six unrelated patients presenting with this atypical phenotype in association with biallelic mutations in EYS gene.

Methods: Multinational, multicentre cross-sectional case series. Patients with biallelic disease-causing variants in EYS and a clinical diagnosis of sector RP were recruited from specialized centres in Portugal and Brazil. All patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination complemented by deep phenotyping. Peripheral blood samples were collected from all probands and available relatives for genetic analysis. Genetic counselling was provided to all subjects.

Results: Seven disease-causing variants (4 pathogenic; 3 likely pathogenic) were identified in 6 unrelated female patients. Best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 75 to 85 ETDRS letters. All eyes showed bilateral and symmetrical areas of outer retinal atrophy distributed along the inferior vascular arcades and extending temporally and/or nasally in a crescent-shaped pattern. On fundus autofluorescence (AF), a foveal-sparing curvilinear band of hyperAF encroaching the optic nerve head and extending temporally was seen in 4 patients. The remaining 2 presented bilateral and symmetrical patches of hypoAF inside crescent-shaped areas of hyperAF along the inferior temporal vascular arcade. Visual field testing revealed superior visual field defects of varying extents, always in close association with the fundus AF findings.

Conclusions: Even though EYS has only recently been listed as a cause of the sector RP phenotype, we believe that this presentation is not infrequent and should be considered an important differential for sector RP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-021-05411-wDOI Listing
September 2021

Innovative hurdle system towards Listeria monocytogenes inactivation in a fermented meat sausage model - high pressure processing assisted by bacteriophage P100 and bacteriocinogenic Pediococcus acidilactici.

Food Res Int 2021 10 24;148:110628. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Universidade Católica Portuguesa, CBQF - Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina - Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Rua Diogo Botelho 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Consumers' quest for healthier, locally produced foods, renders the demand for these products increasingly prominent. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the impact of a non-thermal multi-hurdle approach, which associated mild high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 300 MPa), the bacteriophage Listex™ P100, and the pediocin PA-1 producing Pediococcus acidilactici HA 6111-2, as a novel minimal processing towards Listeria monocytogenes eradication in Alheira (a traditional fermented meat sausage from Northern Portugal). The combination of the three hurdles achieved the USDA-FSIS 5 log reduction (in accordance with the standard guidelines for ready-to-eat foods), being the only treatment to elicit the absence of L. monocytogenes immediately following processing (p < 0.05). The pair association of HHP with Listex™ P100 was unable to eliminate L. monocytogenes, whilst in the HHP-pediocin PA-1 producing P. acidilactici treated samples the eradication was delayed when compared to the three hurdles combination. In addition to the listericidal effect of the HHP-phage-lactic acid bacterium treatment, no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the pH values were observed, and the semi-quantification of the in situ biosynthesized pediocin PA-1 was documented for the first time in a fermented meat sausage model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110628DOI Listing
October 2021

Role of Honey in Advanced Wound Care.

Molecules 2021 Aug 7;26(16). Epub 2021 Aug 7.

CIMO, Mountain Research Center, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, 5301-855 Bragança, Portugal.

Honey is a natural product rich in several phenolic compounds, enzymes, and sugars with antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial potential. Indeed, the development of honey-based adhesives for wound care and other biomedical applications are topics being widely investigated over the years. Some of the advantages of the use of honey for wound-healing solutions are the acceleration of dermal repair and epithelialization, angiogenesis promotion, immune response promotion and the reduction in healing-related infections with pathogenic microorganisms. This paper reviews the main role of honey on the development of wound-healing-based applications, the main compounds responsible for the healing capacity, how the honey origin can influence the healing properties, also highlighting promising results in in vitro and in vivo trials. The challenges in the use of honey for wound healing are also covered and discussed. The delivery methodology (direct application, incorporated in fibrous membranes and hydrogels) is also presented and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8398244PMC
August 2021

Juvenile Paget's Disease: Report of a successful treatment throughout the complete growth of a patient with a missense TNFRSF11B mutation.

Joint Bone Spine 2021 Jun 21;88(6):105243. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Pediatric Rheumatology Unit, Hospital Pediátrico, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Avenida Afonso Romão, 3000-602 Coimbra, Portugal.

Introduction: Juvenile Paget's Disease (JPD) is an ultra-rare inherited osteopathy featuring markedly accelerated bone turnover. Several clinical characteristics have been reported, including bone deformities developing in childhood and hearing loss.

Case Report: We report the case of a 2 ¾-year-old girl that presented with progressive bowing of both legs since the age of 2, lower limb pain and frequent falls with one consequent femur fracture. Plain radiographs revealed osteoectasia of the long bone's diaphysis, and laboratory tests showed extremely high serum total alkaline phosphatase levels. A missense mutation on the gene TNFRSF11B was identified in homozygosity, and the diagnosis of JPD was made. Treatment with bisphosphonates was initiated early and markedly improved lower limb bowing and pain. The patient reached adulthood with normal height, minor bone deformities, and no functional impairment. Despite the good skeletal symptom's response, bisphosphonates failed to prevent or improve sensorineural hearing loss.

Conclusions: In this clinical case, early treatment with bisphosphonates was effective for the treatment of JPD skeletal deformities. New therapeutic strategies need to be developed to better control the extraskeletal manifestations of JPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2021.105243DOI Listing
June 2021

Pineapple ( L.) By-Products Valorization: Novel Bio Ingredients for Functional Foods.

Molecules 2021 May 27;26(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

LEAF, Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon, Portugal.

Pineapple is consumed on a large scale around the world due to its appreciated sensorial characteristics. The industry of minimally processed pineapple produces enormous quantities of by-products (30-50%) which are generally undervalued. The end-of-life of pineapple by-products (PBP) can be replaced by reuse and renewal flows in an integrated process to promote economic growth by reducing consumption of natural resources and diminishing food waste. In our study, pineapple shell (PS) and pineapple core (PC), vacuum-packed separately, were subjected to moderate hydrostatic pressure (225 MPa, 8.5 min) (MHP) as abiotic stress to increase bromelain activity and antioxidant capacity. Pressurized and raw PBP were lyophilized to produce a stable powder. The dehydrated samples were characterized by the following methodologies: chemical and physical characterization, total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant capacity, bromelain activity, microbiology, and mycotoxins. Results demonstrated that PBP are naturally rich in carbohydrates (66-88%), insoluble (16-28%) and soluble (2-4%) fiber, and minerals (4-5%). MHP was demonstrated to be beneficial in improving TPC (2-4%), antioxidant activity (2-6%), and bromelain activity (6-32%) without affecting the nutritional value. Furthermore, microbial and mycotoxical analysis demonstrated that powdered PC is a safe by-product. PS application is possible but requires previous decontamination to reduce the microbiological load.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198275PMC
May 2021

Fresh Fish Degradation and Advances in Preservation Using Physical Emerging Technologies.

Foods 2021 Apr 5;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

Fresh fish is a highly perishable food characterized by a short shelf-life, and for this reason, it must be properly handled and stored to slow down its deterioration and to ensure microbial safety and marketable shelf-life. Modern consumers seek fresh-like, minimally processed foods due to the raising concerns regarding the use of preservatives in foods, as is the case of fresh fish. Given this, emergent preservation techniques are being evaluated as a complement or even replacement of conventional preservation methodologies, to assure food safety and extend shelf-life without compromising food safety. This paper reviews the main mechanisms responsible for fish spoilage and the use of conventional physical methodologies to preserve fresh fish, encompassing the main effects of each methodology on microbiological and chemical quality aspects of this highly perishable food. In this sense, conventional storage procedures (refrigeration and freezing) are counterpointed with more recent cold-based storage methodologies, namely chilling and superchilling. In addition, the use of novel food packaging methodologies (edible films and coatings) is also presented and discussed, along with a new storage methodology, hyperbaric storage, that states storage pressure control to hurdle microbial development and slow down organoleptic decay at subzero, refrigeration, and room temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066737PMC
April 2021

Emergent Technologies for the Extraction of Antioxidants from Prickly Pear Peel and Their Antimicrobial Activity.

Foods 2021 Mar 9;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

CBQF-Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina, Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Rua Arquiteto Lobão Vital 172, 4200-374 Porto, Portugal.

Phenolic compounds are important bioactive compounds identified in prickly pear peel that have important antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. However, conventional thermal extraction methods may reduce their bioactivity, and technologies such as high pressure (HP) and ohmic heating (OH) may help preserve them. In this study, both technologies were analyzed, individually and combined (250/500 MPa; 40/70 °C; ethanol concentration 30/70%), and compared with Soxhlet with regard to total phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids as well as antioxidant (ABTS, DPPH, ORAC), DNA pro-oxidant, and antimicrobial (inhibition halos, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), growth curves, and viable cells) activities of prickly pear peel extracts. Total phenolics extracted by each technology increased 103% (OH) and 98% (HP) with regard to Soxhlet, but the contents of total flavonoids and carotenoids were similar. Antioxidant activity increased with HP and OH (between 35% and 63%), and OH (70 °C) did not induce DNA degradation. The phenolic compound present in higher amounts was piscidic acid, followed by eucomic acid and citrate. In general, their extraction was significantly favored by HP and OH. Antimicrobial activity against 7 types of bacteria showed effective results only against , , and . No synergetic or additive effect was observed for HP/OH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10030570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999070PMC
March 2021

The effects of addition of functional monomers and molecular imprinting on dual drug release from intraocular lens material.

Int J Pharm 2021 May 22;600:120513. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Centro de Química Estrutural, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal.

Although cataract surgery is considered a safe procedure, post-surgery complications such as endophthalmitis and ocular inflammation, may occur. To prevent this, antibiotics and anti-inflammatories are prescribed in the form of eye drops during the post-operatory period, but they lead to a low drug bioavailability in target tissues. The objective of this work is to develop an intraocular lens (IOL) material to deliver simultaneously one antibiotic, moxifloxacin (MXF), and one anti-inflammatory, diclofenac (DFN), in therapeutic concentrations to prevent both complications. The IOL material was modified through the incorporation of functional monomers, as well as molecular imprinting with both drugs using the same functional monomers, namely acrylic acid (AA), methacrylic acid (MAA), 4-vinylpiridine (4-VP) and a combination of MAA + 4-VP. The best results were obtained with MAA. Molecular imprinting did not influence the drug release, except with AA. Application of a mathematical model predicted that the released MXF and DFN concentrations would stay above the pre-determined MIC of S. aureus and S. epidermidis and the minimum values of IC50 of COX-1 and COX-2, for 9 and 14 days, respectively. Antibacterial tests showed that the released antibiotic remained active. The physical properties of the drug-loaded MAA-hydrogel remained adequate. The developed system proved to be non-irritant and non-cytotoxic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120513DOI Listing
May 2021

Imprinted hydrogels with LbL coating for dual drug release from soft contact lenses materials.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jan 4;120:111687. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Centro de Química Estrutural, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:

A combined strategy to control the release of two drugs, one anti-inflammatory (diclofenac sodium, DCF) and one antibiotic (moxifloxacin hydrochloride, MXF), from a soft contact lens (SCL) material, was assessed. The material was a silicone-based hydrogel, which was modified by molecular imprinting with MXF and coated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) method using natural polyelectrolytes: alginate (ALG), poly-l-lysine (PLL) and hyaluronate (HA), crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Imprinting was used to increase the amount of MXF loaded and to sustain its release, while the LbL coating acted as a diffusion barrier for DCF and improved the surface properties. The drugs were loaded by soaking in a DCF + MXF dual solution. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) was successfully applied in the sterilization of the drug-loaded hydrogels. The transmittance, refractive index, wettability and ionic permeability of the hydrogels remained within the required levels for SCLs application. The concentrations of the released DCF and MXF stayed above the IC and the MIC (for S. aureus and S. epidermidis) values, for 9 and 10 days, respectively. No ocular irritancy was detected by the HET-CAM test. NIH/3T3 cell viability demonstrated that the drug-loaded hydrogels were not toxic, and cell adhesion was reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111687DOI Listing
January 2021

Macroalgae-Fortified Sausages: Nutritional and Quality Aspects Influenced by Non-Thermal High-Pressure Processing.

Foods 2021 Jan 20;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

The present work evaluated the nutritional impact of macroalgae flours used as new ingredients in fermented sausages and the feasibility of using high-pressure processing (HPP) as a non-thermal pasteurization methodology to keep the quality attributes of the new food products. A commercial macroalgae mix was used in the formulation of new macroalgae-fortified meat frankfurter sausages (F-MFS), macroalgae-fortified vegetable frankfurter sausages (F-VFS) and in macroalgae-fortified traditional Portuguese sausage "chouriço" (F-TPS), overall incrementing the contents of Mg, K, Ca, Mn and Fe and decreasing the Na/K ratio. The application of HPP allowed extending the shelf-life of frankfurters by about 3-fold and improved the safety of "chouriço" along 180 days of storage, keeping its microbial load below the detection limit. The prevention of microbial growth in F-MFS and F-VFS was accompanied by pH stability of the products. In addition, no significant detriment on surface color and fatty acids was observed between pressurized and non-pressurized sausages, allowing consolidating the suitability of HPP in seaweed-fortified fermented sausages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10020209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7909550PMC
January 2021

High Hydrostatic Pressure as Sterilization Method for Drug-Loaded Intraocular Lenses.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 07 17;6(7):4051-4061. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Centro de Química Estrutural, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049001 Lisboa, Portugal.

Sterilization is a key step in the manufacturing of drug-loaded intraocular lenses (IOLs). Two of the most used methods to sterilize commercial IOLs are steam heat and gamma radiation. However, when the IOLs are loaded with drugs, the adequacy of those methods must be questioned because sterilization may affect the activity of the drugs and/or the drug release. Recently, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), which is increasingly used in the food industry, has been applied in the sterilization of gels for medical applications. The objective of this work was to assess the performance of HHP in the sterilization of a commercial acrylic material used for the production of IOLs, both without and with loaded drugs. Bare samples and samples loaded with an antibiotic and two anti-inflammatories were tested, and the results were compared to those obtained with conventional sterilization methods. HHP not only sterilized highly contaminated samples but also enhanced drug loading and did not affect significantly the hydrogel properties. Gamma radiation degraded the drugs in solution; thus, it is adequate only for dry sample sterilization. Steam heat did not affect the release profiles but cannot be applied to temperature-sensitive drugs. We concluded that HHP may advantageously substitute steam heat and gamma radiation in the sterilization of drug-loaded IOLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c00412DOI Listing
July 2020

Enhanced preservation of vacuum-packaged Atlantic salmon by hyperbaric storage at room temperature versus refrigeration.

Sci Rep 2021 01 18;11(1):1668. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal.

Hyperbaric storage at room temperature (HS/RT: 75 MPa/25 °C) of vacuum-packaged fresh Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) loins was studied for 30 days and compared to atmospheric pressure at refrigerated temperatures (AP/5 °C, 30 days) and RT (AP/25 °C, 5 days). Most of the fatty acids were not affected by storage conditions, with only a slight decrease of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) for AP samples, reflected in the lower polyene index values obtained and higher oxidation extent. For HS, a lower lipid oxidation extension and a slower increase of myofibrillar fragmentation index values were observed, when compared to AP samples. The volatile profile was similar for the HS and fresh samples, with the HS samples retaining fresh-like alcohols and aldehydes components, which disappeared in AP samples, mainly in AP/25 °C samples. The volatile profile for AP samples (5 and 25 °C) revealed mostly spoilage-like compounds due to microbial activity. Drip loss increased progressively during the 30 days of storage under HS, while a slight decrease of water holding capacity after 5 days was observed, increasing further after 30 days. Regarding textural properties, only resilience was affected by HS, decreasing after 30 days. So, HS/RT could represent an interesting extended preservation methodology of fresh salmon loins, since allows retaining important physicochemical properties for at least 15 days, while refrigeration after 5 days showed already volatile spoilage-like compounds due to microbial activity. Furthermore, this methodology allows additional considerable energy savings when compared to refrigeration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81047-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814072PMC
January 2021

Effect of high pressure pre-treatment on raw ewes' milk and on subsequently produced cheese throughout ripening.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jul 12;101(9):3975-3980. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

CBQF - Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina - Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal.

Background: Raw ewe's milk, as used to manufacture Serra da Estrela Protected Designation of Origin cheese, was pre-treated by high pressure processing (HPP), using previously optimized conditions (121 MPa for 30 min), aiming to evaluate its effect on milk technological properties for subsequent cheese production, namely the impact on resulting curd, whey and cheese throughout ripening.

Results: The cheese yield increased 10.4% as a result of milk pre-treated by HPP, which also yielded inactivation of beneficial microbial groups. After 60 days of ripening, both treated and control cheeses showed no significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) with respect to quantified microbial load or basic physicochemical quality parameters.

Conclusion: HPP appears to be a promising non-thermal treatment for ewes' milk to inactivate contaminant bacteria but with no negative effect on lactic acid bacteria, which is very important for the unique characteristics of Serra da Estrela cheese. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11023DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of high-pressure processing on fungi spores: Factors affecting spore germination and inactivation and impact on ultrastructure.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2020 03 11;19(2):553-573. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

QOPNA & LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

Food contamination with heat-resistant fungi (HRF), and their spores, is a major issue among fruit processors, being frequently found in fruit juices and concentrates, among other products, leading to considerable economic losses and food safety issues. Several strategies were developed to minimize the contamination with HRF, with improvements from harvesting to the final product, including sanitizers and new processing techniques. Considering consumers' demands for minimally processed, fresh-like food products, nonthermal food-processing technologies, such as high-pressure processing (HPP), among others, are emerging as alternatives to the conventional thermal processing techniques. As no heat is applied to foods, vitamins, proteins, aromas, and taste are better kept when compared to thermal processes. Nevertheless, HPP is only able to destroy pathogenic and spoilage vegetative microorganisms to levels of pertinence for food safety, while bacterial spores remain. Regarding HRF spores (both ascospores and conidiospores), these seem to be more pressure-sensible than bacterial spores, despite a few cases, such as the ascospores of Byssochlamys spp., Neosartorya spp., and Talaromyces spp. that are resistant to high pressures and high temperatures, requiring the combination of both variables to be inactivated. This review aims to cover the literature available concerning the effects of HPP at room-like temperatures, and its combination with high temperatures, and high-pressure cycling, to inactivate fungi spores, including the main factors affecting spores' resistance to high-pressure, such as pH, water activity, nutritional composition of the food matrix and ascospore age, as well as the changes in the spore ultrastructure, and the parameters to consider regarding their inactivation by HPP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12534DOI Listing
March 2020

Optimization of the Effect of Pineapple By-Products Enhanced in Bromelain by Hydrostatic Pressure on the Texture and Overall Quality of Silverside Beef Cut.

Foods 2020 Nov 26;9(12). Epub 2020 Nov 26.

LEAF, Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon, Portugal.

Dehydrated pineapple by-products enriched in bromelain using a hydrostatic pressure treatment (225 MPa, 8.5 min) were added in marinades to improve beef properties. The steaks from the silverside cut (2 ± 0.5 cm thickness and weight 270 ± 50 g), characterized as harder and cheaper, were immersed in marinades that were added to dehydrated and pressurized pineapple by-products that corresponded to a bromelain concentration of 0-20 mg tyrosine, 100 g meat, and 0-24 h time, according to the central composite factorial design matrix. Samples were characterized in terms of marination yield, pH, color, and histology. Subsequently, samples were cooked in a water-bath (80 °C, 15 min), stabilized (4 °C, 24 h), and measured for cooking loss, pH, color, hardness, and histology. Marinades (12-24 h) and bromelain concentration (10-20 mg tyrosine.100 g meat) reduced pH and hardness, increased marination yield, and resulted in a lighter color. Although refrigeration was not an optimal temperature for bromelain activity, meat hardness decreased (41%). Thus, the use of pineapple by-products in brine allowed for the valorization of lower commercial value steak cuts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9121752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760178PMC
November 2020

Design, development and deployment of a web-based interoperable registry for inherited retinal dystrophies in Portugal: the IRD-PT.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 10 27;15(1):304. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Ophthalmology Unit, Centro de Responsabilidade Integrado em Oftalmologia (CRIO), Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra (CHUC), Praceta Prof. Mota Pinto, 3000-075, Coimbra, Portugal.

Background: The development of multicenter patient registries promotes the generation of scientific knowledge by using real-world data. A country-wide, web-based registry for inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs) empowers patients and community organizations, while supporting formal partnerships research. We aim to describe the design, development and deployment of a country-wide, with investigators and stakeholders in the global aim to develop high-value, high-utility web-based, user-friendly and interoperable registry for IRDs-the IRD-PT.

Results: The IRD-PT is a clinical/genetic research registry included in the retina.pt platform ( https://www.retina.com.pt ), which was developed by the Portuguese Retina Study Group. The retina.pt platform collects data on individuals diagnosed with retinal diseases, from several sites across Portugal, with over 1800 participants and over 30,000 consultations to date. The IRD-PT module interacts with the retina.pt core system which provides a range of basic functions for patient data management, while the IRD-PT module allows data capture for the specific purpose of IRDs. All IRDs are coded accordingly to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) 9, ICD 10, ICD 11, and Orphanet Rare Disease Ontology (ORPHA codes) to make the IRD-PT interoperable with other IRD registries across the world. Furthermore, the genes are coded according to the Ontology of Genes and Genomes and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, whereas signs and symptoms are coded according to the Human Phenotype Ontology. The IRD-PT module pre-launched at Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, the largest reference center for IRDs in Portugal. As of April 1st 2020, finalized data from 537 participants were available for this preliminary analysis.

Conclusions: In the specific field of rare diseases, the use of registries increases research accessibility for individuals, while providing clinicians/investigators with a coherent data ecosystem necessary to boost research. Appropriate design and implementation of patient registries enables rapid decision making and ongoing data mining, ultimately leading to improved patient outcomes. We have described here the principles behind the design, development and deployment of a web-based, user-friendly and interoperable software tool aimed to generate important knowledge and collecting high-quality data on the epidemiology, genomic landscape and natural history of IRDs in Portugal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-020-01591-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590677PMC
October 2020

Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure Extraction on Biological Activities and Phenolics Composition of Winter Savory Leaf Extracts.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Sep 8;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 8.

CBQF-Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina-Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal.

L. has several biological properties related to its diverse composition of secondary metabolites. Nevertheless, it has been mainly studied for its essential oil, with only a few studies on the profile and bioactivities of the bioactive compounds from its leaf extracts being reported. This work aimed to study the antioxidant activity (by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay), antimicrobial minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) determination, antibiofilm (by colorimetry), impact upon DNA (anti- and pro-oxidant assay), and cytotoxicity (by cell metabolism viability assays) of extracts obtained by high-pressure-assisted extraction (HPE). The extract obtained at 348 MPa, 35% (/) ethanol presented the highest concentration of individual phenolic compounds, and a minimum bactericidal concentration of 20 mg/mL against . HPE extracts showed antioxidant activity not only in ORAC but they were also able to prevent/attenuate peroxide-induced damage upon DNA. Moreover, on its own, HPE extract induced less oxidative damage than the control extract. Concerning the cytotoxicity, HPE extracts (at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) were not harmful to HT29 cell lines, while control extracts (obtained at atmospheric pressure) at higher concentrations (>1.0 mg/mL) slightly reduced the metabolism of the cells. Finally, all extracts showed inhibition of the viability of 3 cancerous cell lines (>2.0 mg/mL for Caco-2, HeLa, and TR146) to below 15%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554779PMC
September 2020

The Combined Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Kefir Production-A Case Study of Food Fermentation in Unconventional Conditions.

Foods 2020 Aug 18;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 18.

LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

Food fermentation under pressure has been studied in recent years as a way to produce foods with novel properties. The purpose of this work was to study kefir production under pressure (7-50 MPa) at different temperatures (17-32 °C), as a case study of unconventional food fermentation. The fermentation time to produce kefir was similar at all temperatures (17, 25, and 32 °C) up to 15 MPa, compared to atmospheric pressure. At 50 MPa, the fermentation rate was slower, but the difference was reduced as temperature increased. During fermentation, lactic and acetic acid concentration increased while citric acid decreased. The positive activation volumes (Va) obtained indicate that pressure decreased the fermentation rate, while the temperature rise led to the attenuation of the pressure effect (lower Va). On the other hand, higher activation energies (Ea) were observed with pressure increase, indicating that fermentation became more sensitive to temperature. The condition that resulted in a faster fermentation, higher titratable acidity, and higher concentration of lactic acid was 15 MPa/32 °C. As the authors are aware, this is the second work in the literature to study the combined effect of pressure and temperature on a fermentative process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9081133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466173PMC
August 2020

Dual drug delivery from hydrophobic and hydrophilic intraocular lenses: in-vitro and in-vivo studies.

J Control Release 2020 10 16;326:245-255. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:

Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) still remains the most frequent long term complication after cataract surgery, while endophthalmitis is rare but severe and should be prevented at all cost. Intraocular lenses (IOLs) with different designs (eg. edge and body-haptics angle) and materials (acrylic hydrophobic and acrylic hydrophilic surfaces) have been studied to reduce PCO. For the prevention of endophthalmitis, intracameral injection followed or not by topical treatment with antibiotics and anti-inflammatories are usually prescribed. The objective of this work was to investigate the use of IOLs as controlled release platforms of two drugs, the antibiotic moxifloxacin (MXF) and the anti-inflammatory ketorolac (KTL) that could advantageously substitute the usual treatment. Two types of IOLs were chosen, hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Hydrophobic IOLs have shown better results in the prevention of PCO because they adhere better to the posterior capsular bag, while hydrophilic IOLs are advised in the case of patients with uveitis, glaucoma or diabetes. The IOLs were loaded with MXF + KTL and sterilized by high hydrostatic pressure. Both IOLs reduced the tendency for adhesion of LECs. In vivo tests were done to compare the concentration of the drugs in the aqueous humor obtained after eye drops administration and drug-loaded IOLs implantation. The developed IOLs were able to release MXF and KTL at therapeutic levels, in a sustained way, which contrasts with the eye drops prophylaxis. No PCO signs were detected and histological analyses demonstrated biocompatibility of these devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.07.020DOI Listing
October 2020

Effect of a winter savory leaf extract obtained using high hydrostatic pressure on the quality of carrot juice.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jan 10;101(1):74-81. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

LAQV-REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Campus Universitário de Santiago Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

Background: The consumption of vegetable juices has increased due to their characteristics such as freshness/naturalness, high nutritional value, low in calories, and for being a convenient way of consuming bioactive compounds. High hydrostatic pressure (HPP), which has been mainly used to replace thermal processing, is now also being successfully applied as extraction technology to recover bioactive compounds from herbs. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation of carrot juice with winter savory leaf aqueous extract on the final juice characteristics.

Results: The extract was added to raw carrot juice (1.0 mg mL ), which was then submitted to HPP and stored for 15 days under refrigeration. Microbial analyses were performed during storage time, as also were analyzed the physicochemical properties such as pH, colour, bioactive compound concentration and antioxidant activity. Supplemented juices presented lower microbial counts than the non-supplemented ones, and, generally, did not present significant changes (P > 0.05) in pH or colour. Concerning the total phenolics and total flavonoids, as well as antioxidant activity, the values were generally higher (P < 0.05) in supplemented juices, which was proven by the high correlation found between total phenolics and ABTS and FRAP assays.

Conclusions: These data suggest that the addition of winter savory leaf extract in carrot juice treated with HPP can effectively improve microbial safety throughout refrigerated storage as well as antioxidant activity, without risking other characteristics of the juice, such as the colour or the acidity. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10616DOI Listing
January 2021

Hyperbaric storage at room like temperatures as a possible alternative to refrigeration: evolution and recent advances.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 4;61(12):2078-2089. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

QOPNA & LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

From 2012, the preservation of food products under pressure has been increasingly studied and the knowledge acquired has enlarged since several food products have been studied at different storage conditions. This new food preservation methodology concept called Hyperbaric Storage (HS) has gain relevance due to its potential as a replacement or an improvement to the conventional cold storage processes, such as the traditional refrigeration (RF), or even frosting, from the energetic savings to the reduction of the carbon foot-print. Briefly, HS is capable to inhibit the microbial proliferation or its inactivation which results in the extension of the shelf-life of several food products when compared to RF. Moreover, the overall quality parameters seem not to be affected by HS, being the differences detected on samples over storage similar to lower when compared to the ones stored at RF. This review paper aims to gather data from all studies carried out so far regarding HS performance, mainly at room temperature on fruit juices, meat and fisheries, as well on dairy products and ready-to-eat meals. The HS advantages as a new food preservation methodology are presented and explained, being also discussed the industrial viability and environmental impact of this methodology, as well its limitations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1770687DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparative effect of a previous 150-MPa treatment on the quality loss of frozen hake stored at different temperatures.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 Aug 22;100(11):4245-4251. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Food Technology, Marine Research Institute (CSIC), Vigo, Spain.

Background: This study addresses the quality loss of European hake (Merluccius merluccius) during frozen storage. Its objective was to comparatively analyse the effect of a previous high-pressure processing (HPP) (150 MPa for 2 min) when different storage temperatures (-10, -18 and -30 °C) were employed.

Results: Most chemical quality indices (trimethylamine, TMA; dimethylamine, DMA, formaldehyde, FA; free fatty acids, FFAs) provided a marked content increase with freezing and frozen storage time, values being higher by increasing the storage temperature. Previous HPP led to an inhibitory (P < 0.05) effect on the TMA, DMA, FA and FFA formation in frozen fish kept at -10 and -18 °C, the preservative effect being higher at the highest temperature tested; however, in agreement to the low damage development, no effect could be proved on samples stored at -30 °C. Concerning lipid oxidation, peroxides formation was found low, although a slight increasing effect (P < 0.05) was implied in fish corresponding to all temperatures as a result of the previous HPP; furthermore, an inhibitory effect (P < 0.05) on fluorescent compounds formation (tertiary lipid oxidation) was evident after freezing and at month 9 for -10 °C samples.

Conclusion: It is concluded that a 150-MPa high-pressure treatment may inhibit the formation of degradative molecules such as DMA, FA, TMA and FFAs during the frozen storage at -18 °C (maximum recommended) and -10 °C. However, results have indicated that lowering the storage temperature showed to be more effective than the current HPP (150 MPa for 2 min). © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10465DOI Listing
August 2020

Borage, camellia, centaurea and pansies: Nutritional, fatty acids, free sugars, vitamin E, carotenoids and organic acids characterization.

Food Res Int 2020 06 4;132:109070. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

[email protected]/Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto University, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional and bioactive potential of four edible flowers (borage, centaurea, camellia, and pansies). Significant differences were observed among the four. Water was the main constituent (>76%, fresh weight - fw). Linoleic and palmitic acids were the major fatty acids found in borage and red and yellow pansies, while in camellia it was the arachidic acid. In white pansies, behenic and arachidic acids were predominant. Concerning vitamin E, α-tocopherol was the major vitamer. Carotenoids values varied between 5.8 and 181.4 mg β-carotene/100 g dry weight (dw) in centaurea and borage, respectively, being particularly rich in lutein. Malic acid was the major organic acid, except in centaurea, where succinic acid was predominant. Fructose, glucose and sucrose were detected in all flowers. These results can contribute to the knowledge of these edible flowers and consequently increase their popularity among consumers and in the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109070DOI Listing
June 2020

Optimization of phycobiliprotein pigments extraction from red algae Gracilaria gracilis for substitution of synthetic food colorants.

Food Chem 2020 Aug 27;321:126688. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

MARE - Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Polytechnic of Leiria, Cetemares 2520-620, Peniche, Portugal.

The extraction of phycobiliprotein (PBP) pigments from red algae Gracilaria gracilis was optimized using maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction (ultrasonic water bath and ultrasonic probe), high pressure-assisted extraction, and freeze-thaw. The experimental conditions, namely homogenization time (t1), buffer concentration (C), treatment time (t2), biomass: buffer ratio (R), and pressure (P), were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The yield of phycoerythrin (PE) extracted, determined spectroscopically, was used as the response variable. Maceration was the most efficient extraction method yielding 3.6 mg PE/g biomass under the optimal conditions (t1 = t2 = 10 min; C = 0.1 M; R = 1:50). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of the biomass before and after the cell disruption treatments revealed a more efficient cell wall rupture with maceration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126688DOI Listing
August 2020

Study of viability of high pressure extract from pomegranate peel to improve carrot juice characteristics.

Food Funct 2020 Apr;11(4):3410-3419

Universidade Católica Portuguesa, CBQF - Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina - Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Rua Diogo Botelho 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal.

Extracts from fruit processing by-products usually present high amounts of bioactive compounds with several important activities such as antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities. In this work we studied (i) the cytotoxicity profile of pomegranate peel extract and (ii) safety and quality aspects after incorporating this extract in carrot juice - a beverage with low antioxidant potential and highly prone to microbial growth. The extract was obtained by high-pressure extraction and was non-cytotoxic towards the Caco-2 cell line after in vitro digestion. The non-cytotoxic pomegranate peel extract was added to carrot juice in a concentration of 5 mg mL-1. Fortified juices were processed by high-pressure and conventional heat and stored under refrigeration. On the 28th day of storage, microbial counts in PPE-fortified juices were reduced by 1.0 log10 CFU mL-1 and the pressurized juices showed significantly fewer counts than the thermal-treated ones. Just after processing, phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as ABTS and FRAP antioxidant capacities, increased 3.6, 3.5, 8.2, and 9.4-fold, respectively in the fortified juices. The extract addition did not affect any colour parameter and all studied physicochemical parameters i.e. total soluble solids, pH, colour, total phenolics, flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins, and antioxidant capacity remained constant throughout storage. These findings could pave the way towards the development of safe beverages with improved bioactive properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo02922bDOI Listing
April 2020

Freezing of edible flowers: Effect on microbial and antioxidant quality during storage.

J Food Sci 2020 Apr 10;85(4):1151-1159. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

CIMO/School of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus de Stª Apolónia, Bragança, 5300-253, Portugal.

Edible flowers are a new gourmet product; however, they are not always available all years. Thus, it is essential to find out technologies to guarantee this product for a longer time. Flowers of four species (borage [Borago officinalis], heartsease [Viola tricolor], kalanchoe [Kalanchoe blossfeldiana], and dandelion [Taraxacum officinale]) were subjected to freezing (in their natural form and in ice cubes) and analyzed in terms of visual appearance, the content of flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins, phenolics, antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power), and microbial quality after storage for 1 and 3 months. Flowers in ice cubes showed similar appearance to fresh ones during the 3 months of storage, whereas frozen flowers were only equivalent up to 1 month with the exception of kalanchoe. Even though flowers in ice cubes showed good appearance after 3 months of storage, they had the lowest values of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. On the contrary, when frozen, the content of bioactive compounds maintained or even increased up to 1 month of storage compared to fresh flowers, except for borage. Furthermore, in both freezing treatments, the microorganisms' counts decreased or maintained when compared to fresh samples, except in dandelion. In general, both treatments may allow keeping the flowers after their flowering times. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The market of edible flowers is increasing, although they are a very perishable product with short shelf-life. Edible flowers are stored in the cold (frozen or in ice cubes); however, the effect on the bioactive compounds and microbial quality that this treatment may have on borage (Borago officinalis), heartsease (Viola tricolor), kalanchoe (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flowers is unknown. So, the present study was conducted to increase the knowledge about the changes that freezing treatments may have in different edible flowers. The results of the present study underline that each flower has different behavior at frozen and ice cubes storage. However, freezing flowers maintain/increase the contents of bioactive compounds, while ice cubes not. Both treatments are effective in protecting flowers from microorganism growth. So, suggesting that both freezing treatments can be used as a preservative method and may allow keeping the flowers after their flowering times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15097DOI Listing
April 2020

Effect of high hydrostatic pressure extraction on biological activities of stinging nettle extracts.

Food Funct 2020 Jan;11(1):921-931

QOPNA & LAQV-REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Campus Universitário de Santiago Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

Stinging nettle is traditionally used as a therapeutic herb. In the present work, the biological properties and toxicity of novel nettle leaf extracts obtained by high pressure assisted extraction (HPE) were studied and compared with similar extracts obtained with the same solvent under atmospheric pressure conditions. The studied extracts were obtained at pressure levels of 200 and 500 MPa, ≈10 min, 0 to 70% ethanol : water (v/v). Each extract was characterized for its individual compound profile and different biological properties, such as antioxidant activity, pro-oxidant activity (DNA degradation capacity) and antihypertensive activity, as well as cytotoxicity against Caco-2 and HaCat cell cultures. The main results indicate that in addition to the antioxidant and antihypertensive activities observed for the control extracts, a clear improvement of all the biological activities of the extracts obtained by HPE was observed. The extracts obtained at 200 MPa, 10 min, 35 and 70% ethanol were the ones presenting higher concentrations of phenolic acids and flavonoids, such as chlorogenic acid, isoferulic acid, and rutin; besides, they showed better results concerning all the studied biological activities. Those extracts also showed potential for DNA protection, since they were able not only to cause less damage in the DNA molecule than the controls, but also showed no pro-oxidant activity. Concerning cytotoxicity, it was observed that HPE extracts, at a concentration up to 1.0 mg mL-1, presented a metabolism inhibition below 10 and 15% for Caco-2 and HaCat cell lines, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo02442eDOI Listing
January 2020

Physicochemical parameters, lipids stability, and volatiles profile of vacuum-packaged fresh Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) loins preserved by hyperbaric storage at 10 °C.

Food Res Int 2020 01 14;127:108740. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

QOPNA & LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal. Electronic address:

Lipid stability, physical properties and volatiles profile of vacuum-packaged fresh Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) loins were evaluated after hyperbaric storage at low temperature (HS/LT: 60 MPa/10 °C) and compared to atmospheric pressure and conventional refrigeration (AP/5 °C) after 5, 15 and 30 days, and at low temperature (AP/10 °C), after 5 and 15 days. No variations in drip loss and water holding capacity were observed for HS/LT samples. Compared to AP, HS/LT caused lower changes on muscle fibres, visible by scanning electron micrographs, and a decrease of resilience property (only after 30 days). In addition, myofibrillar fragmentation index did not change at HS/LT. Fatty acids were generally not affected by the different storage conditions, while the polyene index at HS/LT was similar to fresh samples during the 30 days of storage, confirmed by the lower lipid oxidation state of these samples, compared to AP. According to the volatile profile (SPME-GC/MS), HS samples showed to be more similar to the fresh ones, retaining fresh-like alcohols and aldehydes, generally not detected in AP samples after 15 days, the latter presenting spoilage-related compounds probably derived from microbial activity. According to these results, HS/LT represents a promising preservation methodology for fresh salmon loins (and fish in general), retaining better important physicochemical properties for 30 days, when compared to the conventional refrigeration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108740DOI Listing
January 2020
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